Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2009

Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer 2009

Official Launch of TI Global Corruption Barometer 2009
Remarks by Mr. Rueben Lifuka TIZ President, 3rd June 2009
Transparency International Secretariat
Plot No. 3880, Kwacha Road
Olympia Park
Lusaka, Zambia

1.0 Introduction
Distinguished ladies and gentlemen, I wish to start by thanking you for coming to attend this press
conference whose purpose is to launch the Transparency International Global Corruption Barometer (GCB)
for 2009. A brief background of the Global Corruption Barometer is necessary in order for you to
contextualise the important findings of this report. The Global Corruption Barometer is a comprehensive
public opinion survey that explores the general public’s views of corruption, as well as experiences of
bribery around the world.

The Barometer is a rich source of empirical data regarding public views of and experiences with corruption.
Policy makers can use the Barometer to better understand to what extent public institutions and services
are seen as corrupt, expand their knowledge of the form and frequency of petty bribery, and to see the
demographic distribution of bribe extortion and perceptions of the integrity of domestic institutions. It
contains information that is highly useful for policy reform and for designing further research.
Civil society, researchers, anti-corruption stakeholders and journalists can use Barometer data to assess
where corruption is present, raise awareness about the extent of bribery in one or several countries and to
promote targeted change in a particular country or institution. Researchers can use the Barometer to
explore determinants and consequences of corruption and bribery in a wide range of countries. It is unique
in the research community in terms of its focus and breadth of country coverage.
The Barometer is designed to complement the expert opinion on public sector corruption provided by TI’s
Corruption Perception Index and the information on International Bribery flows reflected in TI’s Bribe
Payers Index. It also aims to provide information on trends in public perception of Corruption. The
barometer enables assessments of change overtime, in terms of the institutions deemed to be corrupt, the
effectiveness of government’s efforts to fight corruption ad the proportion of citizens paying bribes.
2.0 2009 Global Corruption Barometer
This year’s Global Corruption Barometer (GCB) 2009, highlights everyday experiences with bribery,
people’s views on private sector corruption and corruption levels in six Institutions (political parties, public
officials/civil servants, parliaments/legislature, business, judiciary and media).
This is the sixth edition of the Global Corruption Barometer and 73, 132 people were interviewed in 69
countries and territories between October 2008 and February 2009. In each country, the polling method
was based on local conditions. Methods included face to face, telephone and online interviews. For the
first since the survey was started, this year, Zambia is among the seventeen countries that have been
included in the 2009 Barometer. Other countries that are new to the 2009 barometer include: Azerbaijan,
Belarus, Brunei Darussalam, Chile, El Salvador, Hungary, Iraq, Israel, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon, Liberia,
Mongolia, Morocco, Sierra Leone and Uganda.
The 2009 Barometer, offers the greatest country coverage to-date. The Barometer includes a variety of
corruption-related questions including which domestic institutions are seen as most corrupt and how
respondents rate their government in the fight against corruption. It also provides insight on people’s
experiences with bribery, gathering information on how frequently citizens were asked to pay bribes when
interacting with different public services. For the first time, the Barometer asks the general public about the
level of state capture – illicit influence on public policies and regulations through bribery – and the
willingness of consumers to pay a premium for clean corporate behaviour.
3.0 General Overview of 2009 Global Corruption Barometer
The main findings of the 2009 TI GCB are presented below firstly with a general overview of the findings
and secondly, highlighting some specific issues pertaining to Zambia
3.1. General Public’s perceptions of corruption in key sectors
The 2009 Global Corruption Barometer asked the extent to which more than 73,000 individuals around the
world perceive six key sectors and institutions to be corrupt. The findings indicate that Political parties were
perceived to be corrupt by 68 per cent of the respondents, followed closely by the civil service (public
officials/civil servants), and parliament: 63 and 60 per cent respectively. The private sector and judiciary
are also seen as corrupt by half of the respondents. Around 43 per cent of the interviewees also believed
that the media is affected by corruption.
When asked which of the six sectors/institutions they considered to be the single most corrupt, the general
public most frequently identified political parties and the civil service, with 29 and 26 per cent respectively.
At the lower end were the media and the judiciary with 6 and 9 per cent of the respondents seeing them as
the single most corrupt institution.
For Zambia, the findings indicate that 54 per cent of the respondents viewed public officials and the civil
service to be extremely corrupt, followed by the Judiciary at 39 per cent, political parties at 30 per cent,
Business /private sector stood at 15 per cent while Parliament and the Media come in at the tail end at 13
and 6 per cent respectively.
3.2. Corruption in and by the private sector is of growing concern to the general public;
According to 2009 Barometer, the private sector is perceived to be corrupt by half of those interviewed: a
notable increase of 8 percent compared to five years. Corruption hampers achievement of the Millennium
Development Goals by undermining the economic growth and sustainable development that would free
millions from the poverty trap. Fighting corruption must be central to plans to increase resources to achieve
the goals, whether via donor aid or in-country domestic action.
The general public is critical of the private sector role in their countries policy making. More than half of the
respondents held the view that bribery is often used to shape policies and regulations in companies favour.
The perception is particularly widespread in the Newly Independent States and to a slightly lesser extent in
countries in the Americans and the western Balkans ad Turkey. Corruption matters to consumers. Half
those interviewed expressed a willingness to pay a premium to buy from a company that is corrupt free.
3.2. Political parties and the Civil Service are perceived on average to be the most corrupt sectors
around the World.

Globally, respondents perceived political parties as single most corrupt domestic institutions followed by
the civil service. Aggregate results, mask important country differences. In 13 of the counties sampled, the
private sector was deemed to be the most corrupt, while 11 countries identified the Judiciary.
The 11 countries that identified the judiciary to be corrupt might be attributed to the some gray areas in the
constitution or the rather the long period of time that a single case takes to be disposed off in the courts of
3.3. Experience of petty bribery is reported to be growing in some parts of the world- with the police
the most likely recipients of bribes

More than 1 in 10 people interviewed reported having paid a bribe in the last one year, reflecting levels of
bribery in similar to those in 2005 Barometer. Further, for 4 to 10 respondents who paid bribes, payments
amounted to around 10 percent of their annual income.
According to the findings of the 2009 GCB, the countries reported to be most affected by petty bribery are
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Cameroon, Cambodia, Iraq, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Uganda. Regional experiences
are most common in the Middle East and North Africa, the newly Independent States and Sub Saharan
Africa. Corruption is especially severe on the poor, who are least capable of paying the extra costs
associated with bribery and fraud or surviving the embezzlement of scarce public resources. Such
revelation in 2009 Barometer, paints a gloomy picture on various interventions aimed at curbing corruption.
Although the police are the most frequently reported to receive bribes world wide, regional differences also
emerge. In the Middle East and North Africa, the most bribe prone institutions are reported to be those
handling procedures related to buying, selling, inheriting or renting land.
In the EU countries these land services along with healthcare are most vulnerable to petty bribery.
While the incidences of petty bribery in North America appear to be very low, those that do occur are most
frequently reported in interactions with the Judiciary.
2009 GCB results indicate that respondents from low-income households are more likely to pay bribes
than those from high income house holds when dealing with the police, the judiciary, land services or even
the education system/
Results indicate that the public does not use formal channels lodge-bribery related complaints; More than
75 percent of people who reported paying bribes did not file a formal complaint. Reasons for this were
varied – about 50 percent of bribery victims interviewed globally did not see existing complaint mechanism
as effective, while one quarter found the process too time consuming. In Sub Saharan Africa, nearly a third
of the respondents reported that complaint mechanisms are too cumbersome. Of particular interest is that
16 per cent of those surveyed around the world did not even know how to present a formal complaint.
The results indicate that there is need for greater efforts to be made to ensure that the general public has
access to and believes in the effectiveness of fomal reporting mechanisms. The Barometer found that the
unemployed and women are less likely to complain about being victims of corruption. In contrast, those
who are likely to use formal channels to report bribery include men, individuals who are employed or those
from middle income households.
3.4. Corruption Affecting Key Institutions/ Sectors, 2004 to 2009 Comparison
From the 2009 Barometer, we have seen variations in the results recorded. Respondents interviewed
report among the corruption levels n the six institutions, indicate that political parties are extremely corrupt
and their role in fostering development has been affected by corruption with above 70 percent of the
In 2009, overall results indicate that corruption in the parliaments shot up in 2009 as compared to 2004
which recorded just under 60percent. Prrivate sector corruption records an increase in 2009 with over 50
percent in 2009 to 45 percent in 2004. The media has recorded a slight increase in corruption in the past
five year while the Judiciary records Slights improves in the level of reported corruption with just under 50
percent in 2009 to over 50 percent in 2004.
3.6. People’s perception on the private sector
Since the 2007 GCB was published, the world has suffered one of the most serious financial and economic
crisis in recent history. This crisis continues to dominate the international agenda, thrusting the practices of
companies in may industries into spotlight. Against this backdrop, the 2009 GCB demonstrates a trend
towards greater public concern about the role of the private sector incorruption.
In countries and territories assessed, the private sector is perceived to be the most corrupt in Brunei
Darussalam, Canada, Denmark, Hong Kong, Iceland, Luxembourg, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway,
Portugal, Spain and Switzerland.
3.7. Government Efforts to fight Corruption
The 2009 Barometer indicates that government efforts to tackle corruption are largely seen as ineffective
by the general public. While just under a third of the respondents’ are governments efforts as effective,
more than half believed they were ineffective.
There is however, much variation across the world. Meanwhile, fewer than 1 in 10 respondents in
Argentina, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Lithuania and Ukraine considered government anticorruption
efforts to be effective.
When comparing the overall Barometer responses in 2007 and 2009, it is noteworthy that there have not
been any considerable changes in perception. At the country level, however, there is more variation. The
perception of government effectiveness in relation to addressing corruption appears to have increased in
Armenia, Cambodia, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Luxembourg, the
Netherlands and Norway. While the perception of government effectiveness appears to have decreased in
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Greece, Malaysia, Panama, the Philippines, Senegal, Spain, Thailand, Turkey
and Venezuela.
In 2009, a slightly higher percentage of respondents, 18 per cent, compared to 13 per cent in 2007, felt
unable to rate their government’s performance in the fight against corruption.
Comparing how people’s views of government anti-corruption efforts changed between 2007 and 2009 on
a regional basis. One result is clear: people in the Western Balkans + Turkey felt increasingly frustrated
with their governments’ actions, or lack thereof. Respondents in Newly Independent States+ felt more
confident about their governments’ anti-corruption efforts, as did those in North America. The North
American results seem to reflect a polarization of opinion, though, as there was an even larger increase in
the percentage of respondents rating government efforts as ineffective.
5.0. Good governance begins at home
The poorest countries suffer most under the yoke of corruption. And it is ultimately their responsibility to
tackle the problem. The first order of business is to improve transparency in financial management, from
revenue collection to expenditure, as well as strengthening oversight and putting an end to the impunity of
corrupt officials.
There is an urgent need to have a regulatory framework on finances of the private sector, political parties
and al stakeholders in government and that the rules must be clear, accessible and fair between all political
payers. This will in the long run have a positive effect in reducing corruption in the various institutions in
government. The private sector, political parties, civil society, interest groups and governemdnt officials
must live under a transparency banner.
An independent and professional judicial system is critical to ending impunity and enforcing the impartial
rule of law, to promoting public, donor and investor confidence. If courts cannot be relied upon to pursue
corrupt officials or to assist in tracing and returning illicit wealth, progress against corruption is unlikely.
Partnering with civil society and citizens is another essential strategy for developing countries seeking to
strengthen the accountability of government. Civil society organizations play a vital watchdog role, can help
stimulate demand for reform and also bring in expertise on technical issues. But, increasingly, many
governments are moving to restrict the operating space of civil society.”
6.0 The 2009 GCB in the context of Zambia
The recent revelations by Anti-Corruption Commission in unearthing a scam involving over K10 billion
Kwacha in which senior Ministry of Health officials and many others have been implicated is symptomatic
of how entrenched corruption has become in civil service. This is evidence that corruption has become
systemic and endemic and it serves as a vivid reminder to all on the need to evaluate the fight against
corruption as a country.
The Results indicated in the 2009 barometer around the world continues to pose as a challenge to all
concerned citizens that corruption is a major problem that poses a huge risk to the development of Zambia.
We wish to state as TIZ that we are very worried on the increasing levels of corruption in the six institutions
surveyed and we would want to see improvements in future especially . We would like to see more action
taken on corruption in terms of prevention and prosecution.
We all need to take pro-active and personal responsibility in the fight against corruption and much more
needs to be achieved if we are to translate political will by government into sustainable and tangible
7.0 Recommendations
Transparency International worldwide this year makes the following recommendation;
a) Developing countries should use aid money to strengthen their governance institutions, guided by
national assessments and development strategies, and to incorporate strengthened integrity and
corruption prevention as an integral part of poverty reduction programmes.
b) Judicial independence, integrity and accountability must be enhanced to improve the credibility of
justice systems in poorer countries. Not only must be judicial proceedings be freed of political
influence, judges themselves must subject to disciplinary rules, limited immunity and a code of
judicial conduct to help ensure that justice is served. A clean and capable judiciary is essential if
developing countries are to manage requests for assistance in the recovery of stolen assets from
c) Governments must introduce anti-money laundering measures to eradicate safe havens for stolen
assets, as prescribed by the UNCAC to curb Private sector corruption. Leading banking centres
should explore the development of uniform expedited procedures for the identification, freezing and
repatriation of the proceeds of corruption. Clear escrow provisions for disputed funds are essential.
d) In the case of Zambia, TI Zambia wishes to urge the Government to quickly begin the
implementation process of the long awaited national anti corruption policy and domestication of the
UN Convention Against Corruption.
e) We also recommend that there is need for the Government to start taking action on numerous
reports of corruption. Government should equally move with haste on a number of policy, legal and
institutional reforms. The proposed amendments to the Anti-Corruption Commission Act have
remained unattended to for a long time now.
f) TIZ agrees that the Anti-Corruption Commission should be the leading institution in the fight
against corruption but a lot still needs to be done before the Commission attains this status and
therefore urge Government to use the July 2007 sitting of Parliament to ensure that the proposed
amendments are tabled and enacted after further reviews of the draft bill are done now.
g) It is also necessary that Government consults widely on the ACC Amendment Bill and various legal
reforms necessary to enhance the fight against corruption. It will not help Government to sneak into
Parliament an Amendment bill that has not been widely discussed and commented on by
stakeholders and the general public. The fight against corruption cannot be won by Government or
the ACC alone – but through collective efforts involving as many Zambians as possible.
7.0. Conclusion and TI-Z Commitment
The Global Corruption Barometer offers policy makers, business and the anti-corruption community a
unique opportunity to assess over time the state corruption, as reflected in the opinions and experiences of
ordinary people.
The 2009 Global Corruption Barometer shows that bribery levels around the world are still too high: around
10 per cent of the general public reported paying a bribe in the previous year, and the most vulnerable
appear to be hardest hit. What is more, incidences of petty bribery appear to have increased rather than
decreased in several countries since 2005.
Just as Huguette Labelle, Chair, Transparency International says, “ While this skeptical view is no doubt a
reflection of the widespread lack of transparency that contributed to the financial crisis that began in 2008,
there is some good news on the horizon. Respondents from most countries reported that they are willing to
pay a premium for clean business. Companies should take note: there is a market value in adhering to the
highest standards of anti-corruption in word and deed. We as Zambians are taking TI statement on looking
at ways of reducing corruption at all levels.
Lastly, we wish to reiterate that Transparency International Zambia remains fully committed to fighting
corruption in Zambia and supporting any viable and articulate initiatives. We shall also remain vigilant and
ensure that strategies in fighting corruption remain focussed. This is why TI-Z’s continues to have the
vision to attain ‘A Zambia anchored on citizens and institutions of integrity.’
I Thank you.
Reuben Lifuka
Transparency International Zambia- Chapter President

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