International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 16 December 1966
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49


The States Parties to the present Covenant,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Recognizing that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human person,

Recognizing that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his economic, social and cultural rights,

Considering the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,

Realizing that the individual, having duties to other individuals and to the community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,

Agree upon the following articles:


Article 1

1. All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social and cultural development.

2. All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its own means of subsistence.

3. The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having responsibility for the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.


States not members of the Covenant

The majority of states in the world are parties to the ICCPR. As of March 2012 the following 25 states have either not yet signed the convention, or have signed but have not yet ratified the convention.[88]

Signed but not ratified[edit source | editbeta]

  1.  People’s Republic of China (1998-10-05)[notes 1]
  2.  Comoros (2008-09-25)
  3.  Cuba (2008-02-28)
  4.  Nauru (2001-11-12)
  5.  Palau (2011-09-20)
  6.  Sao Tome and Principe (1995-10-31)
  7.  Saint Lucia (2011-09-22)

Neither signed nor ratified[edit source | editbeta]

  1.  Antigua and Barbuda
  2.  Bhutan
  3.  Brunei
  4.  Burma (Myanmar)
  5.  Fiji
  6.  Kiribati
  7.  Malaysia
  8.  Marshall Islands
  9.  Federated States of Micronesia
  10.  Oman

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