Timur or Tamerlane, the grandfather of the Mughal Empire of India

Timur or Tamerlane,

the grandfather of the Mughal Empire of India

Timur (Chagatai language: تیمور – Tēmōr, “iron“) (6 April 1336 – 19 February 1405), among his other names[1], commonly called Tamerlane[2], was a 14th century Turko-Mongol[3][4]conqueror of much of western and Central Asia, and founder of the Timurid Empire and Timurid dynasty (1370–1405) in Central Asia, which survived until 1857 as the Mughal Empire of India.[5][6]


Timur belonged to a family of Turkicized Barlasclan of Mongol origin. He was Turkic in identity and language,[5][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] he aspired to restore the Mongol Empire. He was also steeped in Persian culture[16] and in most of the territories which he incorporated into his feifdom, Persian became the primary languageof administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled diwan was Persian and its scribes had to be adept in Persian culture, regardless of ethnicity.[17]. In addition, during his reign Turkic became a state and literary language. Some of the greatest contributions toTurkic literature were penned during the Timurid era with Turkic culture e

[edit]Fiction

 

[edit]Music

  • Timour the Tartar – popular Irishreel.
  • Tamerlano (1724) – opera byGeorge Frideric Handel, inItalian, based on the 1675 playTamerlan ou la mort de Bajazetby Jacques Pradon.
  • Bajazet (1735) – opera byAntonio Vivaldi, portrays the capture of Bayezid I by Timur

[edit]Literature

  • Tamburlaine the Great, Parts I and II – play by Christopher Marlowe (English, 1563-1594).
  • Tamerlane – first published poem of Edgar Allan Poe(American, 1809-1849).
  • Lord of Samarcand – short story by Robert E. Howard(American, 1906-1936), with a fictional account of Timur’s last campaign and death.
  • “T the Great” – poem by W. H. Auden (Anglo-American, 1907-1973), contrasting the terror inspired by Tamburlaine with the use of his name as a crossword anagram: a nubile tram.
  • The Years of Rice and Salt(2002) – alternate history novelby Kim Stanley Robinson, portrays a different outcome of Timur’s last campaign.
            

[edit]Film and television

    • War, Inc. (2008) – set in the future, when the fictional desert country of Turaqistan is torn by a riot after a private corporation,Tamerlane (based on Halliburton), owned by the former Vice President of the United States (Dan Aykroyd, based on Dick Cheney), has taken over the whole country.
    • Day Watch (2006) – prologue features Tamerlane’s assault on a citadel containing the Chalk of Fate.
    • History Bites (1998-2003) – television episode with Bob Bainborough portraying Tamerlane.

[edit]Games

  • Age of Empires II (1999) – computer game, Tamerlane only available in the “Map Editor”.
  • Eternal Darkness (2002) – video game, Pious Augustus quotes Tamerlane’s line before the sacking of Damascus.
  • Medieval II: Total War (2007) – computer game, the Timurids appear on the campaign map late in the campaign, lead by Timur the Lame.
  • Unreal Tournament (1999) – video game, Tamerlane is an enemy bot.
  • Hellgame (2003) – board game, Tamerlane is one of the lieutenants in Hell.
Timur
Timurid dynasty
Preceded by
Timurid dynasty
1370–1405
Succeeded by
Pir Muhammad
Miran Shah
Khalil Sultan

[edit]See also

  • Tokhtamysh-Timur war
  • List of wars and disasters by death toll
  • List of wars in the Muslim world
  • List of the Muslim Empires
  • Nomadic people
  • Global Empire
  • Genghis Khan
  • Ahmad (Jalayirids)
  • Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent

[edit]Notes

  1. ^ Note: Tīmūr bin Taraghay Barlas, after his marriage into Genghis Khan‘s family, he took the name Timūr Gurkānī (Persianتيمور گوركانى), Gurkān being the Persianized form of the originalMongolian word kürügän, “son-in-law” (Source: Zahir ud-Din Mohammad, The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, edited by Wheeler M. Thackston). He is also known by variations of his pejorative Persian name Timur-e-Lang (Persianتیمور لنگ) which translates toTimur the Lame, as he was lame after sustaining an injury to the leg in battle. This title of contempt was used by his Persian enemies. Other sources like the reports of the contemporary witness Ruy Gonzáles de Clavijo use a non-Persianized notation for this title of Timur, e.g. Timur Kurkhan, and describe the meaning of Kurkhan as of the lineage of sovereign princes. Alternative spellings of his name are: TemurTaimurTimur LenkTimur-i LengTemur-e LangAmir TimurAqsaq Timur, as well as the Latinized Tamerlane and Tamburlaine.
  2. ^ “Timur“, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation: …also spelled Timour , byname Timur Lenk , or Timurlenk (Turkish:”Timur the Lame”) , English Tamerlane , or Tamburlaine. Turkic conqueror.…)
  3. ^ “Central Asia, history of Timur“, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007., Quotation: “… Timur first united under his leadership the Turko-Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers.…”
  4. ^ History of Central Asia, Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 Dec. 2008.
  5. a b c d e B.F. Manz, “Tīmūr Lang”, in Encyclopaedia of Islam.
  6. ^ “Timur” The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05. Quotation: Tamerlane, c.1336–1405, Mongol conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng [Timur the lame]. He was the son of a tribal leader, and he claimed (apparently for the first time in 1370) to be a descendant of Jenghiz Khan. With an army composed of Turks and Turkic-speaking Mongols, remnants of the empire of the Mongols, Timur spent his early military career in subduing his rivals in what is now Turkistan; by 1369 he firmly controlled the entire area from his capital at Samarkand.
  7. ^ Jean-Paul Roux, Historie des Turks – Deux mille ans du Pacifique á la Méditerranée“, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2000.
  8. ^ “Islamic world“, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Quotation: “Timur (Tamerlane) was a Turk, not a Mongol; but he aimed to restore Mongol power.…”
  9. ^ “Central Asia, history of Timur“, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. (Quotation:”…Timur first united under his leadership the Turko-Mongol tribes located in the basins of the two rivers.
  10. ^ “Timurids“, in Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Edition, 2007. Qotation: “Timurid dynasty (fl. 15th–16th century AD),Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia.
  11. ^ René Grousset, The Empire of the Steppes: A History of Central Asia, Rutgers University Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9 (p.409) Quotation: “…In fact, he was no Mongol, but a Turk.…”
  12. ^ “Timur“, Encyclopædia Britannica, Online Academic Edition, 2007.
  13. ^ Gérard Chaliand, Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett, Transaction Publishers, 2004. (p.75) Quotation:…”Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336-1405) was a Muslim Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan’s heir.“…
  14. ^ G. R. Garthwaite, “The Persians”, Malden, ISBN 9781557868602, MA: Blackwell Pub., 2007. (p.148) Quotation:…Timur’s tribe, the Barlas, had Mongol origins but had become Turkic-speaking …
  15. ^ K.Z. Ashrafyan, “Central Asia under Timur from 1370 to the early fifteenth century“, (p.320)
  16. a b Chaliand, Gérard (2004). Nomadic Empires: From Mongolia to the Danube translated by A.M. Berrett. Transaction Publishers, p.75. ISBN 076580204XLimited preview at Google Book Searchp.75. “Timur Leng (Tamerlane) Timur, known as the lame (1336-1405) was a Muslim Turk from the Umus of Chagatai who saw himself as Genghis Khan’s heir.”
  17. ^ Manz, Beatrice Forbes (1999). The Rise and Rule of Tamerlane. Cambridge University Press, p.109. ISBN 0521633842Limited preview at Google Book Searchp.109. “In Temür’s government, as in those of most nomad dynasties, it is impossible to find a clear distinction between civil and military affairs, or to identify the Persian bureaucracy as solely civil or the Turko-Mongolian solely with military government. In fact, it is difficult to define the sphere of either side of the administration and we find Persians and Chaghatays sharing many tasks. (In discussing the settled bureaucracy and the people who worked within it I use the word Persian in a cultural rather than ethnological sense. In almost all the territories which Temür incorporated into his realm Persian was the primary language of administration and literary culture. Thus the language of the settled ‘diwan’ was Persian and its scribes had to be thoroughly adept in Persian culture, whatever their ethnic origin.) Temür’s Chaghatay emirs were often involved in civil and provincial administration and even in financial affairs, traditionally the province of Persian bureaucracy.”
  18. ^ Roy, Olivier (2007). The new Central Asia. I.B.Tauris. pp. 7. ISBN 184511552X.
  19. ^ Timur in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-2005. “Tamerlane, c.1336–1405, Turkic conqueror, b. Kesh, near Samarkand. He is also called Timur Leng (Timur The Lame). The son of a tribal leader, in 1370 Timur became an in-law of a direct descendant of Genghis Khan, when he destoyed the army of Husayn of Balkh. After the battle, he took Husayn of Balkh’s widow, Saray Mulk-khanum (daughter of Qazan, the last Chaghatai Khan of Mawarannah, into his harem as his fourth wife. For the rest of his life he called himself Temur Gurgan – son-in-law- of the GreatKhan <Tamerlame, by Justin Marozzi>. Supported by an army of Turkish tribes, Timur spent his early military career subduing his rivals in what is now Turkistan; by 1369 he controlled the entire area from his capital at Samarkand.”
  20. ^ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, Cambridge University Press, 1972. Snippet, p.104.
  21. ^ Markham, Clements R. (1859). Narrative of the Embassy of Ruy Gonzalez De Clavijo to the Court of Timour, at Samarcand, A.D.1403-6. London: Hakluyt Society, pp.125-126. Full text atGoogle Book Search.
  22. ^ The Timurid Dynasty
  23. a b c d Volume III: To the Year A.D. 1398, Chapter: XVIII. Malfúzát-i Tímúrí, or Túzak-i Tímúrí: The Autobiography or Memoirs of Emperor Tímúr (Taimur the lame). Page 389. 1. Online copy2. Online copy) from: Elliot, Sir H. M., Edited by Dowson, John. The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period; published by London Trubner Company 1867–1877.
  24. ^ The Islamic World to 1600: The Mongol Invasions (The Timurid Empire)
  25. ^ Lane-Poole, Stanley (1907). “Chapter IX: Tinur’s Account of His Invasion”. History of India. The Grolier Society. Full text at Google Book Search
  26. ^ The Turco-Mongol Invasions
  27. ^ Tamerlane (1336 – 1405) – The Last Great Nomad Power
  28. ^ Needham, Joseph (1971). Science and Civilisation in China, Volume 4: Physics and Physical Technology, Part 2, Mechanical Engineering. Cambridge University Press, p.554. ISBN 0521058031, or ISBN 978-0521058032ASIN 0521058031. “At least one Arabic account exists. In +1420 Shāh Rukh, the son of Tīmūr, sent an embassy to the Ming emperor, and the narrative written by Ghiyāth al-Dīn-i Nagqāsh describes at Kanchow…”
  29. ^ Nestorians, or Ancient Church of the East at Encyclopædia Britannica
  30. ^ Esfahan
  31. ^ New Book Looks at Old-Style Central Asian Despotism
  32. ^ Timur Lenk (1369-1405)
  33. ^ Document preserved at Le Musée de l’Histoire de France, code AE III 204. Mentioned Dossier II, 7, J936
  34. ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 bis
  35. ^ Mentioned Dossier II, 7 ter
  36. ^ Mark Dickens, A Phoenix Rises in the Desert
  37. ^ Marozzi, Justin (2006). Tamerlane: Sword of Islam, Conqueror of the World. Da Capo Press.ISBN 030681465X. Limited preview at Google Book Search.
  38. ^ Stier, Roy (1998). Tamerlane: The Ultimate Warrior. BookPartners. ISBN 1885221770.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

[edit]External links

 

CategoriesTimurid monarchs | Turkic rulers | Monarchs of Persia | City founders | Turkic peoples | Muslim generals | 1336 births | 1405 deathsFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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