ASEAN leaders are complaining about the convenient way to solve the Rohingya problem.

But for the Rohingyas or Burmese Muslims or Christian Chins/Karens/Kachins and Buddhist Mons/Shans/Burmese etc AND the NLDS  and political opponents and armed rebel groups_

Whether the SPDC would accept them back is not their main concern. What is the consequences after repatriation is their only problem.

Jailed? Tortured? Is the main concern for all but ‘Village arrest’ (for Rohingyas only) is the problem.

No democracy, no Human Rights, no political life, no respect for the Rights of religious minorities and Ethnic minorities is their main concern.

But the lack of development, economic problems back home are the most important fact for all of them.


Continue reading

March 27 Myanmar Military day message

  March 27 Myanmar Military day message

Modified and edited the original letter, Arrogance? Never again”, by Tanya  in the Malaysiakini .

I have edited and adapted to the Myanmar context from the original article. I hope that Tanya and Malaysiakini could understand and forgive us for this. They should even be proud that they could contribute a very good article for the fellow Myanmar/Burmese citizens.

The absolute power of the successive ruling Tatmadaw Junta Generals corrupted them absolutely and their hubris led to their downfall.

The military dictators ravaged Myanmar/Burma for over 46 years, taking away our right to free speech, instilling fear, corrupting the country to the core, and depriving us of the wealth of this country by allowing it as largesse for his cronies. The ruling top senior general’s arrogance filtered down to the `little Napoleon generals’ who outdid him in his arrogance in implementing his will.

One of the greatest crime of the Sr General Than Shwe was the crime of ‘commission by omission’. He also let his greedy family enrich themselves at the country’s expense. However, I still do think he is a cut above the diabolical council of Tatmadaw’s crooks.

Cronies sat down and wagged their tails, happy that they got the crumbs from the table.

Dear Senior General, with all the wealth that you have now, and after all these years of your so-called “service to your people and country”, did you manage to buy peace of mind and dignity in your old age?

General Ne Win was the kind of shameless and under-handed leader we have had for over twenty years. He and his band of brigand cabinet ministers rode roughshod over the people, especially the non-Burmese, very often with barely concealed contempt for them, and most often with open contempt. His was the legacy that was continued during the days of the Than Shwe.

I call on all Myanmar/Burmese citizens from today to never, never, ever again tolerate the kind of arrogance we have been subjected to all these years at the hands of these fellows who have been mistakenly thinking they are our lords and masters. From today we will reclaim our birthright, which includes the right to liberty, freedom of expression and equality before the law. And we will remind the despicable autocrats that they have been put in their positions to serve and deliver, as our servants. They will listen when we speak our minds.

Tatmadaw Yebaws or military rank and file have been made pawns in the game played by these heartless; morally bankrupt generals, solely for the purpose of enriching and empowering themselves.

I am saying this from the bottom of my heart: if the Tatmadaw wants to be a strong and respected force that counts on the global stage, if they want their progeny to be a generation of winners, then they don’t need such generals. All they need is to believe in themselves, claim their pride and dignity, and compete on a level playing field with the civilians. I sincerely believe they can do this. Just go for it.

Most crucial at this juncture is that the delicate balance of racial and religious harmony is maintained. Without that everything else will be futile.

The Myanmar Tatmadaw will go all out to turn the Bamas against the other races. They must never succeed in this. Let us not be deceived by the Tatmadaw generals’ lies and start to distrust each other. If we work for the common good, we can ensure that all of us, will prosper. Isn’t that what we all want?

I would like to exhort all Tatmadaw rank and files not to let these evil generals poison your minds against the other minority races and minority religious persons.

If we let those generals win at their game we will all become abject losers. Above all, let us all have generous hearts. Let us not believe in the adage ‘beggar thy neighbour’. On the contrary let us believe in ‘prosper thy neighbour’. Together we will prevail.

Note: Rank and file (Idiom) =

  • Followers,
  • the general membership.

This expression comes from the military, where_

  • a rank denotes soldiers standing side by side in a row,
  • and file refers to soldiers standing behind one another.

The first recorded figurative use of this term was in 1860. 

e.g. This new senator really appeals to the rank and file in the labor unions.


Troubling times

Troubling times

Modified and edited the original comment written By P RAMAKRISHNAN . He is Aliran president and this article first appeared in Aliran Monthly and reprinted in Malaysiakini.

I have edited and adapted to the Myanmar context from the original article P RAMAKRISHNAN . I hope that the P RAMAKRISHNAN  and Aliran  could understand and forgive us for this. They should even be proud that they could contribute a very good article for the fellow Myanmar/Burmese citizens

The silent majority must wake up and take a stand against chauvinistic Myanmar Military who are using race and religion to stir the cauldron. These are troubling times and we have every reason to be troubled. Race and religion seem to be running riot and upsetting the equilibrium of our lives and portending a dangerous future for Myanmar/Burma.

Race and religion can cause discomfort and disquiet. They can be a very potent force that can threaten and shatter our fragile unity, undo our common efforts to live in peace and harmony.

We have witnessed these many months how unscrupulous people have used the issues of race and religion for their selfish ends without any consideration for the welfare of the country.

It is indeed sad that more than half-a-century of nationhood has not produced a common citizenry. We are still compartmentalised into our ethnic identities in so many ways. Whether it is your birth certificate, National Registration card, application forms, registering for an examination, getting married – whatever you do in Myanmar – you are forced to identify yourself along ethnic and religious lines.

It is only when we apply for passports to leave the country that most of us can identify ourself as a Myanmars. But once we return Myanmar, we lose that identity.

We should not be subjected to this moral shame. It is demeaning and undignified that I should leave the country as a Myanmar and return home as an Indian mixed blooded (read migrant).

Why is it so difficult to forge a common nationhood?

Shouldn’t that be the natural consequence of independence?

Wasn’t that the dream of our forefathers that eventually we would evolve into a nation with a common destiny, remaining true to our  Country?

But that was not to be so. Selfish communal politicians and Military leaders made sure that it is in their interest to keep the various races and religions apart. They never stopped stirring the cauldron of hate; they made sure that intolerance and prejudice would be there at all times, smouldering and simmering.

Stirring the cauldron

It was only recently that we witnessed how extreme the situation has become. It was shocking that so much venom was spewed with such impunity in the General Ne Win’s BSPP party convention prior to the formulation of the new Immigration Law, which was termed as ‘the most racially charged Tatmadaw event in years, shocking many people who read the proceedings and the apple-polisher newspaper articles, comments and editorials calling the Burmese Muslims, “Kala dein” or spawns of Indians and “Mi Ma Sit_Pha Ma Sit”, in Burmese meaning BASTARDS.

No one intervened to stop them from expressing so much antagonism, anger and hatred. Nobody chided them for their unbridled tirade. But, on the other hand, there was much cheering and approval for what was said.

Clearly some of the things that were said were without doubt seditious. They had a tendency to inflame emotions and provoke passions.

Actually every human being is willing to risk lives and bathe in blood in defense of race and religion. Don’t play with fire Tatmadaw leaders. If you mess with our rights, we will mess with yours.

 ‘When tension rises, the blood of Jehadist warriors could run in our veins’. And Burmese Muslims’ thread of driving the cars full with petrol tanks and jerry cans into the Buddhists homes and set the whole city on fire as the revenge had made the Military leaders, agitators and provocateurs to stop their plan to create more anti-Muslim riots.

 ‘Don’t test the patience of the Burmese Muslims and don’t play with fire’.

Japanese Bushido Samurais believe that once ‘You have unsheathed the knife KATANA, you must use it’

It was so bad and shocking that the level of open debate on issues relating to race and religion was worryingly threatening Myanmar Muslims. But it appeared that we were helpless to put a stop to this very damaging rhetoric that had a field day in Myanmar up to the present!

Insensitive, irresponsible

The remarks are intolerably rude, crude and insulting.

The hate-filled sentiments at the assembly, was regrettable and the whole Burma/Myanmar is shrouded in an atmosphere of fiery and emotional sentiments, remarks that were more poisonous and unreasonable.

They could raise issues of race, religion and citizenship. That is every government or leader’s rights. But the Myanmar Military leaders should not attack or hurt the feelings of other communities while highlighting the problems of one particular community…You think it’s very clever, but it hurts people’s feelings…Don’t do anything that will provoke.

The unkind debates over the mixed blooded Kala Deins are the cause for concern for all of us.

But it should not be viewed as if only the Myanmar-Muslims were upset and angry with what transpired Myanmar. A vast majority of well-meaning Burmese, both Buddhists, true monks and non-Muslims, were aghast that the Myanmar Military Junta and Military Intelligence or MI could have descended to such an atrocious level. They were disappointed that a dominant ruling Military Junta leaders could be so insensitive and irresponsible in dehumanising and demonising the fellow Muslim citizens.

Religious ultras, opportunistic politicians

While the racial approach is being played contemptuously, the religious approach is gaining a frightening momentum. It is fanned by the ultra-conservatives and opportunistic Military Generals who are hell-bent on changing the way of life that we have been accustomed to. They have gone into top gear to bring about changes that will ultimately affect all those who disagree with them by denying the very rights that are guaranteed under the old constitution and the late General Aung San.

Knowing that it is Tatmadaw that dictates policies and sets the directions of the country, citizens have cause to worry. Military Junta’s decisions become national policies with no regard for the majority opinion at the national level.

It is difficult to comprehend the reasoning for this uncompromising stand. They proclaim that Islam is in the assault mode on Buddhism but produce no evidence.

We wonder how is it possible to have mature democracies in the uncivilised military dominated Myanmar.

How is it there can be so much tolerance and mutual respect elsewhere that seems to be lacking here?

No problem before

There were no racial problem nor tensions before 1930 when the Bamas used the Nationalistic Spirit against the Indians and Muslims as a smoke-shield to start a revolution against Colonial rulers, British. Actually most of the Burmese Citizens had accepted the, One God, Many Paths, reflecting the viewpoints of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Science.

Since then, things have taken a dramatic turn for the worse. It has become so intolerable that what used to be a natural thing as wishing and greeting one another during festive occasions and even visiting houses were abandoned in some towns.

Time to wake up

If we take a careful look at the way things are evolving, it reveals a minority vocal group in influential positions in the Myanmar Tatmadaw and MI who are dictating terms and deciding policies against Muslims of Myanmar. And as long as the majority who disagree with them stay sullen and silent, things will not get better – it will only become worse.

That is why it is necessary for the majority of Burmese to realise that unless we get together and take a common stand against the forces that pose a clear danger to our ethnic relations and harmony, we stand to lose all that we cherish.

Well-meaning people must get involved in this effort all over the country and send forth a clear message that if the present Military Junta leaders do not change, then we must change them for the good of the nation. We must not hesitate but act seriously and bravely.

Let us draw strength and hope from this saying:

‘It is from the numberless diverse acts of courage and belief that human history is shaped.

Each time a man stands up for an ideal or acts to improve the lot of others or strikes out against injustice, he sends forth a tiny ripple of hope, and crossing each other from a million different centres of energy and daring, those ripples build a current that can sweep down the mightiest walls of oppression and resistance.

Don’t cry for me grandpa, Minister Mentor

Don’t cry for me grandpa, Minister Mentor


There is a Burmese saying_

Kyaw poo dar_khan naing thee

Naar poo dar_ma khan naing”.

  • Most of the peaple could bear the heat on the back of the body (prefer to work hard even under the sun)
  • but could not stand the (heat/ pressure) in the ears (read: brain / stress / undue pressure from the boss).

Some of us could prefer to work hard but could not stand the mental torture, pressure, or stress.

Yes! Even our Prophet (PBUH) had taught us_

If you do not want to donate to a beggar, use polite words to apologize.

But never insult the beggar even after you donated a large some of money.

Getting / money or not is far less important than getting an insult.

Money goes into the pocket only but the insult goes deep into our hearts.

So feeding the human’s mental ego is sometimes more important than just feeding the mouths.

Successive Burmese Governments used to discriminate us as foreigners, migrants, mixed blooded persons, Kalas (Migrant Indians/Indians), Kala Dein (Indian descendent)  and “Mi Ma Sit_Pha Ma Sit”. (The words meaning Bastards used by the the Burmese Chinese General Ne Win on Burmese Muslims. I think he never look at his own BASTARD FACE in the mirror!)

Most of us emigrated (migrated out) and left Myanmar not because of economic reason. As the professionals we could earn enough to stay in upper-middle strata in Myanmar and could earn some respect not only from the non-Muslims but from the Monks and even from the Military authorities. We just hate the unfair general discrimination on our race and religion. (As all the Military leaders are corrupt, we could even do anything in Myanmar after paying bribes. If the payment is good enough we could even get their daughter’s hands.)

Once the governments could fulfill (actually all the government leaders wrongly thought like that! They think they had done favours on their on citizens but actually the people are the masters of the governments. Although the governments’ policy and guidance  are important, it is the people who really works hard to achieve every thing for the country. And the give the salaries, of cause from their tax money, to those political leaders.) the physical and psycological needs of its citizens_

Food, shelter, clothing, employment is important but should understand that they also should take care of their social, mental and psycological needs.


Just read the following article.

Don’t cry for me grandpa Lee,

Goodbye and thank you

Excerpts from article by SEAH CHIANG NEE.  Singapore’s emigration rate, one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis, is a blow to the government.

YEARS of strong economic growth have failed to stem Singapore’s skilled youths from leaving for a better life abroad, with the number topping 1,000 a year. 

This works out to 4%-5%, or three in 10, of the highly educated population, a severe brain drain for a small, young nation, according to Minister Mentor Lee Kuan Yew. 

Such high-end emigration is usually associated with less better-off countries where living conditions are poor. Here the opposite is the case. 

The future doesn’t look better, either, despite Lee holding out promises of “a golden period” in the next five to 10 years. 

The emigration rate, one of the highest in the world on a per capita basis, is a blow to the government, particularly to Lee, who takes pride in building up this once poor squatter colony into a glittering global city. 

They are people who abandoned their citizenship for a foreign one, mostly in Australia, the United States and Canada. 

The emigrants, mostly professionals, don’t leave Singapore out of poverty but to seek a better, less pressurised life.  

Lee recently said the brain drain is touching close to this family. 

Lee’s grandson, the elder son of Prime Minister Hsien Loong, who is studying in the United States, has indicated that he may not return.  

Over the years, the children of several Cabinet ministers have also made Britain or the US their home.  

Lee, aged 84, has often spoken on the issue with emotions, once tearing when referring to the losses.  

However, he has offered no reasons for the exodus beyond economic opportunities, although the government more or less knows what they are.  

Singaporeans who have or are planning to emigrate are given a host of 10 questions and asked to tick the three most important ones. They include the following: –  

> High costs of living 

> Singapore is too regulated and stifling 

> Better career and prospects overseas 

> Prefer a more relaxed lifestyle 

> Uncertain future of Singapore. 

Some liberal Singaporeans believe Lee himself, with his authoritarian leadership and unpopular policies, is largely to blame.  

Singapore’s best-known writer Catherine Lim calls it a climate of fear that stops citizens from speaking out against the government.

Globalisation, which offers opportunities in many countries like never before, is a big reason for the outflow.  

Many countries, including populous China, are making a special effort to attract foreign talent. 

Others who leave were worried about the future of their children living in a small island, and look for security and comfort of a larger country. 

The exodus is more than made up – at least in numbers – by a larger intake of professionals from China and India. 

“The trouble is many of the Chinese then use us as a stepping stone to go to America, where the grass is greener, Lee said. 

Some feel the large presence of foreigners, and the perks they enjoy over locals in military exemption as well as in scholarships, are themselves strong push factors.  

They see the foreigners as a threat to jobs and space, undermining salaries and loosening the nation’s cohesion. 

“I just feel very sad to see the Singapore of today with so many talented, passionate Singaporeans moving out and being replaced by many foreigners,” said one blogger. “I feel sorry for the future.” (Me too, for Myanmar.)

Lee recently made a passionate appeal to youths to think hard about their country. He said they had received education and opportunities provided by Singaporeans who had worked hard for it. 

“Can you in good conscience say, ‘Goodbye! Thank you very much?’ Can you leave with a clear conscience? I cannot,” he said.  

But many Burmese just need to say this even although they could not get the same kind of welcome from their host countries. Some need to work illegally, some as refugees and many professionals have to do the manual works. So you Singaporeans are luckier than us. Just leave the old grandpa enjoy his own great authority on new comers, or new immigrants.



Person of Indian Origin outside India

Person of Indian Origin and

Non-resident Indian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.


A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian.[citation needed] In common usage, this often includes Indian born individuals (and also people of other nations with Indian blood) who have taken the citizenship of other countries.

A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) is usually a person of Indian origin who is not a citizen of India. For the purposes of issuing a PIO Card, the Indian government considers anyone of Indian origins up to four generations removed, to be a PIO. [1]. Spouses of people entitled to a PIO card in their own right can also carry PIO cards. This latter category includes foreign spouses of Indian nationals, regardless of ethnic origin. PIO Cards exempt holders from many restrictions applying to foreign nationals, such as visa and work permit requirements, along with certain other economic limitations.

The NRI and PIO population across the world is estimated at over 30 million (not including Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan or Roma diaspora).

The Indian government recently introduced the “Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI)” scheme in order to allow a limited form of dual citizenship to Indians, NRIs and PIOs for the first time since independence in 1947. It is expected that the PIO Card scheme will be phased out in coming years in favour of OCI.


Pravasi Bharatiya Divas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.

The Government of India recognizes the first week of January as the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (Hindi: Pravasi – Non-resident or diaspora, Bharatiya – Indian, Divas – day). The occasion is marked by special programs to recognize the contributions of NRI/PIO individuals of exceptional merit, felicitate NRI/PIO individuals who have made exceptional contribution in their chosen field/profession (Pravasi Bharatiya Samman (Hindi: NRI/PIO Award)) and provide a forum to discuss issues and concerns that people of the diaspora.

The event has been organized every year since 2003, and is sponsored by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs and the FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry). The 2005 edition was organized from 7th to 9th January in Mumbai.

 See also

Pravasi Bharatiya Samman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pravasi Bharatiya Samman is an award constituted by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs in conjunction with the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, to honor exceptional and meritorious contribution in their chosen field/profession. The award is given by the President of India. Please continue to read the detail in Wikipedia.

Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin

Total population
25 million
Regions with significant populations
Largest ethnic group
 United Arab Emirates 1,300,000
 Mauritius 855,000
 Trinidad and Tobago 525,000
 Guyana 327,000
 Suriname 175,000
Major ethnic group
 Nepal 4,000,000
 Malaysia 2,400,000
 Burma 2,000,000
 Saudi Arabia 1,500,000
 Kuwait 400,000
 Fiji 340,000
 Singapore 320,000
Minor ethnic group
 United States 2,200,000
 United Kingdom 1,400,000
 South Africa 1,160,000
 Canada 960,000
 Oman 450,000
 France 330,000 [1]
 Australia 235,000
 Netherlands 217,000
 New Zealand 105,000
 Philippines 80,000
 Germany 80,000
 Indonesia 60,000
 Jamaica 60,000
 Hong Kong 50,000
Indian languages, English
Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism

Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VIII

Factors that influenced

the evolution of Burma Part VIII


Shan (also known as  Tai) lived independently up north round about 650 B.C. in China at the lower part of the Yangtze River.

1. Shan’s (also known as Tai) migrated down through the present day Yunnan and desended further down into our  Burma and settled in the Shan Plateau.

2. A large group of them made a detour U turn and went up north and climbed the Tibet hills and stayed there forming the Tibeto-Burman ancestors of the whole region.

3. One group continued their journey west, up to the present day Rakhine.

4. Another group even decided to continue the long march up into the present day north eastern part of India.

5. One of the group continued south in Burma and settled in lower Burma closely with Mon and  Kayins.

6. Few of them decided to continue to just stay-put in the present day Yunnan.

7. One group broke away from all others and decided to go straight southwards and settled in present Thailand.

8. One of them also broke away from all and moved to the east, settling in present day Lao and Cambodia. Actually they are a little bit different, some had more of the Chinese blood and some even have mixed blood with Khamars and some even went further and said to be settled in Viet Nam.

9. One of the group, known as Thet mixed the Pyus and their decedents are part of the ancestors of Bamars.

10. Some of the ethnic group who made a detour U turn and went up north and climbs the Tibet hills later, came down and they were known as Kan Yan and formed one of the ancestors of Bama .

11. At last intermarriage of the groups who were the descendents of Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet give rise to my present day Bama ethnic group.

Note (A): the long march travelers of Shan came down in different times in batches. Because it happened in the prehistoric times, I have searched and collected data, and made it simple and easy from:

  1. the folk tales of our Ethnic Minorities,
  2. the old records of Chinese and Indian travelers’ chronicles,
  3. Thailand and Khmer chronicles,
  4. from Hman Nan Yar Za Won, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma (Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.),
  5. Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) “Chin, Myu and Khumi, Notthern Rakhine” in Myanmar Magazine Kalya 1994 August and other publications
  6. and HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia
  7. and Burma’s old history text books published by Burmese Education Ministry.

I hereby wish to go into some details of what I had given as a gist above: Shan’s other cousins descended from the same ancestors, now inhabit northeast Assam or Asom in India.

Note (B) : they established the Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed_

  • indescribable cruelties
  • and barbarities  as to
  • annihilate something like 2/3 of the population
  • and certainly 1/3 of the men and boys
  • disemboweling them,
  • eating their flesh
  • and burning them alive in cages
  • to intimidate
  • and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam, India.

Edward Albert Gait’s “A history of Assam” book, published by Thacker, Spink in1963 at Calcutta

This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British.

Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao  568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese). Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.

DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA”. Tiger Yawnghwe or His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Pha; he is the eldest son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the former Saopha[Prince] of Yawnghwe[Nyaung-Shwe] and the first President of Burma after Burma’s Independence from British colonial rule. Interview with Dr Tayza, Chief Editor of Burma Digest.

Some groups of Shan settled along the way, at  Yunnan in the north east of Burma. Some mixed blooded with Chinese and Khamar, went to the east and founded the Laos and  Cambodia. Others went down to the southeast and settled in Thailand. No wonder Thailand was known as Siam or we could even easily understand it is just a slang of Shan.

Shans were  gradually pushed south, at about the beginning of the Christian era by the advancement of the Tar Tars. About 650 A.D. one group of Shans formed a powerful country at Nan Chao, now known as Yunnan.

Nan Chao Shans were quite powerful and could resist Chinese attempts at conquest until 1253.

During the years 754 to 763 A.D. the Nan Chao Shans extended their rule even up to the upper basin of the Irrawaddy River and came into contact with the Pyu.

Pyu was one of three ancestors who founded our Burma: viz, Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet. Pyu was then the ruler of the Upper  Burmese Plains.

Some of Shan’s descendents ventured beyond Upper Burma into Lower Burma to mingle and live together with the Mons.

During the heydays of the Nan Chao Shans, some of them had even crossed Upper Burma to reach far west and established the once powerful Ahom Shan Kingdom, in the northeastern part of India, now known as Assam or Assom , as stated above.

Shans had moved into the area now known as the Shan Pyae of Burma in large numbers and settled down and were well established by the time our first Burmese King Anawrahta ascended his throne in 1st century.

Nan Chao  Shans tried desperately to defend their Nan Chao  kingdom from the Chinese attackers, but in 1253 the Nan Chao Kingdom fell. Some of the Nan Chao Shans, unwilling to live under foreign domination there; move towards the south in strength, to seek freedom in present day Tailand area.

They joined forces with the other Shans, who had already settled in that area, and in 1262 took over Chiang Rai, in 1296 Chiang Mai and in 1315 took Ayuddhaya, and established their own kingdoms.

In Upper Burma the Shans established the kingdoms of Mo Gaung (Mong Kawng), and Mo Hnyin (Mong Yang), and in the Shweli basin, the Mao Kingdom.

Anawrahta ruled the Pagan  for 43 year. He was able to unify the whole Burma under his rule for the first time in history.

During this time he sent his armed villagers into the Shan’s kingdoms to help ensure the security of his Pagan Kingdom. However, he had no intention of annexing or taking over of the Shan’s kingdoms. He merely wished to defend the low lying plains of his Burma from raids by the Shan’s disgruntled militias. For this purpose he established a string of fortified towns along the length of the foothills.

Relations between Shan and Burma became friendlier under Anawrahta’s successors , but the Burmese Pagan fell to the attackers from China in 1287 A. D. and was destroyed.

Then in 1312 A. D. one of the groups of Shans took the kingly Title of “Thihathu” and ascended as the Burmese king or throned in Pinya.

The (Mao) Shans, who had established kingdoms in Mo Hnyin, Mo Gaung and the Shweli areas then overran the villages of Pinya and Sagaing in 1364 A.D.

After they had withdrawn, Shan’s from Ava, whose title was Thadominbya, combined Pinya and Sagaing and established a new Kingdom, over which he ruled.

So Shans effectively became Kings in Burma from 1282 A.D. to 1531 A.D.

In 1527 A.D. due to the attacks of the Mo Hnyin Saw Bwa on Ava, the Shan’s and U Burmese of the area left their homes and descended southwards towards Toungoo, where they established a new kingdom.

Thohanbwa, the son of the Moehnyin Saw Bwa, who became the King of Ava, was soon assassinated due to his lack of skill in statecraft and administration, and in 1543 A.D. Onbaung Khun Maing succeeded him as the King.

Meanwhile from Toungoo Kingdom, in the year 1555 A.D. King Bayinnaung succeeded in unifying the whole of Burma  for the second time in our history.

He was able to “persuade’ the Shan Saw Bwa to submit his suzerainty. In accordance with the traditions of the earlier Burmese Kings, the administrative setup was that the Shan Saw Bwas who submitted to the suzerainty of the Burmese King retained full powers to rule over their kingdom. This relationship was based on mutual respect.

The military forces of Burma included contingents of Shan soldiers who proved their valour on the foreign battlefields.

That is how Shan and Burmese descendents had lived closely together, like brethren, till the fall of Upper Burma in 1886.

Then the Shan Saw Bwas, with the intention of restoring freedom to Burma and to the Shan State, chose the Burmese Princes Limbin and Saw Yan Naing to head their alliance, and started waging war against the colonialism.

(I hereby acknowledged that I have adapted the above facts from the Shan Herald Agency News’ Shan State Affairs section, Shan History.)

We could see in the above mentioned era how Shans  migrated and grew mightier. We should study how political, economical, social and philosophical patterns changed according to their coming.

To sum up again, after the fall of Bagan , Ava kingdom was built in 1364 M.E.

Subsequently, until Pinya, Sagaing and Myinsaing  eras, the power of Bagan collapsed and rebellious small kingdoms spread. When the invading conqueror Shans came across Burmese, they accepted the Buddhist cultures and Burmese cultures.

In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

I adapted this last paragraph from the “Story of Myanmar told in pictures” by Dr Than Tun and translated by Maung Win War.

Anyway no one is sure the source of Shan ancestors’ conversion to Buddhism. We should consider the fact that Shans had very good relations with Mon and Khamars. Shans could even get the Buddhism directly from them.

We could see that Shan Pagodas look more like Thai and Cambodia Pagodas than our Burmese. from (

This episode of the history, Shans’ conquering over the  Burma, which our successive Bama governments’ history text books just used to mention one line only and skipped forward to the glorious Burmese warrior Toungoo King Baying Naung who successfully established the 2nd Bama Empire.

The same thing happened to the conqueror Tar Tars. They took over Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and they killed millions of the men and children but married those Muslim women.

Their new wives strangely converted them into Islam and they accepted the Islamic cultures. In this case also, as the saying goes, ‘conquerors are conquered’.

And those Tar Tar/Turk descendents’ armies invaded Afghanistan, India subcontinent (future India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.) and established the Moghol Islamic Empire.

So the Central Asia Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Yunan Chinese Muslims and Burma’s Chinese Muslims or Panthays and many of the Burmese Muslims are also their descendents. Even the Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia got Islam from those Chinese Muslims.

Ko Tin Nwe @ BO AUNG DIN

Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V

Factors that influenced

the evolution of Burma Part V


Early History of Burma_

Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.

The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains).

With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma. Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.

The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman’n’adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.

The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.

The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries.

About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.

The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

Mon kingdoms

A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states.

These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai หงสาวดี Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma.

Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy )

Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon.

According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD. It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries.

The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056.

After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence.

From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma. The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.  

See also_

  1. Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I
  2. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part II
  3. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III
  4. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part IV
  5. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V
  6. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI
  7. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VII
  8. The Golden days of the Great Mon Empire I
  9. Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire
  10. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
  11. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
  12. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
  13. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
  14. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
  15. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII

Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III

 Factors that influenced

the evolution of Burma Part III

 Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma


Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

Andhra Dynasty

Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

Talaings or Mons

Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India.

They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar.

They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues).

The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history. It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.


The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west.

During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey. The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy  to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.

Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states  and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.

The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

India and Arakan Intercourse

Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras

“The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.

In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).

This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually;

the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,

  • … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;
  • … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal 
  • … Both government and people were Indian.
  • It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.
  • Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.

The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent.

His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra.

Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD. Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung

The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.

  1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,
  2. “Tsit-ta-gung”
  3. meaning “there shall be no war”.
  4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.
Chittagong under Arakanese rule

Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

See also_

  1. Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I
  2. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part II
  3. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III
  4. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part IV
  5. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V
  6. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI
  7. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VII
  8. The Golden days of the Great Mon Empire I
  9. Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire
  10. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
  11. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
  12. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
  13. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
  14. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
  15. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII

Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I

Basic factors that influenced

the evolution of Burma Part I

1. Geographical factor 

Burma: “The highway between India and China” India and China are the world’s biggest and ancient cradle of civilizations. High, snow peaked, rough and steep Himalaya mountain ranges block the direct interaction or travelling between the two of them except for the virtual highway through Myanmar/Burma. So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc moving along this Burma Highway and some of them settled in Burma.

In the official Thailand History books, they even claim that all of the Tibeto-Burman groups including Tibet came down from Yunnan stressing that Tibet had made an almost U turn and climbed beck onto the Tibet Highlands.

There was the Burma Road which linked Burma and China. Its terminals are Kunming in China and Lashio in Burma. The road is about 1,130 kilometres long and runs through rough mountain country. General Merrill and General Stillwell built during the colonial times under British. When the Japanese overran sections of the Burma Road the Allies built the Ledo Road, also later known as the Stillwell Road. Ledo Road was built from Ledo in Assam into the Hukawng Valley as an alternative to the Burma Road. It was completed in January 1945 and was renamed Stilwell Road by Chiang Kai-shek. Now China and India are negotiating with Myanmar to build a modern high way liking their countries through Burma including to lay natural gas pipe line from Rakhine to India, Yunnan, China.

(Copied from my own contributions in Wikipedia)

And I would like to use data from Wikipedia and my old Dear Nan letters to continue this series of     


Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma.




A. Maps (Geography of Burma)       


(a) Effects of the Himalaya mountain range between China and India.









(b) Myanmar Neighbours, China and  India separated by Himilayan mountain ranges.


(c) Situation of Myanmar as a convenient highway between India and China


(d) Myanmar highway along the valleys with water-supply along it, connecting China and ASEAN.

Indonesians, Malays and Polynesians were believed to be the earliest migrants came down from Yunnan through Burma to their homelands in south.


(d) Strategic situation of Myanmar between its Neighbours (China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Laos)


(e) Myanmar in ASEAN.

Myanmar highway, connecting China and ASEAN. Indonesians, Malays and Polynesians were believed to be the earliest migrants came down from Yunnan through Burma to their homelands in south.





 (f) Orietation of Myanmar in the world map


(g) Burma or Myanmar















(h) Geography of Burma
Southeast Asia
22°00′N 98°00′E / 22, 98Coordinates: 22°00′N 98°00′E / 22, 98
Ranked 39th
678,500 km² (261,970.3 sq mi)
96.94% land
3.06 % water
Total land borders:
5876 km (3651.18 miles)
193 km (119.92 miles)
People’s Republic of China:
2185 km (1357.7 miles)
1463 km (909.07 miles)
235 km (146.02 miles)
1800 km (1118.47 miles)
Highest point
Hkakabo Razi
5881 m (19,294.62 feet)
Lowest point
Andaman Sea
0 m (0 feet)
(sea level)
Longest river
Ayeyarwady River
Largest lake
Indawgyi Lake

 The Encyclopedia of World History

From early times Burma came under Indian influence. By the 3rd century C.E., expanding Hindu peoples had established commercial settlements on the Tenasserim coast and at the principal river mouths, which developed small kingdoms in contact with the Tibeto-Burman tribes of the Irrawaddy Valley. Commercial relations with China were less influential, although an embassy from a Burmese state reached Ch’ang An in 802. (See Burma (Pagan)) See The Encyclopedia of World History.  2001.

Excerpts from the Dear Nan letters of my split personality to his wife.

Now China and India are negotiating with Shwe Bama villagers to build a modern high way liking their villages through our land. Recently Ko Ka Lar’s village chairman U Mus Lim went to Shwe Bama and signed an agreement to lay natural gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of our village to Ko Ka Lar’s village.

And there is already an agreement to connect the gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of the village to Ko Yu Nan’s village. So these high ways and pipelines would become the renaissance of our forefather’s migration.

Dear Nan, why are you very sensitive, I am just mentioning the coincidences but not supporting those pipe-lines. You already know that I supported your policy of sanctions on SPDC. If you are not short sighted, you could still read our Burma Digest’s strong condemnation of TOTAL in recent issues.

It is funny that those who play with fire and burnt sometimes blamed the fire. Recently one of the ASEAN PM complaint that their state owned oil company suffered some losses because of the sanctions in the host countries they operate. Then why did they foolishly decided to follow their greed to buy the shares of TOTAL and invested more than RM 4000 million in Myanmar/Burma oil exploration and refinery?

Instead of redeeming themselves by supporting the US, UK and EU led pressure on Myanmar Generals for the rapid democratization, they are still blocking them to give protection to those killer criminals? Giving protection to killer criminal illegal cruel rulers are guilty to the Laws of the human and God.

So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc moving along the road and some of them settled in our Shwe Bama Village as we are located along their high way through out the history.

Dear Nan, do you now accept the concept that our village was and still is a highway from west Ko Kala’s village to Ko Ta Yoke’s village in the north. People from Northwest of Ko Kala’s village came to our village through Ko Ya Khine’s village.

Since 500 BC Hindu Orrisa village colonists had migrated towards Southeast and settled in lower part of our Shwe Bama village. Later other migrant villagers from the Andhra Dynasty from Ko Kala’s village similarly migrated to our village in 180 BC. Some took the long march on land and then some had sailed here.

Your loving hubby (Ko Tin Nwe)


See also_

  1. Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I
  2. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part II
  3. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III
  4. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part IV
  5. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V
  6. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI
  7. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VII
  8. The Golden days of the Great Mon Empire I
  9. Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire
  10. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
  11. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
  12. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
  13. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
  14. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
  15. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII

Colonel Ba Shin

Colonel Ba Shin


Colonel Ba Shin, a noted historian, was a member of The Myanmar History Commission and Islamic Religious Affairs Council.

U Ba Shin was born in Ywarkauk, Pyinmanar in 1914. His parents were Principal U Hein and Daw Saw Yin. His wife was Daw Khin May Kyi (retired Lecturer from Zoology Department, Yangon University). Before the Second World War he studied in the Bachelor of Arts (Honours) class specializing in Inscription and Oriental History in Yangon University.

He worked under Professor G.H.Luce from 1935-40, at the Rangoon University Eastern and Burmese History Division. [1]He carried out research in Chinese – Myanmar relations of the Middle period and the history of Chinese – Myanmar inscriptions. He was promoted to an Assistant Lecturer in that department in 1940.[2]

In the military

During the Japanese occupation he was the Academic officer in the Asian Youth Organization. He also worked as the Education Officer of the Burma Defense Army.[3]

Later he became a Lt. Col. in the Military Division (4) of the Burma Army. He published Tine 4 (Forth Military Division) newspaper and wrote a book for the soldiers, European Economic History, explaining to the soldiers about the emergence of Capitalism.[4]

He wrote a Burmese history book for the Army and was published on January 4, 1948, Burma’s Independence day. The Education Ministry prescribed that book as high school textbook.[5]

After the war, he worked in the war office as the registration officer. After that he was appointed as the Burmese Military Attaché to London and could meet with international researchers and historians.[6]

While serving in military, he wrote military, cultural and history articles in Sit Nha Lone (Military Heart) journal and Myawaddy journals. He also wrote articles for children in Kha Lae (Children) journal and Light of Myanmar newspapers. He wrote military articles in Military Education journal.[7]He worked in the Myanmar Army until 1956.

Research works

In 1957 he joined the Burma Historical Commission as a Compiler. He wrote many English and Myanmar research papers in Bulletin of the Burma Historical Commission and many articles about racial and ethnic groups of Myanmar were written for the Myanmar Encyclopaedia. He wrote Lawkatheikpan in English and Myanmar before Anawrahta. One of his duties was to do detailed studies and research about Burmese history from AD 1300-1752.[8]

He was a Burmese Indian Muslim.[9]He could speak all the languages of Myanmar ethnic minorities.[10] He could also speak Mon Khmar, Tibet Bama, Thai, Chinese and many dialects of Indian language. [11] He could even understand the ancient Burmese and ancient Mon languages. Although he was a Muslim he was fluent in Pali language and especially Buddhist literatures written in Pali. [12]

He worked together with Professor Luce for quite a long time in Bagan at Myin Kabar Gu-pyauk Pagoda built by Raja Kumar (Yazakumar, son of Kyansittha) in AD 1113. That research paper was published in Burmese History Commission Journal volume 2 in 1961 from page 227-416. Not only the background history of the pagoda but the architecture, Buddhist scriptures and all the stone inscriptions with the translations were included in the article. Complete comparison of the various Buddhist scriptures found in ancient Bagan was also included. Studies of ancient Mon and Austro Asian languages and Mon grammar and spellings were mentioned. [13]

He was an important person in the team, which had done comparative studies of Sanskrit, Pali and ancient Mon. Even Professor Luce praised that his comrade Major Ba Shin had contributed an invaluable edits for his thirty years of research and got his help in the first or fresh readings. Luce even commented that Ba Shin had even corrected his overlooked mistakes.[14]

In an article written to honour Ba Shin in relation to the Wetkyi Inn and Gu-pyauk Pagodas in Bagan, Professor Luce wrote, “He is one of the best researchers, expert in History and Stone Inscription.”[15]

One of Ba Shin’s best efforts was seen in the article about Bagan Pagoda Lawka Hteit Pan (Rangoon, 1962) which indicated the ancient Burmese civilization. Nai Min Nai had written an article together with A.B. Grisworld about the comments and review in Artibus Asiae volume 33, page 228-233.[16]

He was the editor of the article “Essays offered to G.H.Luce by his colleagues and friends in Honour of his Seventy-Fifth Birthday.“ in two volumes Artibus Asiae supplementum XXIII, Ascona, Switzerland, 1956. He wrote the “Buddha Images of Tai Yuan Types Found in Burma” in that publication. [17]

While working as a research officer, he wrote research papers in English and Burmese in Thamine Tagun journal. One of Ba Shin’s best efforts was seen in the article which was written in English about Bagan Pagoda Lawka Hteit Pan (Rangoon, 1962) which indicated the ancient Burmese civilization and Burmese language of earliest Bagan period. Nai Min Nai had written an article together with A.B. Grisworld about the comments and review in Artibus Asiae volume 33, page 228-233. [18]

He wrote about the Ink duplicate copies of ancient Bagan stone inscriptions in the Bagan Ink duplicate copy research journey report book. Both were published by the Burmese History Commission.[19]

He was an active member of the Myanmar Orthography (Spelling) Commission.[20] He used to help the final year history students and History Master students’ research papers. [21]

As a journalist

Since he was in the university, he was active in journalism. He was the Yudathan College reporter of Myanmar Alin (Light of Myanmar) and Thuraya (The Sun) newspapers and had written a lot of reports and articles.[22]

He wrote a book, Khit Thit Marga (Modern Tha Gyar Min or Sakya) in 1937 about the rebuilding of rural villages. [23]

He wrote in the Yudathan College magazine and was the Burmese section editor. He was the editor of the Mosquito hand written magazine.[24]

In 1939 he wrote an article about the modernization of Burmese rural villages together with Dr Thar Saing and Dr Andrab. [25]

This pen-name were (1) San Aung (2) Thutethi (3) Bohmu Nyanna (4) Taing Lay Yebawhaung (5) Lt. Colonel Ba Shin (6) U Ba Shin (7) Wari San (8) Maung Pinti (9) Scott Boy and (10) Bo Mhu.

He wrote articles in Pyannya Padethar journal published by Directorate of University Education. He also wrote research papers and articles in the magazines published by Rangoon Arts and Science University, University Burmese literature magazine, Zoology magazine, Burmese Muslim University Students’ magazines, Ngwe Taryi magazine, Pyinyar Tazaung magazine, Working peoples’ daily (English and Burmese.[26]

Earliest Myanmar History was the last article he was still writing for the Myanmar History Commission. The last article he could finished was Myanmar before Anawrattha, published in sections, in Pyannar Tazaung magazine from June to November 1968. But he could not finished the second part of that book, Bagan era Myanmar book. [27]

As a Muslim he worked as the Secretary General in the Myanmar Islam Religious Council until he died. He died on January 7, 1971, at 5.50 p.m. of heart disease. [28][29]

See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ “Wanna Kyawhtin Bhomhu Ba Shin” by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. November-December 2001. page 37. paragraph 4. line 2&3

  2. ^ ibid page 37. paragraph 4. line 4.

  3. ^ “Bhomhu Ba Shin”. Al-Balag Journal, published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. November-December 2001. page 41. paragraph 3,

  4. ^ ibid page 41. paragraph 3.

  5. ^ “Wanna Kyawhtin Bhomhu Ba Shin” by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal, published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. November-December 2001 page 38. paragraph 1.

  6. ^ ibid page 38. paragraph 1. line 3&4.

  7. ^ “Bhomhu Ba Shin”. Al-Balag Journal, page 41. paragraph 6.

  8. ^ “Wanna Kyawhtin Bhomhu Ba Shin” by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal page 38. paragraph 2. line 3.

  9. ^ ibid page 37. paragraph 3. line 1

  10. ^ ibid page 37. paragraph 3. line 2&3.

  11. ^ ibid page 37. paragraph 3. line 3&4.

  12. ^ ibid page 37. paragraph 3. line 5,6&7.

  13. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 2. line 1-7.

  14. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 2. line 7-12.

  15. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 3.

  16. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 4.

  17. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 1. line 2-7.

  18. ^ ibid page 39. paragraph 4.

  19. ^ “Bhomhu Ba Shin”. Al-Balag Journal page 42. paragraph 2.

  20. ^ ibid page 40. paragraph 1.

  21. ^ ibid page 40. paragraph 2.

  22. ^ “Bhomhu Ba Shin”. Al-Balag Journal, published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. November-December 2001. page 41. paragraph 1, line 1-3.

  23. ^ ibid page 41. paragraph 1. line 4

  24. ^ ibid page 41. paragraph 1. line 5&6.

  25. ^ ibid page 41. paragraph 2.

  26. ^ “Bhomhu Ba Shin” by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal page 42, paragraph 3

  27. ^ ibid, page 42. paragraph 5.

  28. ^ “Wanna Kyawhtin Bhomhu Ba Shin” by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal, published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. November-December 2001

  29. ^

External Link




Burma Issues February 2 0 0 5




Burma Issues is a publication of the Peace Way Foundation and is distributed on a free-subscription basis to individuals and groups concerned with the state of affairs in Burma. Editor Z. Brake 1/11 Soi Piphat 2 Convent Rd, Silom Bangkok 10500, Thailand

Kala Lumyo is the word the Burmese call the Indian who live in Burma. The word Kala is, in general, for those who have dark skin. They originated from India and they come from South Asia and the Western part of Asia in general, most notably form presentday India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

The word kala literally means degrading, disgusting and to look down upon. The word “alien” is also used by Burmese people to describe the Indians.

However, the Burmese Indians see themselves as a part of the Burmese people. They have fought for Burma together with the Burmese and other ethnic people to be free from colony rule and independent.

In the midst of the struggle for human rights and democracy in Burma, the international community mostly focuses on the democracy movement lead by Aung San Suu Kyi and the National League of Democracy or on the fighting for the independence by the ethnic groups. When looking to situation as a whole, the Burmese Indians are also in need of the same freedoms as all the other Burmese people.

In their struggle for freedom most people see them as outsiders. Approximately 2 per cent of the Burmese population is Burmese Indians. However this number is not dependable as there is no reliable information. In Burma, the majority of Burmese Indians are Muslim (Suni Set), others are Hindu, Sikhs and Buddhist.

Most of the Burmese Indian Muslim population lives in urban areas and big cities such as Rangoon and post British Hill towns such as Pyin U Lwin ( formerly Maymyo)

1. The first Burmese Indians migrated to Burma in the glorious Bagan period (A.D. 1044-1287) when Indian, Persian and Arabian merchants came to Burma. In the 16th and 17th centuries, the Golden Age of the spices trade attracted more Indian merchants to Burma. This migration continued until the British invasion. When Burma became a part of India under the British colonial rule in 1824, a large number of Indian people moved to Burma. These included entrepreneurs, politicians and  overnment employees. In the following decades infrastructure initiatives of the British caused an unprecedented economical boom in Burma. From 1855 to 1930 the area of the Irrawaddy delta used for rice cultivation increases ten times to roughly 4 million hectares.

2. Coolies (Indian labourers) from southern India migrated continuously to Burma in search of work. In 1930 the number of Indians in Burma had grown considerably and in Rangoon 53 per cent of the whole population was Indian

3. Things were going smoothly for the Burmese Indian population even after British left and independence dawned Burma in 1948. There were even Indians in the Cabinet.

Things changed after the coup d’etat in 1962 led by General Ne Win and the introduction of Nationalism. Some Burmese Indians were forced out of the country as a result of the economy’s nationalization. Their wholesale and retail businesses were taken away without any compensation and they were all given 175 Kyat to return to India

4. The Cabinet was pushed out of the government. Although, many Indian had been living in Burma for generations and had integrated into Burmese society, they became a target for discrimination and oppression by the junta.

Today many Indians, particularly Hindus live in central Rangoon on the both side of the Su Lei Paya Road. Most are involved in either legal or illegal businesses, including restaurants, jewellery shops and money exchanges. It is not surprising that the Burmese people believe that these Indians have a better economic rank, than they do. It seems that there are no problems for the Burmese Indians because they are rich, but in fact this is not true. They have many personal issues. Although Burmese Indians have not been violently oppressed by the military government like vlrlrlr_a_a&; 3 jrefrfrmhaha&;&m other ethnic groups in Burma, their rights have been continuously restricted and they have faced different forms of oppression. If Burmese people’s rights are limited, the Burmese Indians’ rights will be doubly limited.

Religion is being used as a tool of oppression against the Burmese Indians by the military dictatorship. Burmese Muslim Indians and Burmese Hindu Indians are not allowed to grandly celebrate any of their religious ceremonies. These religious rights are prohibited. They can not run religious parades anywhere in Burma, like they do in other countries. In South East Asian countries like Thailand and Malaysia the governments allow people to grandly celebrate their religions, but in Burma, the military just allows them to quietly celebrate behind closed doors or in the few temples.

The military dictatorship rejects or ignores their request when they want to build Mosque in the country or to go abroad for religious ceremonies

5. The military dictatorship never encourages or supports the Burmese Indians. However, the attitude of the Burmese people towards the Burmese Indian is worse. The Burmese Indians are looked down or mistreated because of their religion, the way they dress or the way they act. Burmese people believe that the “Kala Lumyo” will take over the country and rule Burma. They believe that if there are too many Indians this will happen. According to the religious beliefs, if you were marry someone who is a Muslim or a Hindu you have to change your original religion to their religion and your children will also automatically become Muslim or Hindu

6. Consequnetly, Burmese people do not want their children to marry Indians. Furthermore, the military dictatorship prohibits Burmese Indian from becoming involved or being employed as the government employees or working in any companies run by the State government.

While the military dictatorship is persuading ethnic minority groups to enter what they called the “legal fold” and participate in the drafting of a new constitution which includes sections on religion and political rights, Burmese Indians have not been invited by the military dictatorship to participate.

They will never be invited as they are not seen as important in the eyes of the military dictatorship. The international community does not see that the main issues facing the Burmese Indians are the State’s policies.

The military government always says to the international community that they have opened the opportunity for all religious and ethnic minority groups to live together peacefully.

It seems like the Burmese Indians should not have any problems. In reality, they do not receive any of these opportunities. The military government tries to block them getting in touch with the wider community and working together for a better society, human rights and other meaningful activities.

Like all people in Burma, the quality of health care depends on how much you can pay. Burmese Indians who can afford to pay for health care, receive reasonable care. However, Burmese Indians who cannot afford to pay, receive no health care. The government is suppose to provide free health care for all Burmese people, but this does not happen for most people in Burma, including the Burmese Indians.

Another issue is that the Burmese Indians who have good businesses will send their children to study abroad such as to the USA. Many of them are poor and can not manage to send their children to school. The government is not supporting the education system.

There are some private schools or schools owned by foreign companies from the Middle East who provide free education and basic knowledge on Islam to Indian Muslims. Furthermore, Burmese Indians are not allowed to use their native languages and the junta has banned literature in these languages. The government has even banned some Bollywood movies

7. The New Light of Myanmar is the trumpet of the government, but in this newspaper it never talks about the Burmese Indians. Living as the stranger in their own country Burmese Indians are not trying to make any problems for the society. There is an obvious image of the Burmese Indians “looking after their own”.

At the moment we can clearly see that the Burmese Indians are out of sight of the junta and are looked down upon by the Burmese people. The status of the Burmese Indians in terms of religion, culture and civil rights are the same as the other ethnic groups. The government has used religion to oppress the Burmese Indians.

What will happen to these people when transition comes? There are plenty of questions.

Will they treated equally like other Burmese people or will

they continue to be outsiders?


1 Burmese Indians,


2 Myanmar History Colonial Times, http:// – 01land / em – lan43.htm

3 Ibid

4 Indian and Burma: working on their relationship, The

Irrawaddy (online) , March 1999

5 The outsider, The Irrawaddy vol. 14 No.1, January 2006

6 ibid.

7 How the Indians Government Stabbed Burmese Tamils

in the Back, http:// www. tamiltribune/ 02

0702. html?20065


jrefrfrmhaha&;&m 4

Peek into your mirrors before calling Kala, Kala Dain or Kala Pyet

   Peek into your mirrors

before calling

Kala, Kala Dain or  Kala Pyet

Dear Nan,

              I realized that the part of Daw Mon and U Pyu played in our Shwe Bama history is also crucial part of our religion. They give us Hinduism followed by Buddhism. We could learn a lot by looking back at them. When our Pagan first Shwe Bama village tract was in deep dark without a real religion and just struggling under the tyrant Ayi Gyi’s ‘religion’ Daw Mon and U Pyu had enlightened our forefathers with Buddha’s teachings and salvaged all of us.

Dear Nan, you already know that our Shwe Bama villagers are of Mongoloid people, have origins in present-day Daw Tibet village, who are thought to have originally migrated from the steppes of present-day Mongolia village. We migrated 3,000 years ago to the lower valleys of the Ayeyarwady River.

We are ethno-linguistically related to the Daw Tibet and the U Tayoke. And we already know that the first Shwe Bama village empire, Pagan started in 1044 AD. The most important ethnic groups at that time were the U U Bama, the U Yakhine, Daw Daw Shan and Daw Daw Mons, of which the U U Bama’s relatives were the most numerous and the most powerful.

I understand that you are already aware that U U Bama kinfolk were formed by the assimilation of the three different tribes of ancestors:

  1. Daw Daw Pyu,

  2. U U Kan Yan and

  3. Daw Daw Thet.

(a) Daw Daw Pyu were actually mixed-blooded as I had written in earlier letter:

i. The original villagers since Bronze and Iron Ages.

ii. The villagers descended from Daw Tibet’s village.

iii. Those migrated from U Kalar’s village.

(b) U U Kan Yan was a Mongolian and descendent of Daw Tibet’s village.

Daw Daw Thet was from Thai-Chinese group.

Dear Nan, I wish to quote our famous historian Dr Than Tun’s ‘The Story of Myanmar told in pictures’.  

I wish to continue with my answer with one of our Shwe Bama’s ancestor, U U Phyu story. He arrived in Shwe Bama village area in the 1st century BC or earlier and established village kingdoms at:

  • Hanlin and Kutkhaing in the north,

  • Thanlwin coastal line in the east,

  • Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south,

  • Thandwe in the southern west and  

  • Yoma in the west.

U U Pyu had built towns in:

  1. Sri Ksetra (Pyeh) 4-8AD,

  2. Maingmaw, Beikthano. (Actually VISHNU from Hindi god) (Khmer troops occupied  210-225 AD)

  3. Taung Dwin Gyi 1-4 AD,

  4. Hanlin (Wet Let) 2-9AD,

  5. Hanlingyi/Tagaung (Thabeikkyin),

  6. Waddi (Nga Htwoe Gyi),

  7. Maingmaw (Pinlay)(Myittha),

  8. Beinnaka(Pyaw Bwe)

  9. Bilin township (Mon state)

U U Pyu established ancient village kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Shwe Bamar village tract.

The history of the U U Pyu is known to us from two main historical sources:

  1. the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script)

  2. and the brief accounts of some travellers and traders from U Tayoke’s village, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

U U Pyu is believed to have been ethnically different from the Shwe Bama villagers, although they may have inter-married with the Daw Tibet villagers who later became the Shwe Bama villagers.

During this period, our Shwe Bama land was part of an overland trade route from U Tayoke  to U Kala’s village.

U Tayoke  sources state that the U U Pyu controlled 18 village kingdoms and describe them as a humane and peaceful people. War was virtually unknown amongst the U U Pyu’s villagers, and disputes were often solved through duels by champions or building competitions. They even wore silk cotton instead of actual silk so they would not have to kill silk worms. Crime was punished by whippings and jails were unknown, though serious crimes could result in the death penalty. U U Pyu practiced Theravada Buddhism, and all children were educated as novices in the temples from the age of seven until the age of 20.U U Pyu’s villages never unified into a Pyu village kingdom, but the more powerful villages often dominated and called for tribute from the lesser villages.

The most powerful village by far was Sri Ksetra, which archaeological evidence indicates was the largest village that has ever been built in Shwe Bama. The exact date of its founding is not known, though U U Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94, so it was before that date.

Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 in favor of a more northerly capital, though the exact city is not known. Some historians believe it was Halingyi village. Wherever the new capital was located, it was sacked by the villagers of Daw Nan Cho in the mid-9th. century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

Dear Nan, lets see how written Bama language started.

Finger marked bricks are found in one of TibetoBurman group occupying upper Bama i.e. Pyu old towns, Mon and India.We found out that Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.

At famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in1113AD. Daw Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D. and Daw Mon from 5th century A.D. and we, Shwe Bamas had our own written records only in 11th century A.D.

Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (Khmer troops occupied  210-225 AD.(Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.

Dear darling, in Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul. (Perso-Arab authours) of 9-10 AD.

There are records of Daw Nan Cho and U Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat U Tayoke. Daw Nan Cho village king U Ko-lo-fen communicate with U Pyu.

U Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

Daw Nan Cho conscripted U Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.

In 832 AD Daw Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from U Pyu. (Adapted from Elizabeth Moore, Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2004)

No archeological evidence except supported by chronicles and linguistic evidences and epigraphy for Daw Chin’s cousins U Kadu and  Daw Thet.

  1. On Daw Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC and in  Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.

  2. Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left. And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.

  3. Name, Varman name there was influence of Pallava of U Kala’s village.

Dear Nan, in Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Daw Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban.

This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).

The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.

In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.

The stories of Tagaung village, Sri Kestra village and Beikthano village are intimately related, with Sri Kestra village eventually dominating but not necessarily bringing an end to Beikthano village citing a hypothesis that the inhabitants of Beikthano village may have been a different Tibeto-Burman group from the Daw Pyu’s brothers of Sri Kestra (Than Tun 1965).

In giving names to the generalized references in Chinese records, Halin village is often identified as a garrison town, with Sri Ksetra village the capital of the Daw Pyu village kingdom.  

The brief chronicle history of Halin village cited below credits its founding to the U Kala  prince and its demise to a fire breaking out during rebellion and royal conflicts, none of it relating to other known Daw Pyu village sites.

There is one reference to Halin village in the Glass Palace Chronicle, but in the time of village King Naratheinhka in the late 12century AD.  Karabaw attempted to dam the Ayeyarwaddy to the east of Halin village. This failed, and he constructed the Nagayon tank to the southeast of the village city wall. His reign was followed by 799 kings, ending with the reign of the brothers Pyu Min and Pyone Min. Although on harmonious terms at first, they eventually quarreled and Pyu Min took the life of his brother. The populace rebelled and killed the king. A fire broke out, burning down the city, and ending the village city of Halin (Myint Aung 1970:56).

Recalling the absence of Halin village in the Tagaung-Srikestra-Bagan village chronicle sequence, these successive occupations demonstrate the site’s significance in a proliferation of contexts yet to be fully reconstructed. Little is known about the institutions which regulated Pyu society or the agricultural and political domain outside the walled area. Comparison of the remains of walls at the Pyu village centres of Beikthano village (Vishnu), Sri Ksetra village and Halin village show a similar approach to territorial demarcation. The massive walls and gates, and offer a viable indicator of a centrally organized social hierarchy capable of mustering labour to construct and maintain fortifications. Chronicle records of the Daw Pyu, the differences in many ways outweigh the similarities between Sriksetra village, Beikthano village and Halin village. Each seems to have followed its own development trajectory, with Sriksetra village and Halin village most likely profiting from respective control of seaward and overland trade.  

In addition, the material culture of Daw Pyu village sites is distinct from that of Dvaravati village sites in Centraland Northeast Thai Land village. While the two areas were clearly in communication and share a number of traits from walled enclosure, stylistic features of images of the Buddha, silver coins and beads.  As documentation on the Daw Pyu increases, the conflation of a politically and linguistically distinct domain with a start and finish, can hopefully be replaced with use ‘Pyu’ in a cultural sense, similar to that which has evolved in regards to the preference of Dvaravati over ‘Mon’ for the art of first millennium AD central and Northeast Thailand.(Woodward 2003:54).  

While much of the discussion above is within a framework of the Daw Pyu’s period, reference has also been made to the growing body of new information on pre-Bagan village habitation of Upper Shwe Bama. Prior to the 1998 excavation of the Bronze Age cemetery near Nyaunggan, Budalin township, comparative study of Daw Pyu’s artifacts looked outside the country for contemporary material from South Asia and areas to the east linked to the ‘Dvaravati’ village cultures of present day Ko Thai Land’s villagers. Analysis of the Daw Pyu’s period remained within the paradigm defined by Shwe Bama chronicles and the early history within an ethno-linguistic framework. While attention was given to population groups other than the Daw Pyu (e.g. Luce 1985), defining their presence archaeologically was not feasible, leaving the Daw Pyu in isolation as the sole or dominant root with which to define the emergence of Bagan village.   

Despite the implications of stability and structure implied by a Daw Pyu village ‘city’ or ‘kingdom’, it is probable that relations were persistently fluid, “not state as institution, but as ‘part of a discourse of contested political claims, as an aspect of social relations, rather than as a structure in and of itself’…”(Day 1996:386).   

As I had mentioned, existing chronologies present a sequence of capitals for a Daw Pyu village kingdom. As yet, there is no sense of how and when different elements, particularly royal and monastic ones, were introduced into the society. The population densities were centres of authority, protection, teaching and sustenance but the degree of competition and movement of individuals between nodes is not yet clear. Bonds to place, of birth and livelihood, balanced the sense of boundary implied by brick walls, with steady mobility between the two contexts.

In a prehistoric paradigm, this means considering the movement of peoples between villages and the flow of traders and religious figures across the landscape. In this way we do not lose a spatial referencing that accommodates cities, their rulers, priests and monks, and the makers of finger-marked bricks.  

The other version of the migration of our ancestors that I got from the official Glass Palace Chronicles is:  

Invading U Tayoke villagers and U Mongo villagers from the north destroyed Tagaung village. The last village head or king of Tagaung village, Bhinnaka Raja run away and died later. His followers, Tagaung villagers split in to three divisions.

  1. One division founded the nineteen Shan States at the eastern part.

  2. Another division moved down Ayeyarwady River and combined with Muducitta and other Sakiyan princes from Ko Kala’s village and the other groups of Daw Pyu, U Kan Yan and Daw Thet.  

  3. The third group stayed in Mali village with the chief queen Naga Hsein, a Sakiyan from Ko Kala’s village. She was the queen of the Sakyiyan king Dhaja Raja migrated from Ko Kala’s village. On the way he founded Thintwe’ village. Then they founded the upper Bagan(Pagan) village. 

Dahnnavata captured Thambula, queen or head of Daw Pyu’s village. But Nanhkan village or queen of Daw Pyu’s village had driven out the Ko Kan Yan’s villagers, who lived in seven hill-tracks beginning Thantwe’ village. 

Village King Dwattabaung, direct descendent of Abi Raja from Ko Kala’s village, founded Thare Khit Taya in 443 BC. It was said to be self-destroyed in 94 AD. The history is half -mystical at that time. 

Talaings migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from U Tayoke village.

There were Daw Pyu’s cousins migrated from Andhra and Orissa villages of from Ko Kala’s village tract. That Daw Mon’s mighty village Kingdom extended from Lower Shwe Bama village tract (Pathein village or Bassein, Mawlamyine village or Moulmein, Tanintharyi village or Tenasserim, Tanyin village or Syriam), U Thai Land village and Daw Kam Bodia village.

King Anawrahta of Bagan village (Pagan) conquered that Daw Mon village Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi village (The Land of Golden Hues).Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Shwe Bama version of Ko Kala names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the Bago village in 573AD.

Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.The First Union of Shwe Bama village tract is credited to them as they are the ones who first founded the Union like present Shwe Bama village tract between 4th century A.D. and 9th century A.D. The cultural exchange between Shwe Bama villagers, U Kala, U Tayoke villagers and other South-east Asian villagers are obvious.

We have to consider the arrival of Europeans and gaining cultures from them, how gunpowder, gun and canon play an important part in politics in our Shwe Bama villagers. The new species of plants and the new faiths (Hindism, Buddhism, Christian, Islam, etc.) that we get from them must be must be considered.

We must accept that we have got both the advantages and disadvantages in dealing with foreigners (Chinese, Indian and European) U Tayoke village tract head Kublai Khan’s Turkish soldiers, commanded by Nasrudin, the son of Yunan Governor attacked and took over Burma in 1277 AD.

Tartars at first took strong hold in Bhamo (Burma) for a few years and later destroyed Bagan (Pagan) in 1287 AD.

Interestingly those Turks give the U Tayoke the name we called in Shwe Bama language. U Tayoke and Ko Mongol’s invading war remained not yet fully documented in our Bagan village era. But Asan Kaya, Raja Dirit and Sihasu records are already completed.

We now know how Min Gyi Swa, Min Gaung, Min Ye Kyaw Swa and Raja Dirit fought against each other. And the military strategies, defensive and offensive actions in war changed due to the extensive use of guns and canons were seen.

New economics and new religions because of the relation with western countries started from the 15th century A.D.

Good-bye darling

Yours with love

(Ko Tin Nwe)


Cháng Zhēng or original Long March of the Tibeto-Burmans

  Cháng Zhēng  or original Long March

of the Tibeto-Burmans  

Dear Nan, let’s talk about last group of our ancestors, the Tibeto-Burman group which I had already mentioned in last letter.

Our Shwe Bama spoken language is derived from this Tibeto-Burman group. U Bamar, Daw Chin, Ko Kachin, Ma Rahkine, Ma Inthar, Ko Naga, Daw Yaw, Ko Mro, Daw Lisu, U Kadu, Ma Hpon, Daw Maru, U Lashi, Ma Rawang, Daw Azi, Daw Nung, U Daru, U Gauri, Ma Lahu, Ma Lolo and others have descended from the Tibeto-Burman group.

Darling, they migrated downwards from Daw Tibet’s village, U Ta Yoke’s village tract. They are now spread widely and staying in Shwe Bama village, U Tayoke’s village and Ko Kala’s village.

Do you remember darling, in 2002 there was a U Kachin’s international conference held in Shwe Bama village. U Kachin‘s cousin brothers from U Tayoke’s village and Ko Kala’s village attended.

Ko Chin, Ko Kachin and Ko Naga‘s relatives are also on both sides of Indo-Burma-China borders.

Buddhist Rakhines in Bangladesh are known as Marghs.

Dear Nan, as you already know, our ethnic brothers spread in our village tract widely viz:

U Ka Yin, Daw Daw Mon, Daw Daw Shan, Ko Intha, U Kayah, Ma Palaung, Ko Aka, and Ma Pa-o usual ly stayed in the east and southeast of the Shwe Bama village tract.

And Ko Kachin, Daw Wa and U Kokang stayed in the north and east of our village tract.

Daw Chin and U Yakhine are mainly in the west.

Dear Nan, the latest research reports about the Tibeto-Burman group of languages is strange, almost unbelievable and contrary to the usual facts mentioned in our history text books that according to the the latest research and concepts,  Sino-Tibetan language is  just a sub-group of  the Tibeto-Burman language family.

Tibeto-Burman group of languages is spoken in various central and south Asian countries, including Shwe Bama village, northern part of Ko Thai Land village, southern part of U Tayoke’s village tract (Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai, Gansu, Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Hunan), Daw Nepal’s village, U Bhutan’s village, Ko Kala’s village tract (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir), and western part of U Pakistan’s village.

Dear darling, at that time you amazed me by telling me that the Tibeto-Burman group of languages subfamily includes approximately 350 languages. Our Shwe Bama language has the most speakers (approximately 35 million).

Dear Nan, you will be surprised by my new findings that some linguists (including Shafer 1966 and George van Driem) advocate elevating “Tibeto-Burman” to displace “Sino-Tibetan” as the top-tier language family, with the Chinese languages (Sinitic) classified as a branch of the Tibeto-Burman/Sino-Tibetan family.

In simple layman terms, Chinese language is now under Tibeto-Burman language family. It is facinating to know that the great China or U Tayoke got the language from our ancestors!

As I had stated, in the 9th century the Shwe Bama and our Ethnic minorities migrated from the then U Tayoke-Daw Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady which is now the heart of the Shwe Bama golden Pavalion.

Dear darling, our Shwe Bama village tract has experienced a long history of migration along fluid frontiers and numerous conflicts among various ethnic groups.

We are between two big neighbours or world’s greatest civilizations, U Tayoke and U Kala’s village tracts. And our country is the only highway those big neighbours could travel, trade or migrate because they are divided by the very high Himalayan Mountain Ranges.

When there were wars or struggles for power to control a village kingdom, our village tract became a safe heaven of refuge.

Or if there were any famine, bad weather, diseases of humans, animals or plants our country was always ready to provide a greener pasture and cleaner water.

So our Golden Shwe Bama village became the melting pot of two civilizations. Sorry Nan, I forgot to acknowledge that you told me about these facts in my first letter: our spoken language is from Tibeto-Burman group and related to U Tayoke’s language but our written language is from Brami script of Ko Kala’s village tract. And even our vowels or way of pronouncing is the same as southern Ko Kala’s few languages. So some of those Indians could even read written Burmese correctly but could not understand much. But as our spoken language is similar to U Tayoke, they could understand some of our spoken words.

Our lower half of the national dress is from Ko Kala and upper half from U Tayoke. And we got the religion, culture, arts etc from our big neighbours.

But I am glad and feel proud because we had adapted all we got, modified to suit our needs and now almost all of our nationalities have our own unique languages, personalities, national dresses, traditions, cultures etc that we all could proud of.

Dear darling, I am sad to tell you about this, but anyway you had already known it. Because of the bad SPDC government, now our country is suffering the reversal of fate, totally in a different state, we are in the reverse gear mode.

Our Shwe Bama village tract’s long tradition of giving refuge to all our neighbours in need, immigrant’s heaven, is sadly changed.

Now many of our people are refugees, working legally and illegally abroad and we are in the emigration mode.

Last time our country was a paradise for all of us, citizens and foreigners.

Now we had lost our paradise like the Athu Yar Nat Min who was removed and replaced by the Tha Gar Min and sent to Athuyakae.

But sadly, our SPDC is not Tha Gar Min or King of the angels, but acting like the King of the devils. They could not get or enjoy the Paradise stolen from us because they had just ruined our paradise and are collecting endless sins, preparing to go to hell, where they belong, in the next life.

I hope and strongly believe that our lost or ruined paradise could be rebuilt by our united workforce once we got our democracy. As you always said when I was a little bit disturbed with the never stopping visitors, Ain thar hma_ Ei lar thi” in Burmese, which means only when the host (home) is pleasant, the guests would come.

Yes dear, now I could accept your foresighted ideas of trying to be at the upper end of charity chain of events. I like your concept of “to be a donating person or paying hand is better than the receiving hand or a person in need”.

We have to thank God for chosen us in that position although we are not rich. We have to build back our country to regain our previous golden paradise status.

In the past we gained a lot; Brain Gain from immigrants, but now we are emigrating out from our mother land in droves and started to suffer the effect of Brain Drain. May be that is one of the SPDC Generals charitable idea of serving the world with our Shwe Bama’s brains, skills and labour.

I am surprised with your never ending optimistic views that now many of our brothers and sisters are abroad, got a lot of experiences in almost every field. Once there is democracy and real open door economic policy, we all could contribute the rapid leap forward of our beloved country and we could hope to overtake Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and all he ASEAN countries.

And I now could apply your Pollyanna’s optimistic views and could even see your temporary departure from me in t he fits of anger as a blessing in disguise for me. Because of that only I came to know Dr Tayza and Burma Digest and also have a chance to write love letters to you distantly following the paths of Nehru.

Sorry again dear, I know this is the kind of gloating you hate most, and I had mentioned his name for three times already just to irritate you. But I hope you could already understand and forgive me at the end as I could not stop teasing you. And I don’t know why God matched two of us as life partners, you are always serious and hate fooling around and I am very light hearted and always search the funny side of any events around us.

Dear Nan, time is up because I foolishly waste it with the other subjects to impress you! I have to stop now but please reserve your judgment; don’t give your final verdict to fail me now. I will definitely continue to answer your remaining questions and impress you in my next letters.

I hope to probe one of our ancestors, U Pyu and his civilizations next week but if Dr Tayza and Burma Digest Editorials thought otherwise and decided to stop their special courier service I have no choice but to stop nagging you.

Good-bye darling

Yours with love

(Ko Tin Nwe)


Our Long March to the Mirage Paradise

Loss of Home, Loss of PARADISE

Seventh Letter to Nan Sai

 Dear Nan,

                 Do you remember the seminar we attended in 2001 called, Ethnic Minorities’ Struggles along the Thai-Burmese Border”, organized by the Institute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University, the Thai Action Committee for Democracy in Burma, and Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development. I think we had also noticed the presence of UNDP, UNHCR, UNESCO and some UN officials there.

Dear Nan, nowadays why did you become so over sensitive, easily irritated, snappy, angry fast and quick to blame others including me? May be you are frustrated with the deadlock in our country’s future.

Don’t worry dear, nothing last forever in this world, including the Military rules in Burma/Myanmar. There would be definitely a change in our country’s politico-social status. Don’t give up hope; we could already see the light at the end of the tunnel. SPDC camel’s back is already weak, its need only some more straws to break. We just need to keep on pushing endlessly on them from all possible battle fronts.

You asked me why I could even think you would forget that trip. I know darling, you enjoyed that trip too much and could not forget the various memorable experiences on the journey and there. And especially you had a rare chance to reunite with few of your cousins staying at Thai-Burma border. And our feelings and experience of as if we were at home, just by tasting the wind that breezed from the Shan Yoma into Thai. And you accidentally discovered my soft spot, my love for your Shan Land, when I could not control my tears while gazing at our mother land, which is actually my birth place also. At first you even failed to understand me and asked, what happened to my eyes because you thought that dust or some foreign particles entered my eyes. You were shocked only when I could not answer back immediately, choked and answered with the trembling soft voice.

Dear Nan, just remember that incidence before saying good-bye to me. My eternal love would never stop even if you go ahead with your plan to divorce me or even if I die.

Don’t worry dear, even if you stay away from me I would not disturb you with revenge and jealousy or keep on stalking you. I am not a Sula Thu Badda from Saddan Sin Min, or like the character from our favourite, writer, singer, artist, actor and director Win Oo’s, “The hatred of a pretty woman”. Win Oo himself was hated by the military and refused to honour him because he had supported the democracy movement. I just wish to remind our futures leaders not to forget the popular artist from various fields like Win Oo, U Htun Wai and etc who were ignored or suppressed by the Myanmar Military because they had supported the democracy movement. Once there is democracy, we should honour them and those who had sacrificed for the democracy movement.

I am not asking for blood or revenge punishment of the perpetrators but to compensate by our country to those suffered. We have to take a leaf out of National Reconciliatory Council of South Africa. This is, in case the SPDC Generals redeem themselves and transfer the power back to the real owner, people, NLD and opposition.

If not they should better start to select and engage the best lawyers in Myanmar who could converse in English, and study the International Laws related to GENOCIDE. Shan leaders and Burma Digest had already said; “Enough is enough! See you in court to the SPDC Generals”. According to the Laws they had already contravened the Genocide Law, and there is neither Diplomatic nor Ruler’s Immunity.

So dear darling, I wish to assure you not to even worry for my letters; I could stop writing to you if you just say so.

As you know darling, at that time, you were still studying at Singapore National University for your Masters and I was working with a Multinational company there. Now you got your PhD and you could afford trying to run away from me like a winged bird.

Sorry dear, you were very angry with my first letter comparing you with the cat got (transplanted with) the new wings.

I know you left me not because you could stand on your own, but for the principle: as a strong warning protest for the arresting of your uncles by my step mother Daw Than Shwe.

I know and felt from the bottom of my heart that after many years of staying together, we already have a very strong bond and attachment for each other. Your other uncles and Burma digest is even collecting evidences to take legal action on Daw Than Swe and cohorts including that crime as I had mentioned above. Yes dear Nan, UN and International Criminal Court had defined that incarceration of the leaders of a group is guilty of not only attempted genocide but committing the GENOCIDE!

Dear Nan, as you were familiar with the history of our Ethnic Minorities: the facts came out or revealed there in the seminar were not strange or new to you, but I was shocked because I lost in touch with the history at that time. And the following facts disclosed at the seminar were unanticipated; I could not swallow and were not even accepted easily by my conscious mind:

The following stories are passed down by the Daw Daw Mon, U Ka Yin and Daw Daw Shan (Daw Daw Tai), Wut Boonlert, coordinator of the Karen Network for Culture and Environment, continued to explain how a stateless predicament befell the U Ka Yin’s relatives of the Salawin Basin.

According to him, once upon a time i.e. a long long time ago U U Ka Yin started his long march from the very far far away land, Gobi Desert and migrated to Yangtze Basin. Then he descended again downwards to the Khong River, the Chao Phya River and the green Irrawaddy Basin in Shwe Bama village, where grass were greener and water was cleaner.

U Ka Yin is also known in Thailand as the Kariang or Yang as he is also an ethnic group of U Thai village. U Ka Yin always has good relations with Ko Thai Land because Ko Thai Land started a policy to use U Ka Yin’s villages as buffer zone from successive aggressive U Shwe Bama.

After some of the U Bama’s relatives were expelled from the Lanna Kingdom village in 1783, with support from the new U Chakri Dynasty of Bangkok village, (Saw Bwa Pya) Kawinla of Chiang Mai village had a close relationship with the U Ka Yin in order to bring people from the land controlled by his cousin U Ka Yinni (also known as U Ka Yah) to Chiang Mai.

Later Saw Bwa Luang Setthi Khamphan of Chiang Mai married Saw Bwa Nang Kham Paeng, daughter of Saw Bwa Maha Wong who governed Muang Pha Poon. Saw Bwa Nang Kham Paeng was later sent to govern Muang Kantara Wadee. But the Saw Bwa Muang of Chiang Mai dared not tell about an ancestor who came from the land of the U Ka Yinni. Saw Bwa Nang Khampaeng was the great-grandmother of Saw Bwa Dararassamee, a wife of King Rama V.

But it is a fact that Ko Thai created our Shwe Bamas as a common bogyman not only for historical reasons but it offered a cheap and convenient target when it launched a Pan Thai Empire, to unite all the Tai speaking tribes in Shan quarters of Shwe Bama village, U Laos and all those of the Dai tribes including from Sip Son Panna in U Ta Yoke’s village tract.

Ka Yin-speaking people are spread over a large area, mainly on the Shwe Bama village frontier with U Thai Land village. Everywhere U Ka Yin’s relatives live interspersed among various other ethnic brothers of Shwe Bama, so that we find pockets of exclusiv e U Ka Yin’s cousin villages among for instance Daw Mon, U Shan and Ko Lawa.

Historically, U Ka Yin (U Pha Hti) descended from the same ancestors as U U Mongo people. The Great grand father U U Ka Yin settled in Htee-Hset Met Ywa (Land of Flowing Sands), a land bordering the source of the Yangtze -Kiang River in the Gobi Desert.

From there, U Pha Hti migrated southwards and gradually entered the land now known as Shwe Bama about 739 B.C. or earlier as stated above. They thought they were the first settlers in this part of new land. U Ka Yin named this land Kaw-Lah, meaning the Green Land.

But U Pha Hti could not enjoy his peaceful live for long, as Daw Daw Mon entered this area next, followed at their heels by the Shwe Bamas.

(Contrary to his claims, most historians accepted that Daw Daw Mon was the first settler in Shwe Bama earlier than U Pha Hti.)

Both the Daw Daw Mon and U Bama brought with them feudalism. U Bama later won the feudal war, and they subdued and subjugated all other nationalities in the land.

Pha Hti and Pho Khwa even sang the song of U Aunt Gyi’s Moe Day War and they claimed that they were also like the drunk Athu Ya Kae because they also thought that they were in Tar Warein Thar (paradise) but later only they realized that they were actually in the Athu Yar (hell).

Talking about Pha Hti and Pho Khwa, I hereby  wish to salute the General Saw Bo Mya, who passed away peacefully as the great hero of all the Karens. Deposed Myanmar PM General Khin Nyunt called General Saw Bo Mya as Pha Hti and was called back Pho Khwa during the unsuccessful ceased fire talks.

The U Pha Hti claimed that he had suffered untold miseries at the hands of the U Bama lords. U Pha Hti thought that persecution, torture, killings, suppression, oppression and exploitation were the order of the day. U Pha Hti even mentioned a few historical facts as evidence; he referred to the U Bama’s subjugation of the Daw Daw Mon and the Daw Ya Khine, and especially their past atrocities against the Daw Thai at Ayudhaya village. He even claimed that those were episodes in a never ending attempt of Genocide by the Shwe Bama soldiers on their Ethnic Minorities.

Dear Nan, I have already acknowledged that you are smart and clever but why did you query me for the skipping of your second question regarding the Basic concepts of good Governance. Why do you forget my right of answering your questions in any serial order? I thought the answer to that question is a little bit dull and so I used my right to choose to answer your last question before the second question.

What’s up Nan, at first my answers were based on Shan official web and the Karen migration is based on Karen web site and our own experience at the seminar. I also quoted Dr Than Tun’s books, and various History books I mentioned in earlier letter and from the Wikipedia encyclopaedia.

Even if you do not wish to give me the distinction marks, I am sure you could not fail me. Ha, Ha! I had learned a lot from you Nan, thank you for teaching me all the general knowledge and encouraging or sometimes pushing and forcing me to read in stead of watching my favourite movie series. Now you are reaping what you sow. Don’t even think to say that now the son is one month older than the father! If all the students in the whole world just used to learn and know what their teachers spoon fed them, and if there are no more research or progress, we all would be stuck in the Stone Age.

It is too late, I have to go and sleep.

Good-bye darling

Yours  loving hubby 

(Ko Tin Nwe)