Social justice

Social justice

 

Social justice, sometimes called civil justice, refers to the concept of a society in whichjustice is achieved in every aspect of society, rather than merely the administration of law. It is generally thought of as a world which affords individuals and groups fair treatment and an impartial share of the benefits of society. (Different proponents of social justice have developed different interpretations of what constitutes fair treatment and an impartial share.) It can also refer to the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within a society.

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What makes “effective leadership” ?

What makes “effective leadership” ?

Leadership maintains its effectiveness sometimes by natural succession according to established rules, and sometimes by the imposition of brute force.

 

The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership involves evaluating the size of the following that the leader can muster. By this standard, Adolf Hitler became a very effective leader for a period — even if through delusional promises and coercive techniques. However, this approach may measure power rather than leadership. To measure leadership more specifically, one may assess the extent of influence on the followers, that is, the amount of leading. Within an organizational context this means financially valuing productivity. Effective leaders generate higher productivity, lower costs, and more opportunities than ineffective leaders. Effective leaders create results, attain goal, realize vision, and other objectives more quickly and at a higher level of quality than ineffective leaders.

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Categories and types of leadership

Categories and types of leadership

Leadership has a formal aspect (as in most political or business leadership, individual persons holding the title “manager”) or an informal one (as in most friendships or team activities). Speaking of “leadership” (the abstract term) rather than of “leading” (the action) usually it implies that the entities doing the leading have some “leadership skills” or competencies.

 

Types of leadership styles

The bureaucratic leader (Weber, 1905)[1] is very structured and follows the procedures as they have been established. This type of leadership has no space to explore new ways to solve problems and is usually slow paced to ensure adherence to the ladders stated by the company. Leaders ensure that all the steps have been followed prior to sending it to the next level of authority. Universities, hospitals, banks and government usually require this type of leader in their organizations to ensure quality, increase security and decrease corruption. Leaders who try to speed up the process will experience frustration and anxiety.

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Historical views on leadership

Historical views on leadership

 

Sanskrit literature identifies ten types of leaders. Defining characteristics of the ten types of leaders are explained with examples from history and mythology.[18]

Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on one’s blue blood or genesmonarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction: see the divine right of kings. Contrariwise, more democratically-inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting fromcareers open to talent.

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Irrawaddy:Tibetan Exiles’ Meeting Produces Comparisons with Burma

By:WAI MOE

The week-long meeting of Tibetan exiles in Dharmsala, India, has inevitably drawn comparisons with the activities of Burma’s own exiled opposition community.

Tibet and Burma each have a government in exile. But some Burmese exiles and Burma scholars claim that while the Tibetan opposition in exile, led by the Dalai Lama, shows cohesion, the same cannot be said for Burma’s.

Criticism of the Burmese opposition in exile has grown recently, with complaints that it lacks unity and a united strategy, providing for dialogue between all groups.
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Leadership’s relation with management

Leadership’s relation with management

 

Some commentators link leadership closely with the idea of management. Some regard the two as synonymous, and others consider management a subset of leadership. If one accepts this premise, one can view leadership as:

  • centralized or decentralized
  • broad or focused
  • decision-oriented or morale-centred
  • intrinsic or derived from some authority Continue reading

Leadership and emotions

Leadership and emotions

 

Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process[13]. In an organization, the leaders’ mood has some effects on his group. These effects can be described in 3 levels[14]:

  1. The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood.The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of mood contagion[14].Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by which charismatic leaders influence followers[15]. Continue reading

Leadership and vision

Leadership and vision

 

Many definitions of leadership involve an element of Goal management|vision — except in cases of involuntary leadership and often in cases of traditional leadership. A vision provides direction to the influence process. A leader or group of leaders can have one or more visions of the future to aid them to move a group successfully towards this goal.

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Leadership styles

Leadership styles

In 1994 House and Podsakoff attempted to summarize the behaviors and approaches of “outstanding leaders” that they obtained from some more modern theories and research findings. These leadership behaviors and approaches do not constitute specific styles, but cumulatively they probably[citation needed] characterize the most effective style of leaders/managers of the time. The listed leadership “styles” cover:

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Effective leadership

Effective leadership

 

Leadership maintains its effectiveness sometimes by natural succession according to established rules, and sometimes by the imposition of brute force.

The simplest way to measure the effectiveness of leadership involves evaluating the size of the following that the leader can muster. By this standard, Adolf Hitler became a very effective leader for a period — even if through delusional promises and coercive techniques. However, this approach may measure power rather than leadership. To measure leadership more specifically, one may assess the extent of influence on the followers, that is, the amount of leading. Within an organizational context this means financially valuing productivity. Effective leaders generate higher productivity, lower costs, and more opportunities than ineffective leaders. Effective leaders create results, attain goal, realize vision, and other objectives more quickly and at a higher level of quality than ineffective leaders.

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DVB:NLD marks National Day

Nov 24, 2008 (DVB)–The 88th Burmese National Day was marked at the National League for Democracy headquarters in Rangoon and in other towns in central Burma by pro-democracy activists on Saturday.

Around 400 people including NLD supporters, veteran politicians, ethnic national organisations and CRPP members attended the ceremony held at the party headquarters in Rangoon’s Bahan township, according to NLD spokesman Nyan Win.

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Qualities of leadership

Qualities of leadership

The word leadership can refer to:

  1. The traits, behavior, influence, interaction patterns, role relationships and occupation of an administrative position.
  2. Articulating visions (e.g. Bill Gates), embodying values and creating environment for the things that can be accomplished. (Richards & Engle, 1986, p.206)
  3. Those entities that perform one or more acts of leading.
  4. The ability to affect human behavior so as to accomplish a mission.
  5. Influencing a group of people to move towards its goal setting or goal achievement.(Stogdill 1950: 3)

Studies of leadership have suggested qualities that people often associate with leadership. They include:

  • Technical/specific skill at some task at hand
  • Charismatic inspiration – attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this esteem to motivate others
  • Preoccupation with a role – a dedication that consumes much of leaders’ life – service to a cause
  • A clear sense of purpose (or mission) – clear goals – focus – commitment
  • Results-orientation – directing every action towards a mission – prioritizing activities to spend time where results most occur
  • Cooperation – work well with others
  • Optimism – very few pessimists become leaders

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AP:Sole Myanmar protester demands activists’ release

YANGON, Myanmar (AP) — A lone demonstrator staged a silent protest in front of detained pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi’s party headquarters Saturday demanding the military government free all student activists as the country celebrated its National Day.

The holiday commemorates a boycott by Yangon University students 88 years ago in defiance of British colonial rule, a protest that inspired Myanmar’s independence movement.

Although the government does not hold any public events to mark the day, Suu Kyi’s National League for Democracy regularly celebrates with a party.

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Multiculturalism

Multiculturalism

 

The term multiculturalism generally refers to an applied ideology of racialcultural and ethnicdiversity within the demographics of a specified place, usually at the scale of an organization such as a schoolbusinessneighbourhoodcity or nation.

Some countries have official, or de jure policies of multiculturalism aimed at recognizing, celebrating and maintaining the different cultures or cultural identities within that society to promote social cohesion. In this context, multiculturalism advocates a society that extends equitable status to distinct cultural and religious groups, with no one culture predominating.

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