MUHAMMED (PBUH) THE LAST PROPHET

MUHAMMED (PBUH) THE LAST PROPHET

MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET “__Part 1

 

 

MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET “__Part 2

 

MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET “__Part 3

 

MUHAMMED THE LAST PROPHET “__Part 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Request to the YB Home Minister to help us from becoming undocumented illegal foreigners

Request to the YB Home Minister to help us from becoming undocumented illegal foreigners

 

YB Datuk Seri Syed Hamid Albar

Malaysian Home Minister

Putra Jaya

Re: Request to the YB Home Minister to help us from becoming undocumented illegal foreigners.

Dear YB Datuk Seri,

MyPR, was only introduced in June 2006 but government announced, ordering us to change our ICs to My Card in 2005. I took one day leave in 2005 and went to NRD or National Registration Department. We were told that because of the large numbers of citizens changing to My Card, they had suspended the service for PR holders.

In 2006 because of new announcement to change to MyPR, I took another day leave and went there. I had read NRD’s web site, newspaper announcements by NRD, complaint letters in Malaysiakini about unfair rule for PR holders need to show/endorsement at Putra Jaya, Deputy Home Minister’s reply explaining that this condition was meant for Indonesian PR holders only and never meant for other citizens with Malaysia PR. But NRD insists to proceed only if we have a valid passport.

So I went to NRD again, taking another day’s leave, in 2007. They impose new red tapes or new rules again, asking to make photocopies of all the documents our selves. They never announce or told us earlier to bring the photocopies and when I asked my friends who had done MyPR cards, non of them need to submit photocopies but NRD had done by themselves.

Today, many months after completing the requirements, I went to NRD and to my horror, our MyPR Cards are not ready yet.

Although the Malaysian National Registration Department got the best delivery award amongst all the Government Agencies, we found out a lot of delaying tactics and ever increasing RED TAPE RULES for us in this department. Clearly NRD has the most inefficient delivery system for us but curiously chosen and rewarded as the best for the present administration. For us they take few years just to issue or to change our ICs. May be deliberate delaying tactics for us only because I had read in the Newspapers that they just take one hour to replace an IC, My Card during election times.
 
What should we do if NRD could not issue the new MyPR in time and if our old PR card automatically became invalid as identity cards? Please don’t make us to become the undocumented or illegal foreigners in Malaysia.
 
We hereby humbly request to the YB Home Minister to help us from becoming undocumented illegal foreigners.
 
Thanking You
Yours Humbly
 
Dr. Zafar Shah
 

 

The Dawn of the Revolution in Burma

The Breach of Social Contract that Leads to

The Dawn of the Revolution in Burma

 SAN OO AUNG  in BURMA DIGEST

In the book Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes, wrote in 1642 about a minimalist state which was strangely similar to the present day Myanmar and SPDC Junta. Let’s compare that Leviathan State with the Myanmar under successive Military Dictators.

1.                   The threatened citizens:

  • With the civil war with the Ethnic Minorities leading to possible disintegration of the country.
  • Or with the foreign invaders leading to re-colonization.
  • Disappearance of Bama Race and Buddhist Religion. 

Burma (Myanmar) really has the most numbers of the armed rebels for about half a century.

So the Myanmar Military’s claim was even believed and echoed by some prominent ASEAN leaders.

But almost all of those Ethnic Minority rebels supported NLD leader Daw Aung San Su Kyi and are ready to stop the rebellion and give up the aim of separation from the Union if there is a formation of real democratic, secular, federal Union.

2.                   Hobbes called for a state where effective political power was concentrated in a single authority, the State. And it was in the hands of a minority of rulers or a single monarch. Real effective political power was concentrated in the hands of the ruling elite only. In Burma the Military under General Ne Win, Saw Maung and Senior General Than Shwe control the power very firmly and it is according to Hobbes principle.

3.                   Hobbes’ constant fear of civil conflict was his highest justification for the creation of this small but immensely powerful state machinery or Authoritarian or Dictator System with total control of the daily lives of ordinary citizens. And the whole population is depoliticized.

In Burma, as long as a person stayed away from politics he could do whatever he likes, but he need to grease the palms of the relevant authorities in every step.  This is in accordance to Hobbes’ idea of allowing the public to stay as they like provided they did not meddle with the affairs of state. The State, on the other hand, would interfere as little as possible in the affairs of the masses provided they ‘behaved’ themselves or in Myanmar terms bribed enough to the authorities. But under the excuse of internal security, the Military of Burma dictates control and watches almost all the activities of its citizens.

4.                   The state that Hobbes envisioned had peace, public order, openness and stability. But actually the power was absolute, centralized and personalized. In Burma there is a “peace agreement” with armed rebels but not with the unarmed NLD. Neither openness nor transparency at all prevails in Burma/Myanmar. The condition is quite fragile in Myanmar. The power is absolute, centralised and Myanmar Military Generals are still in absolute control.

5.                   The hidden element of Hobbes’ theory of the centralized State was the culture of fear and terror that usually develop if his model actually exists. Yes, that fear is the most important factor in Myanmar now. We all need to overcome that fear.

6.                   Today we see the real replica in present-day Myanmar (Burma) as if Myanmar could be called a model Leviathan State of Myanmar. Today we have seen the emergence of a powerful State apparatus of the Military in Myanmar, and it practically dominates all sectors of public life.

7.                   Like the many other blatantly oppressive and dictatorial regimes (such as the Philippines under Marcos or Indonesia under Suharto), the fierce and cruel power of Military dominate Myanmar since 1962 up to the present time.

8.                   In Burma the relentless intimidation and use of unnecessary brutal military might, combined with frequently changing random arbitrary ad hoc laws effectively suppressed and tamed the socio-political atmosphere. Thus for much of the Myanmar population, hard life continues boringly in slow pace and under constant fear.

9.                   The Myanmar Military’s promotion of an “open-market economy” has never changed  Myanmar public which has been already ruined into to a corruption based black-market lifestyle and leading to extreme materialism.

10.               Political activism and any public debate on matters political, cultural and philosophical is practically suppressed. For years, the quality of intellectual life in the media, local universities and the public arena has been stifled thanks to the cumulative effect of laws and regulations which have effectively robbed the ordinary citizens of their rights of free speech, association and assembly.

11.               Set against this is a state of Myanmar Military apparatus which has grown increasingly powerful, centralized and personalized. A cult of leadership has been developed in the country, centred on the personality and personal tastes and preferences leading to one man- show of Sr. General Than Shwe.

12.               Hobbes ‘Leviathan country’- intimidates and compels citizens to give in and toe the line all the time. The Military in Myanmar has been able to act in a coercive and forceful manner.

13.               Hobbes predicted that there is a limit to how far the State can go in its exercise of power. Hobbes social contract which binds the citizens to their State was based on mutual respect for a common concern: namely, to protect the interests of all parties concerned.

14.               Hobbes predicted that the citizens would no longer respect and obey the State if the latter was no longer protecting their interests.

The social contract effectively comes to an end when the State exceeds its limits and begins

to abuse the rights of the citizens arbitrarily, such as in cases of blatant abuse of power.

15.               At this point, Hobbes argues that, the citizens are no longer beholden to the state and thus are free to rebel.

If we look at the present day Myanmar under the SPDC Junta, this ‘invisible’ limit has been reached, and indeed, breached by the SPDC Military rulers.

In Myanmar today the SPDC had clearly crossed the line of our limit with his brutal cruelties on all the Ethnic Minorities, minority religions and almost all the citizens.

So it is the dawn of a revolution where the dominance of the authoritarian Military rulers is being questioned for the first time, thanks to the NLD under Daw Aung San Su Kyi and all the opposition groups.

The end result of this process will take some time. But one thing is for sure: the climate of fear and obedience which was so crucial in maintaining the system of autocratic centralized rule is now slowly diminishing, and Burmese citizens are beginning to question the legitimacy of the Military that has ruled them for so long.

SAN OO AUNG  

 

Asian Values & Western Values

Asian Values & Western Values

 

As San Oo Aung in Burma Digest 

Most of the western countries had progressed from the struggles to just meet their biological needs of food, shelter and security to the social progress to meet their psychological needs of social values such as Human Rights and Individual Freedoms.

“ASIAN VALUES” apologists claim that certain values and liberties must be compromised for the sake of growth and progress so that most of the citizens are housed, clothed and fed. They claimed that social and political stability for the whole country is more important than individual Human Rights and liberties.

Even US and some developed countries are in reverse gear by saying that sacrifices in certain individual freedoms must be made for the safety of the country and to fight terrorism.

In Japan, Singapore, Malaysia and other Asia countries, there are substantial economic and social progress and could move into the better intellectual, social values, individual values of freedom, justice and equality. These could be called the Universal Values but the Asia Governments just labelled and smoke-screened them as “Western Values” just to scared off their citizens’ desires to adopt them.

In the advanced countries, according to “Western Values”: the fight is no longer over who gets what economically and who dominates who culturally; but over the value systems for rights of the individual; beyond race and religion.

But when we look at the SPDC Junta, no doubt they are valueless according to “Western Values” or Universal Values. They even do not have “ASIAN VALUES” as they could not fulfil the biological needs of food, shelter and security for all the citizens of Myanmar.

Although they are Buddhists, they have NO BUDDHIST VALUE. They rob the country from the people and NLD. They are killing, jailing and torturing innocent people and committing rape etc. against the Buddha’s teaching.

Last of all, the SPDC Generals even do not have the MILITARY VALUE according to the International Standard or even the TATMADAW VALUE according to General Aung San’s standard.

As Senior General Than Shwe’s children are becoming second illegal wives and Daw Kyaing Kyaing’s marriage to Lu Min although both of them are legally still married to their spouses, SPDC Generals also could be labelled as people with no FAMILY VALUES.

The Alexandria The Great was retorted by the pirate that he had a small ship so was labelled a pirate, but as The Alexandria The Great got a fleet of ship and plunder the world and was called the King. During the ancient time those who killed the king became king. Now the world had changed and the whole world, from the Myanmar Citizens to all the governments up to UN knew that SPDC is the ILLEGITIMATE GOVERNMENT. So even if we gauge the SPDC Generals with the pirate’s and Pagan Dynasty rule, nowadays SPDC Government have no value and is an ILLEGITIMATE GOVERNMENT.

San Oo Aung

Displaced People’s Socio-Medical Sufferings

Displaced People’s Socio-Medical Sufferings

Dr. San Oo Aung in Burma Digest

Common medical problems in refugees

Apart from physical wounds or starvation, a large percentage of refugees develops symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression. These long-term mental problems can severely impede the functionality of the person in everyday situations; it makes matters even worse for displaced persons who are confronted with a new environment and challenging situations.

Among other symptoms, post-traumatic stress disorder involves anxiety, over-alertness, sleeplessness, chronic fatigue syndrome, motoric difficulties, failing short term memory, amnesia, nightmares and sleep-paralysis. Flashbacks are characteristic to the disorder: The patient experiences the traumatic event, or pieces of it, again and again. Depression is also characteristic for PTSD-patients and may also occur without accompanying PTSD.

PTSD was diagnosed in 34.1% of the Palestinian children, most of whom were refugees, males, and working. The participants were 1,000 children aged 12 to 16 years from governmental, private, and United Nations Relief Work Agency UNRWA schools in East Jerusalem and various governorates in the West Bank.

Another study showed that 28.3% of Bosnian refugee women had symptoms of PTSD three or four years after their arrival in Sweden. These women also had significantly higher risks of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and psychological distress than Swedish-born women. For depression the odds ratio was 9.50 among Bosnian women.

A study by the Department of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine at the Boston University School of Medicine demonstrated that twenty percent of Sudanese refugee minors living in the United States had a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder. They were also more likely to have worse scores on all the Child Health Questionnaire subscales.

Many more studies illustrate the problem. One meta-study was conducted by the psychiatry department of Oxford University at Warneford Hospital in the United Kingdom. 20 surveys were analyzed, providing results for 6,743 adult refugees from seven countries. In the larger studies, 9% were diagnosed with post-traumatic stress disorder and 5% with major depression, with evidence of much psychiatric comorbidity. Five surveys of 260 refugee children from three countries yielded a prevalence of 11% for post-traumatic stress disorder. According to this study, refugees resettled in Western countries could be about ten times more likely to have PTSD than age-matched general populations in those countries. Worldwide, tens of thousands of refugees and former refugees resettled in Western countries probably have post-traumatic stress disorder.

Social Difficulties for Refugees/Migrants

The first generation of migrants knows and accepts what they are. They know that they were just foreigners and are grateful to the host country and happy because they are accepted and allowed to settle in the new paradise. The hardships and numerous problems in their old places are still fresh in their memory and are sometimes refreshed by the nightmares as replays of the sufferings. They are willing to accept all the preconditions, restrictions, rules and regulations even if unfair or unfavourable to them just to be allowed to stay in the host country. They are glad to struggle and overcome all the hardships they encounter sometimes even with the ecstasy spirit. They have the fighting never surrendering spirit and almost always work hard for long hours. They do not mind even if they have to work with lower wages and without much dignity. Migrant workers are well known to face the ‘three D’ works i.e. Dangerous, Dirty and Difficult jobs.

The second generation of Migrants tries to, or even subconsciously, rejected the past. Could not accept the reality that their parents had migrated and imagine that they are totally same as the original citizens. The pressure to assimilate or merge with the mainstream society is very strong. Some of them may pretend as if pure blood local breeds. Social, cultural and religious conflicts emerge between the parents, old timers, who stick to their original values. Their spirit for hard work may not be comparable to their parents. They could not accept the unfair discriminations imposed by locals.

The third generation Migrants and onwards at last found out that although they tried very hard, it is very difficult to be accepted and treated as ‘pure locals’. Migrant and mixed blood image is very difficult to erase until and unless the migrant intermarries, converts to the host population’s religion and changes all the old culture, customs, habits, language and etc. The migrants have to discard all his identities to be accepted or assimilated into local circle. For example in Malaysia if the migrant “masuk Malay” that means convert to Islam or in Burma, Eurasians or Japan or Hindu or Chinese or Indian Muslim if convert into Buddhism are well assimilated and accepted. If the migrant’s religion is the same as the host, assimilation process is faster and easier. If not, there will always be a clear line of differentiation leading to discriminations and conflicts. According to the common sense, citizen laws, internationally recognised and accepted norms and THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS, the migrants   rightfully but almost always claims that they should have all the equal rights and equal chances and opportunities as the citizens of the country.  

Some of them may try to cover up or even denies their roots as an easy way out.

Those descendants of Migrants, third generation and onwards will form a new tribe or a new Minority group among the citizens of the nation. This could not avoid, especially if their race and religions are different. Assimilation would never be complete in spite of trying to do so even if it comes from the both sides, Migrants and hosts. It is a major problem of ‘Identity Crisis’ for the later generations of descendants of Migrants. As they are already established citizens with a sufficiently long enough history, they rightfully regarded themselves as the citizens with equal rights in contrast to the recent Migrants, who were used to bear all the discriminations with their eyes closed. And they will not happily accept that all those hardships and discriminations are necessary essential sacrifices and is the price to pay for the Migration. For the successive generations, sacrifice is no more accepted but the ‘Equal Rights’ and ‘Human Rights’ became the main issue. This is true for some Minoritiess in Myanmar

Some of the Successful Migrants in the world’s history: _

  • Henry Kissinger, former Secretary of State of USA.
  • Madeline Albright, Secretary of State of USA, originally from Czechoslovakia.
  • Alberto Fujimory, disgraced President of Peru.
  • Sonia Ghandi, the opposition Congress Party leader of India, originally from Italy.
  • Mother Teresa of India.
  • Arnold Schwarzenegger, Austrian Immigrant of USA.
  • Ex Ministers of Burma:U Razak, U Rashid and U Khin Maung Latt.
  • Zinedine Zidane, most famous French footballer, the son of Algerian Migrant.
  • Nurul Huda Abdullah, once a swimming darling of Malaysia was a migrant from Singapore
  • Wife of the Mr Narayana, President of the India, is also a Migrant from Burma.

 

Comments

DLaw said _

Dear Dr. San Oo Aung,
I just noticed your article and would like to commend you for raising the subject of PTSD.  How about writing about Narcissistic disorder and Antisocial disorder amongst the spdc generals?  Keep up the good work! And, by the way, do you know about any psychiatry or psychology articles on Burma refugees and IDPs.

Open letter to the European Commission, and European leaders

Dear Your Honours,

We all thank the EU for the strong stand against the Burmese Government. But recently, we are sad to see the signs of policy shift of EU against Burmese Junta and their ministers. We understand that all the politics are fluid and constantly changing; today’s enemy become friend tomorrow. And EU politics depend partly on economical prospects and profits for EU. We even understand that in order to force ASEAN to deny the Chairmanship of Burma, EU had seen to have given some promise to the ASEAN members to allow participation of Burmese ministers and high-ranking military officials in the various ASEM/ARF meetings to be held in Europe in 2006. ASEAN was very firm or stubborn and always declare that they would all boycott the ASEM/ARF meetings if their comrade Burmese Generals are denied participation.

Dear Sirs/Madams, if we really want to correct, recreate, or change the following persons:

  • our own naughty children
  • bad undisciplined  students
  • common criminals
  • ordinary citizens

The only one universally approved approach to get the successful result is the combination of punishment and reward system or Carrot and stick system. Even the investigators have to use the “good cops, bad cops� tactic.

Punishment may varies from, just a scolding, reprimand, giving warning to real different strategies and stages for the punishment of crimes or wrong.

If we look at the major religions, even GOD has used this method to mold mankind into submission into obedience to God’s Laws. Adherence to the covenant brings rewards while failure to follow the Word of God brings punishments. These themes are exemplified in Judaism, Christians, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism etc.

Sorry Sir/Madam, EU countries had tried to separate the churches from states. But all of the EU leaders have to admit that the various religions influence on the policies of the leaders around the world.

Crime and punishment for crime has been around since the beginning of time. Looking to the importance of this, one will find that over the ages there have been different strategies for the punishment of crimes. As civilization has become more sophisticated, so has the punishment, which has ranged from flagellation, to hanging, to crucifixion, to exile, to prison, to the sentence of death, as in capital punishment. Fear of punishment if commit the crime is enough deterrent to most of the people.

Rewards of fulfillments of wishes up to a reserved place in heaven, is not enough to reshape the mankind, even by GOD. We all are human beings only and we need some fear of punishment to avoid the wrong doing. In the world’s history no government is foolish enough to abolish all kind of punishment and use the various reward system to keep the LAW and ORDER of the country.

Although EU rules by Law, not like Burmese Generals, who rules the country with the Law coming out from the barrel of their guns! EU or any other governments could not do away with punishment system for their citizens. They could not dismantle judiciary system, police, and jails etc.

Now we consider the trap of awards that EU is considering to ASEAN and Burmese Generals. We believe that there is no effective reward system by EU and appraisal and incentive rewards are not based on real progress.  All of us must ensure that we are indeed rewarding behavior we want to reinforce, rather than blindly distributing rewards in a way that can be seen as rewarding underachievers or cheaters; ASEAN and Burmese Generals.

EU is trying to reward Burma and ASEAN for empty promises, foot-dragging for any meaningful changes to democracy and maneuvering tactics of the military regime. As the saying goes “Procrastination is the thief of time�. Burmese Generals are buying time with the white lies.

UN Secretary General’s special envoy Mr Razali Ismail was effectively fooled by the Burmese Generals. Now they are trying to fool ASEAN’s representative, Malaysian FM Syed Hamid Alba. His visit was forced to postpone because Burmese Generals do not want to meet him or even dare not show the sign of a start of a dialogue. We like to predict that he and ASEAN have to follow the path of The U.N. human rights envoy to Burma, Paulo Pinheiro and Mr Razali.

We strongly believe that once they could not use ASEAN, Burmese Generals would not think twice to dump the ASEAN. Not long ago they had threatened the ILO and its representative to pull out and to even beheaded the chief. Ne Win, father of the present Burmese Military Junta, had withdrawn the membership of the Non Allied Movement. If UN pushed too much they would even pull out from UN too without a second thought!

Dear Sir/Madam, now China, India, Russia, Pakistan, Thailand and ASEAN are strongly supporting the Burmese Generals. UN is effectively blocked by China and Russia. Now UN is just a little bit more honourable talk shop only. Burmese Generals knew that USA is bogged down by Iraq, Afghanistan and Middle East politics and could not take action on them.

So, if not for EU, who would tight the screw of these Burmese Generals and save us? Please don’t let them go, to your country, until and unless they release all the political prisoners, including Daw Aung San Su Kyi, start a meaningful dialogue and form a coalition government.

If ASEAN is very stubborn and proud, let all of them boycott the ASEM/ARF meetings but do not give visas to their comrade Burmese Generals. ASEAN is much weaker than EU, they need EU’s investment, technology and market.

If ASEAN prefer Burmese generals to EU, ignored them and let them elope and enjoy their honeymoon with the Burmese Generals. Once they get HIV only they would cry and come back to see Doctor EU. EU must insist ASEAN that they have to successfully accomplish the task of handling Burmese issue. Then only ASEAN and Burmese Generals should be rewarded even better.

EU USA and UN Secretary General should put pressure on China, India, Russia, Thailand and ASEAN to persuade Burmese Generals for a rapid change of the policy by implementing the necessary reforms and start steps to democratising.

Thanking Your Honours

Yours Humbly
San Oo Aung

Burma Digest

Internally Displaced Persons or IDPs

Internally Displaced Persons or IDPs

 As KO TIN NWE in Burma Digest

Also known as Internally displaced people.

“A refugee is a person, who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”.  

We have to note that this definition fails to include the internally displaced persons. 

An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as natural or man-made disasters, including religious or political persecution or war, but has not crossed an international border.

The term is a subset of the more general displaced person. There is no legal definition of IDP, as there is for refugee, but the rule of thumb is that if the person in question would be eligible for refugee status if he or she crossed an international border then the IDP label is applicable.

IDPs are not technically refugees because they have not crossed an international border, but are sometimes casually referred to as refugees.

The United Nations via the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights recently agreed on non-binding Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement based on the refugee instruments:

Which defines internally displaced persons as:

“Persons or groups of persons who have been forced or obliged to flee or to leave their homes or places of habitual residence, in particular as a result of or in order to avoid the effects of armed conflict, situations of generalized violence, violations of human rights or natural or human-made disasters, and who have not crossed an internationally recognized State border.”

But strangely there is no dedicated UN agency to deal with IDPs as in most of the cases, the root causes of these problems are their own governments and almost all of the countries in the whole world are scared to open the flood gates or Pandora boxes as these may allow the “INTERFERENCE” of UN and “OTHER COUNTRIES” to “INTERFERE” in their “INTERNAL AFFAIRS” .

(I hope our readers are familiar with the use of inverted commas. The words between the inverted commas “— “ would really mean opposite to its original meaning.)

This has led the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to act as ad hoc lead on IDP matters. As a result, it has been criticized for treating IDPs as less important adjuncts to their core mission to assist refugees.

There are currently nearly 25 million IDPs worldwide, roughly twice the total number of refugees. Internally displaced persons do not have a specific international legal instrument that applies to them as do refugees, because any attempt by an outside body to tell a nation how it should treat its own citizens has been seen as a violation of the principle of national sovereignty and self-determination.

This principle has come under pressure in recent years by those who feel a moral imperative to stop gross abuse of citizens by their governments. Recent examples include use by the United States as a primary justification for military intervention during the Kosovo War and a secondary justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq.

IDPs by country

Afghanistan—167,000-200,000

Angola—40,000-340,000

Azerbaijan—578,545

Bosnia and Herzegovina—309,240

Burundi—170,000

Colombia—1,580,396 – 3,410,041

Côte d’Ivoire—500,000

Democratic Republic of the Congo—2,330,000

India—600,000+ due to Boxer Day Tsunami and 500,000 Kashmiri Hindus due to anti-India insurgency [1]

Indonesia—342,000-600,000

Iraq—1,000,000+

Myanmar (Burma)—526,000 +++++ (please see the box below.) For the whole country there may be about 5 million IDPs.

Myanmar (Burma)

540,000

Oct. 2005

Thailand Burma Border Consortium

Estimate relates to the eastern border areas only and does not include significant numbers of IDPs in the rest of the country. For the whole country there may be about 5 million IDPs.

 

Russia—339,000

Sri Lanka—352,374

Turkey—350,000 – 1,000,000+

Sudan—6,000,000

Uganda—1,400,000

USA—±1,000,000 from Hurricane Katrina

In Myanmar, there are a lot of undocumented IDPs due to:

Directly because of civil war between SPDC Military and still active revel groups.

Actually there are more displaced persons because of SPDC’s Ethnic Cleansing in Ethnic Minority areas, Shan, Kayin, Arakan and etc.

Sometimes SPDC practised the “Three Cuts” operation. Cut the food supply chain, cut the communication chain and information chain. SPDC forced the villages from the black area to new places away from the rebels but as there are no proper infra structure like roads, water supply and most of the  areas are infertile, people used to run away but could not go back to their original villages.

Because of the many SPDC projects e.g. Gas Pipe line projects, new dams, factories, roads and some times because of the land is given to the foreign or local companies for various projects the villages and people of the towns are relocated forcefully and ultimately they are displaced.

KO TIN NWE