ASEAN LEADERS ARE BARKING AT THE WRONG TREE WITH THE WRONG CAUSE AND WRONG OBJECTIVE

ASEAN LEADERS ARE BARKING AT THE WRONG TREE 

WITH THE WRONG CAUSE AND WRONG OBJECTIVE

 

ASEAN leaders are complaining about the convenient way to solve the Rohingya problem.

But for the Rohingyas or Burmese Muslims or Christian Chins/Karens/Kachins and Buddhist Mons/Shans/Burmese etc AND the NLDS  and political opponents and armed rebel groups_

Whether the SPDC would accept them back is not their main concern. What is the consequences after repatriation is their only problem.

Jailed? Tortured? Is the main concern for all but ‘Village arrest’ (for Rohingyas only) is the problem.

No democracy, no Human Rights, no political life, no respect for the Rights of religious minorities and Ethnic minorities is their main concern.

But the lack of development, economic problems back home are the most important fact for all of them.

There is no clear cut line to DEFINE OR CATEGORIZE THEM INTO POLITICAL OR ECONOMIC MIGRANTS. 

Continue reading

Deafening silence from Malaysia regarding Myanmar Cyclone?

Deafening silence from Malaysia regarding Myanmar Cyclone?

 

First of all I wish to apologize if I am wrong.

 

If Malaysian Government had already sent the condolence note to Myanmar, I am sorry for writing this.

 

If Malaysian Government, GLCs (government Linked companies), NST, TV3, NTV7, RTM and NGOs (esp. government affiliated) had already started a campaign to help Myanmar, please accept my  apology for wrongly writing this posting.

 

If you all haven’t done anything, it is shame on you.

 

We don’t want a cent from you Kaisu Malaysia!

 

 

We know that we are not Orang Puteh (Whiteman) , no Arab blood and have no Malay-Indonesian blood. We are ALWAYS discriminated in your country.

 

Never mind if you do not wish to recognize the undocumented workers/migrants and asylum seekers.

 

During the great disaster in Myanmar, I hope if Malaysian government could do the followings to help us without spending a cent.

 

Please announce amnesty on all the Myanmar/Burmese undocumented workers/migrants and asylum seekers including those already in the detention camp. (At least if they could work and earn, they could help their families, relatives and friends.)

 

You could put a time limit for example six months to one year.

It is shameful that you are heartless to continue arresting and some of your agents are harassing them daily.

 

Dr San Oo Aung

 

17 Myanmar Illegal Immigrants Held In Kelantan

BERNAMA, RANTAU PANJANG, May 6 (Bernama) — The Anti- Smuggling Unit (UPP) Tuesday arrested 17 Myanmar nationals without valid travel documents in Kampung Kempas, Machang, as they were being smuggled into the country by a syndicate.

Kelantan UPP commander Mazlan Che Hamid said the Myanmar nationals, aged between 16 and 30 years, had been turned over to the Immigration authorities.

He said the van driver, a Malaysian, stopped the vehicle by the roadside and fled after realising that it was being tailed by UPP personnel at 4.30 am.

The UPP personnel had followed the van from Kampung Kedap here, some 40 km from Machang, he said.

— BERNAMA

TIBET COLONIZED AND MASSACRED BY CHINA

 TIBET COLONIZED

AND MASSACRED BY CHINA

In 1950, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army entered the Tibetan area of Chamdo, crushing minimal resistance from the ill-equipped Tibetan army. In 1951 only, the Seventeen Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet was forced upon representatives of the Dalai Lama by the PLA’s military, and Beijing affirmed Chinese sovereignty over Tibet. As a result, a rebellion broke out in Amdo and eastern Kham in June of 1956 and eventually spread to Lhasa. During this campaign, tens of thousands of Tibetans were killed. The 14th Dalai Lama and other government principals fled to exile in India, but isolated resistance continued in Tibet until 1969. Dalai Lama has fled to India after the failed Tibetan uprising in 1959, and established him as the traditional head of the Tibetan government.

During the Cultural Revolution, the Chinese Red Guards inflicted a campaign of organized vandalism against cultural sites in the entire PRC, including Tibet’s Buddhist heritage. Of the several thousand monasteries in Tibet, over 6,500 were destroyed, only a handful remained without major damage, and hundreds of thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns were killed or imprisoned. Tibetan exiles state that the number that have died in the much unwanted Great Leap Forward, of violence, or other indirect causes since 1950 is approximately 1.2 million

Dalai Lama has stated his willingness to negotiate with China for “genuine autonomy”. The Dalai Lama sees the millions of Han immigrants, attracted to the TAR by economic incentives and preferential socioeconomic policies, as presenting an urgent threat to the Tibetan nation by diluting the Tibetans both culturally and through intermarriage. Chinese authorities view the Dalai Lama, in exile in India since 1959, as the linchpin of the effort to separate Tibet from China and view Tibetan Buddhist belief as supportive of his efforts. Suspected ‘separatists,’ many of whom come from monasteries and nunneries, are routinely imprisoned. In January 2006, Gendun, a Tibetan monk, received a four-year prison sentence for opinions expressed in his lectures on Tibetan history and culture. In June 2006, five Tibetans, including two nuns, were detained for publishing and distributing independence leaflets. In July, Namkha Gyaltsen, a monk, received an eight-year sentence for his independence activities. In August, armed police detained Khenpo Jinpa, an abbot. In September, Lobsang Palden, another monk, was charged with ‘initiating separatist activities.’

On September 30, Chinese People’s Armed Police shot at a group of approximately 40 Tibetan refugees attempting to cross the border into Nepal, killing a 17-year-old nun, Kelsang Namtso, and possibly others. The rest of the group fled, though witnesses reported seeing Chinese soldiers marching approximately 10 children back to a nearby camp. The official press agency Xinhua claimed that the soldiers were ‘forced to defend themselves,’ but film footage showed soldiers calmly taking aim and shooting from afar at a column of people making their way through heavy snow.

See also_

OFFICIAL SEAL

THE TIBETAN GOVERNMENT IN EXILE

THE TIBETAN GOVERNMENT IN EXILE

MENU

NEWS ROOM

His Holiness reiterates firm commitment to the Middle-Way Policy

Chinese immigrant influx in Tibet is a serious threat: British MP

Kasur Tashi Wangdi to head new Office of Tibet in Brussels

Tibetans detained for chanting “long live His Holiness”

Thousands attend His Holiness’ spring teachings

Tibetans honoured with an Indian National Animal Award

Conference on Himalayan rivers and climate change

Tibetan representative welcomed by Poland‘s Speaker, MPs

Congressman Tom Lantos – Human Rights Champion passes away

 

THE STATUS OF TIBET

Tibet : Proving Truth From Facts
Sino-Tibetan Negotiations
Human Rights
Environmental Situation
Resolutions on Tibet
World Parliamentary Conventions on Tibet

 

GOVERNMENT OF TIBET

Guidelines for Future Tibet’s Polity
Directory
Guidelines for International Development Projects and Sustainable Investment in Tibet
What the Chinese scholars say about Tibet
Bank note of Independent Tibet
Stamps of Independent Tibet
Financial Assistance to Tibetan

 

TIBETAN CULTURE

His Holiness the Dalai Lama

The Panchen Lama

Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Government on Controversy Surrounding Dorjee Shugden Practice

Songs for Official Ceremonies

Tibetan Musicians

Tibetan Medicine and Astrology

Tibetan Muslim

Tibetan Women

Films and Videos on Tibet

Tibet House Trust

 

HOW YOU CAN HELP TIBET

THE OFFICE OF TIBET    or  Find the Nearest Office of Tibet
Tibet House, 1 Culworth Street
London NW8 7AF
Tel: 0044-20-7722 5378
Fax: 0044-20-7722 0362

  • 500 Tibet University students reported under arrest; Big Three monasteries under siege by Chinese security forces.

    Running battles reported at Labrang Monastery in Northeast Tibet, which has also been surrounded by security forces.

  • Stay tuned to Students for a Free Tibet’s latest information on protests in Tibet.

    TibetanUprising.org is covering events in India as Tibetans attempt to march back into Tibet.

    Read the Statement by His Holiness the Dalai Lama on this year’s 49th anniversary of the 1959 Tibetan National Uprising.

    The tragic events in Tibet are the result of the intensified repression by China all over Tibet in the lead up to the 2008 Olympic Games. When it was awarded the Olympic Games in 2001, China’s government made promises to improve the human rights situation. But neither the IOC (International Olympic Committee) nor the sponsors have attempted to keep China to its word. Instead, their silence has encouraged China to continue with its repression in Tibet. It was foreseeable that sooner or later the situation would explode. The crackdown and the bloodshed could have been avoided. IOC has played a deplorable part in causing these tragic events. It is high time it should remove its head from the sand and speak out in defence of the Tibetan people!

  • Report phoned in from Lhasa, Saturday, March 15:

    “The situation is terrible. The person cried while talking to me and said that so many people had been killed. The chinese shot at everybody in sight and blood and piles of corpses are lying around the main temple Tsuglakhang in Lhasa. Many people have been put into prison where they are being beaten. Tibetans are being forced to beat up their own countrymen. Many Tibetans are refusing to do so. All travel has been banned. The person appealed for help.” <!– Sign on to Support Team Tibet
    at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing!
    Just released! “Tibet: A Human Development and Environment Report”,
    from the Dept. of Information and International Relations
    –>

    Tibet's Location
    Tibet in Relation to
    Her Neighbors

    Welcome! Tibet Online is operated by the international Tibet Support Group community, providing information on the plight of Tibet and serving as a virtual community space for the movement. This movement is dedicated to ending the suffering of the Tibetan people by returning the right of self-determination to the Tibetan people.

    Tibet’s ancient and fantastic civilization and ecosystem are faced with extinction due to 58 years of mismanagement and abuse under its colonial ruler, the People’s Republic of China. The ongoing destruction of Tibet will only be halted when the fate of Tibet is once again back in the hands of the Tibetans. Please contact a Tibet Support Group near you to find out what you can do to help!

    Featured Links:
    TibetNet, Tibetan Gov’t-in-Exile | International Tibet Support Network | The Tibetan People’s Uprising Movement
    Phayul – News and Views on Tibet by Tibetans | Support Team Tibet at the Olympics!_

    Kidnapped by the Chinese Government:
    Help Free the 11th Panchen Lama

    The Panchen Lama

  • China Olympic Games and Repression

    China Olympic Games and Repression

    Repression continues in China, before Olympic

    Myanmar democracy activists urge

    Olympics boycott

    BANGKOK (AFP) –

    Myanmar democracy activists called Monday on people across the world to boycott televised coverage of this summer’s Olympics in Beijing, in protest at China’s support for the ruling military junta.

    The 88 Generation Students group, which includes some of the country’s top pro-democracy leaders, also urged viewers against buying any merchandise linked to the Games.

    The Olympics are set to open on August 8, the 20th anniversary of a pro-democracy uprising led by students in Myanmar.

    The military, which has ruled the country formerly known as Burma since 1962, opened fire on the crowds, killing an estimated 3,000 people.

    Leaders of the uprising were handed lengthy prison sentences, but when released they formed the 88 Generation Student group.

    The group began new protests in August last year, harnessing public anger at a surprise hike in fuel prices that left many unable to afford even meagre bus fares to work.

    Many of the leaders were again arrested, but Buddhist monks took over the protest movement, which swelled into the biggest anti-government uprising since 1988.

    In a statement issued by leaders now in hiding, the group called “for citizens around the world to pressure the government of China to withdraw its unilateral support of the Burmese military junta and to boycott the 2008 Beijing Olympics.”

    “China is a major trade partner, major arms supplier and major defender of the junta in the international arena,” it said.

    “The military junta in Burma is still in power to this day, despite strong and continuous resistance by the people of Burma, because of China’s support.”

    The group said that instead of supporting the regime, China should help to facilitate a national dialogue among the military and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who has spent 12 of the last 18 years under house arrest.

    The military last week announced that it had completed drafting a new constitution that it plans to bring to a referendum in May. The document would bar Aung San Suu Kyi, a Nobel peace prize winner, from running in elections now slated for 2010.

     

         
     
    Repression continues in China, one year before Olympic Games
    The Reporters Without Borders list of nine things the Chinese authorities must do before the Beijing Olympic Games:
    Reporters Without Borders also supports the eight demands of the Collectif Chine JO 2008 (China 2008 Olympics Collective), an alliance of nine human rights organisations based in France:
    Reporters Without Borders wrote to IOC Jacques Rogge in June 2007

    Repression continues in China,

    before Olympic Games

    When the International Olympic Committee assigned the 2008 summer Olympic Games to Beijing on 13 July 2001, the Chinese police were intensifying a crackdown on subversive elements, including Internet users and journalists. Six years later, nothing has changed. But despite the absence of any significant progress in free speech and human rights in China, the IOC’s members continue to turn a deaf ear to repeated appeals from international organisations that condemn the scale of the repression.

    From the outset, Reporters Without Borders has been opposed to holding the Olympic Games to Beijing. Now, a year before the opening ceremony, it is clear the Chinese government still sees the media and Internet as strategic sectors that cannot be left to the “hostile forces” denounced by President Hu Jintao. The departments of propaganda and public security and the cyber-police, all conservative bastions, implement censorship with scrupulous care.

    At least 30 journalists and 50 Internet users are currently detained in China. Some of them since the 1980s. The government blocks access to thousands for news websites. It jams the Chinese, Tibetan and Uyghur-language programmes of 10 international radio stations. After focusing on websites and chat forums, the authorities are now concentrating on blogs and video-sharing sites. China’s blog services incorporate all the filters that block keywords considered “subversive” by the censors. The law severely punishes “divulging state secrets,” “subversion” and “defamation” – charges that are regularly used to silence the most outspoken critics. Although the rules for foreign journalists have been relaxed, it is still impossible for the international media to employ Chinese journalists or to move about freely in Tibet and Xinjiang.

    Read more

    And continue to read these

    Petition

    Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

    Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

    Pictures of the campaign

    See photos of the operations carried out in Beijing, Paris, New York…

    Media downloads

    Download the “Beijing 2008” campaign graphic
    Download the “Beijing 2008” web banner

    in this country

    15.10 – China
    Reporters Without Borders activists rally in front of Olympic museum in Lausanne as Chinese Communist Party’s 17th congress opens
    15.09 – China
    New York Times researcher Zhao Yan freed on completing jail term
    14.09 – China
    Arrests and incidents involving foreign journalists show government is not keeping Olympic Games promises
    31.08 – China
    Congress passes law censoring disaster coverage
    30.08 – China
    Calling for lawsuit’s dismissal, Yahoo! says it is “political and diplomatic issue”

    in the annual report

    China – Annual report 2007

    Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity,

    Boycott China Olympic

    boycott_beijing2008.jpg

    This blogger cut and pasted the original slogan ” British difficulty, is Burmese opportunity” which was a famous nationalist slogan during the British Colonial revolution.

    This blogger feels that the time is over due to start the campaign to boycott the Chinese Olympic as Chinese Communist Government has avoided its responsibility as a communist party to support the oppressed Burmese People against the Imperialist Military Junta.

    International community sees China as a new emerging superpower, which is able to play a pivotal role to solve the problem in country like North Korea and Sudan. Chinese Communist Government who has planned the Olympic , spent billions of Dollars for preparation, and for mega sports facilities for their up coming National Event.

    At the same time, Chinese communist authority must be very nervous for any negative effect towards the ” Chinese Olympic” which will be a prestigious event for the Modern China. This event will be remembered in the history of China as its legacy.

    Since Chinese Communist Government has blind eyes and deaf ears towards the 50 Million Burmese people’s voice, we should make Chinese Communist Government difficult and Shameful for supporting the world’s worse regime ” Military Junta of Burma”.

    To Burmese freedom fighters, this is the time we should start the slogan

    ” Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity”

    This is the auspicious time , to start a campaign for boycotting the Chinese Olympic.

    Sit Mone

    Tibet clashes and Protests

    Tibet

    clashes and Protests

    Dalai Lama calls for probe

    Pictures

    Nepalese police officers charge at Tibetan protesters in Kathmandu, Nepal on Friday, March 14, 2008. Dozens of protestors were injured in a clash with police, in the protest against the Chinese rule in Tibet.

    Read more_

    Chinese actions in Tibet amount to a “cultural genocide”, Buddhist spiritual leader the Dalai Lama has said.

    He called for Tibet to be opened up to international observers so the full extent of the violent crackdown against protesters can be exposed.
    Speaking from India, where he leads the government in exile, he urged the international community to find out what the situation is in Tibet.

    Dalai Lama condemns

    Chinese ‘terror’ in Tibet

    DHARAMSHALA, India (AFP) – The Dalai Lama condemned on Sunday what he called China’s “rule of terror” and “cultural genocide” in Tibet, calling for an international probe into unrest in his homeland.

    Eighty people have been confirmed dead in the Himalayan region, the Tibetan government-in-exile said at its base in this northern Indian hill town, contradicting the Chinese official report of 10 fatalities in days of unrest.

    The dead included 26 people shot near a prison in the Tibetan capital Lhasa, aides to the Dalai Lama said.

    “They simply rely on using force in order to simulate peace, a peace brought by force using a rule of terror,” the Dalai Lama said in Dharamshala, his home since fleeing Tibet after a failed uprising against Chinese rule in 1959.

    The unrest in the vast Himalayan region, which began last week after the 49th anniversary of the 1959 revolt, is the biggest challenge to China’s rule there in nearly two decades.

    “Please investigate, if possible… some international organisation can try firstly to inquire about the situation in Tibet,” the Buddhist spiritual leader said.

    “Whether intentionally or unintentionally, some cultural genocide is taking place. There is some kind of discrimination: the Tibetans in their own land quite often are treated as second-class citizens,” the Dalai Lama added.

    “Some trusted group should go there and see how it happened,” added the Dalai Lama, who has long complained that Beijing is flooding Tibet with Han Chinese in order to make the Tibetans a minority in their homeland.

    But the Dalai Lama, a Nobel peace laureate, refrained from calling for a boycott of the Beijing Olympics in August, as many Tibetan exiles have been demanding.

    “The Chinese people… need to feel proud of it. China deserves to be a host of the Olympic Games,” he said, saying however that Beijing also needed to be “reminded to be a good host.”

    His comments came hours after China declared a “people’s war” in Tibet, and as witnesses reported repeated gunfire in the Tibetan capital on Saturday and a huge security build-up by Chinese forces there.

    On Sunday, Chinese security forces were said to be patrolling the streets of the now-calm but tense Tibetan capital.

    The Dalai Lama also appealed to China to recognise he wanted autonomy for Tibet, and not independence, and that his campaign was non-violent.

    “We are not seeking separation — that, everyone knows,” he said.

    The unrest in Tibet and a major Chinese crackdown prompted more furious protests on Sunday in Dharamshala, with activists nailing hundreds of Chinese flags to the ground for people to walk on.

    “China should stop the brutal crackdown and genocide,” said Sonam Darjee, a leader of the Tibetan Youth Congress — a pro-independence group which views the Dalai Lama’s call for greater autonomy as not going far enough.

    When asked if he was able to bring an end to Tibetan protests, the Dalai Lama said, “I have no such power.”

    “It’s a people’s movement, I consider myself a people’s servant, I cannot ask people not to do this, not to do that,” he said.

    But “everyone knows my principle — knows (it is) completely non-violence… Violence is almost like suicide.”

    He denied Chinese charges he was linked to the unrest.

    “The Chinese accuse me of creating these problems but I am actually not — I consider myself a spokesman for the Tibetan people,” he said.

    At the same time, the Dalai Lama said a growing number of Chinese “are showing solidarity with us.”

    “Chinese scholars and government officials privately support our ‘middle way’ approach,” he said.

    “Genuine harmony must come from the heart on the basis of trust, free of fear.”

     Tibetan exile group says

    about 100 protesters killed in Tibet

    Dharamsala, March 15, 2008

    Chinese police have killed about 100 Tibetan demonstrators and injured many more during protests against Chinese rule, Tibet’s main exile group said on Saturday, quoting unconfirmed sources.

    The Tibetan government in exile, based in the north Indian town of Dharmsala, offered no details in its statement, and gave no details on its sources.

    The report came after protests by Buddhist monks in Tibet turned violent, with shops and vehicles set on fire and gunshots fired on the streets of the region’s capital, Lhasa. Earlier reports have given lower death tolls. China’s official Xinhua News Agency said 10 people had been killed.

    But it is extremely difficult to get independent verification of events in Tibet since China maintains rigid control over the area. Foreigners need special travel permits, and journalists are rarely granted access except under highly controlled circumstances.

     ’80 killed’ in Tibet clashes

    At least 80 people have been killed in the Tibetan capital of Lhasa during a Chinese crackdown on protests, the Tibetan government in exile has said.

    At least 72 more people have been injured as violence spread on to the streets, the spokesman added.

    Exiles in the UK vented their anger by banging on the doors of the Chinese embassy in London and urging the UK to “end its silence” over rights abuses.

    Tibet Protests Spread to Other Provinces

    Associated Press

    BEIJING –

    Violence in Tibet spilled over into neighboring provinces Sunday where Tibetan protesters defied a Chinese government crackdown. The Dalai Lama warned Tibet faced “cultural genocide” and appealed to the world for help.

    Protests against Chinese rule of Tibet were reported in neighboring Sichuan and Qinghai provinces and also in western Gansu province. All are home to sizable Tibetan populations.

    The demonstrations come after protests in the Tibetan capital Lhasa escalated into violence Friday, with Buddhist monks and others torching police cars and shops in the fiercest challenge to Beijing’s rule over the region in nearly two decades.

    “Whether intentionally or unintentionally, some kind of cultural genocide is taking place,” said the Dalai Lama, the exiled Tibetan spiritual leader. He was referring to China’s policy of encouraging the ethnic Han majority to migrate to Tibet, restrictions on Buddhist temples and re-education programs for monks.

    He told reporters in Dharmsala, the north Indian town where Tibet’s self-declared government-in-exile is based, that an international body should investigate the government’s crackdown on the Lhasa protests.

    Tibet was effectively independent for decades before Chinese communist troops entered in 1950. The latest unrest began March 10 on the anniversary of a 1959 uprising against Chinese rule of Tibet.

    The protests are an embarrassment for China, coming just weeks before the Beijing Summer Olympics ceremonies kick off with the torch relay, which is set to pass through Tibet.

    Thubten Samphel, a spokesman for the Dalai Lama’s government in exile, said multiple sources inside Tibet had counted at least 80 corpses since the violence broke out Friday. He did not know how many of the bodies were protesters. On Friday, the exiled government said at least 30 protesters had been killed by Chinese authorities and the number could be as high as 100.

    The official Chinese Xinhua News Agency has said at least 10 civilians were burned to death Friday. The figures could not be independently verified because China restricts foreign media access to Tibet.

    In Sichuan province, Tibetan monks and police clashed Sunday in Aba county after the monks staged a protest, said a resident there who refused to give his name. He said one policeman had been killed and three or four police vans had been set on fire.

    The India-based Tibetan Center for Human Rights and Democracy said at least seven people have been shot dead in the county. There was no way of immediately confirming the claim.

    In Qinghai province, 100 monks defied a directive confining them to Rongwo Monastery in Tongren city by climbing a hill behind the monastery, where they set off fireworks and burned incense to protest the crackdown in Tibet.

    Businesses were shuttered, and about 30 riot police with shields took up posts near the monastery. Police forced journalists to delete photographs of police.

    In western Gansu province, more than 100 students protested at a university in Lanzhou, according to Matt Whitticase of London-based activist group Free Tibet.

    A curfew was imposed in Xiahe city in Gansu province on Sunday, a day after police fired tear gas on a 1,000 protesters, including Buddhist monks and ordinary citizens, who had marched from the historic Labrang monastery.

    Large communities of ethnic Tibetans live far outside modern Tibet in areas that were the Himalayan region’s eastern and northeastern provinces of Amdo and Kham until the communist takeover in 1951. Those areas were later split off by Beijing to become the Chinese province of Qinghai and part of Sichuan province.

    Lhasa appeared to remain under a curfew on Sunday, though some people and cars were seen on the streets during daylight. The government has not announced the curfew but residents said authorities have warned them not to go outside for several days now.

    Hong Kong Cable TV said about 200 military vehicles each carrying dozens of armed soldiers, drove into the center of Lhasa on Sunday. The footage showed mostly empty streets, but for armored and military vehicles patrolling and soldiers searching buildings.

    Loudspeakers on the streets repeatedly broadcast slogans urging residents to “discern between enemies and friends, maintain order.”

    Xinhua said most shops in the Old Town area of Lhasa, which saw the brunt of the violence, were still closed Sunday. It said some shops in other parts of the town had reopened.

    China’s communist government is hoping Beijing’s hosting of the Aug. 8-24 Olympics will boost its popularity at home as well as its image abroad. But the event has already attracted international scrutiny of China’s human rights record and its pollution problems.

    International criticism of the crackdown in Tibet so far has been mild, with no threats of an Olympic boycott or other sanctions. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice called Sunday on China “to exercise restraint in dealing with the protests.”

    Rice said she was “concerned by reports of a sharply increased police and military presence in and around Lhasa.” Her statement urged China to release those jailed for protesting.

    International Olympic Committee president Jacques Rogge said Saturday he opposed an Olympic boycott over Tibet.

    Dalai Lama says

    China relies on force to achieve peace

    Reuters Dharamsala

    The Dalai Lama said on Sunday that there should be an investigation into whether cultural genocide, intentional or not, was taking place in Tibet, and said China was relying on force to achieve peace.

    Tibet’s exiled spiritual leader said that the international community had the “moral responsibility” to remind China to be a good host for the Olympic Games, but added that China deserved to host the Games.

    He called for an investigation to “whether intentionally or unintentionally cultural genocide is taking place”.

    “The Tibet nation is facing serious danger. Whether China’s government admits or not, there is a problem,” he told a news conference at his base of Dharamsala in northern India.

    “The Olympics should not be called off,” he said.

    There was no immediate comment from China’s foreign ministry.

    On Sunday, police and troops locked down Lhasa, the capital of Tibet, two days after ugly street protests against Chinese rule that the contested region’s government-in-exile said had killed 80 people.

    Monks first took to the streets of Tibet last Monday to mark the 49th anniversary of an earlier uprising, and protests soon spread to adjoining regions inhabited by pockets of Tibetans.

     Amid crackdown, exiles raise

    ‘Tibetan Olympic’ torch

    Agence France-Presse

    Tibetan exiles in Japan hoisted an alternative Olympic torch on Sunday in a bid to ramp up pressure on China over its crackdown on their homeland before the world’s athletes head to Beijing in August.Some 100 exiles and their supporters ran through central Tokyo’s Yoyogi park relaying the “Tibetan Olympics” torch and waving flags while shouting “Free Tibet” and “China, get out of Tibet.”

    “We are questioning China,” said Rinchen, a Tibetan exile in Japan who uses one name. “There are such violations of human rights in China. But will they still hold the Olympics? It’s an event for peace.”

    The torch relay is part of the “Tibetan Olympics” that refugees from the Chinese-ruled territory plan to hold in May in the Indian mountain town of Dharamshala, the home in exile of their spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama.

    Organisers said in a statement that they hoped to “highlight the paradox of the 2008 Beijing Olympics – the world’s most respectful and peaceful sporting event in one of the most repressive and brutal countries.”

    The Tibetan torch has already travelled to Australia and Taiwan and will head next to Hawaii. It will cross the Americas, Europe and Africa before returning to Dharamshala.

    The torch relay came days after the biggest protests in nearly two decades erupted in Tibet, where many residents resent what they see as Chinese attempts to destroy their Buddhist culture.

    China’s state-run press said the riots left 10 people dead while Tibet’s government-in-exile in Dharamshala said about 80 people had been confirmed killed and it had received unconfirmed reports of as many as 100 fatalities.

     Taiwan presidential hopeful

    raises Tibet spectre

    TAIPEI (XFN-ASIA) – The governing party candidate for Taiwan’s presidential election warned today that the island could go the way of Tibet under Chinese rule as he rallied supporters for a final campaign push.

    Frank Hsieh accused China of bullying and urged voters to sweep him to victory in the March 22 vote past frontrunner Ma Ying-jeou of the opposition Kuomintang.

    Ma favours closer ties with Beijing and has proposed a common market with China to promote trade between the traditional foes.

    Hsieh used a rally here to warn of a repeat of the violence that has swept Tibet in recent days, amid reports of gunfire and tanks on the streets to put down the biggest uprising against Chinese rule in nearly 20 years.

    ‘If Taiwan’s future is to be decided by people on both sides of the strait, what has happened in Tibet today will be Taiwan’s future,’ he told a crowd of tens of thousands of supporters, some of whom waved Free Tibet posters.

    China sent soldiers into Tibet in 1950 to ‘liberate’ the Himalayan region, and officially annexed it a year later.

    Hsieh and his pro-independence Democratic Progressive (nyse: PGRnews people ) Party often cite the spectre of an invasion to denounce closer ties with Beijing.

    ‘We are standing here to oppose a one-China market… to oppose a bullying one-China,’ Hsieh added.

    ‘We will reverse the tide,’ he vowed, using a campaign slogan referring to opinion polls that put him 20 points behind Ma.

    Meanwhile, in southern Taiwan, Ma rallied his own supporters in similarly festive mood, balloons bearing the symbol of a horse, a homophone of his last name.

    Protest over Tibet clashes

    Tibetan exiles in the UK have vented their anger against China amid escalating violence in their homeland.

    Protesters banged on the doors of the Chinese embassy in London and the UK was urged to “end its silence” over human rights abuses in the region.

    The Tibetan government in exile said as many as 100 civilians have been killed by security forces in recent days as violence spread on to the streets.

    Tibetan protest rocks Toorak

    ANGRY demonstrators hurled eggs and water bottles at the Chinese consulate in Melbourne yesterday in protest against China’s iron-fisted rule over Tibet.

    More than 100 Tibetans and their supporters rallied outside the consulate in Toorak and the peaceful affair quickly turned rowdy.

    A handful of demonstrators repeatedly surged towards the consulate’s gates, before being pushed back by police.

    At one point, a car driven by an unidentified Chinese man was pelted with eggs and battered with flagpoles as it swept into the consulate.

    Australia Tibet Council campaigns co-ordinator Simon Bradshaw said the protesters were releasing decades of pent-up frustration at China’s occupation of their homeland.

    “Everyone’s now aware of the way things have escalated in Lhasa,” he said.

    “I think it’s made it very clear that China’s rule in Tibet isn’t working.”

    Foreign tourists in Lhasa told of the fear and chaos that gripped the Tibetan capital as violence erupted before Chinese authorities seized control in a huge show of force.

    “I saw a lot of people with wounded heads and blood and ambulances and tanks and policemen all over,” said Danish tourist Bente Walle, 58.

    But the president of the International Olympic Committee, Jacques Rogge, yesterday rebuffed calls for a boycott of the Beijing Games over China’s crackdown in Tibet, saying it would only hurt athletes.

     IOC rejects Games boycott

    The president of the International Olympic Committee has poured cold water on calls for a boycott of the Beijing Games over China’s crackdown in Tibet.

    Jacques Rogge said: “We believe that the boycott doesn’t solve anything”, adding that it would penalises innocent athletes and harm a worthwhile event.

    China has ordered tourists out of Tibet’s capital and troops patrolled the streets a day after deadly clashes.
     
    Tibet: India expresses distress, urges dialogue

    Special Correspondent

    NEW DELHI: India on Saturday expressed distress at the deaths in the unrest in Lhasa but pointed out that Tibet was part of China, distancing itself from demands for independence being made by Tibetans.

    This is the second time India has expressed its views on the unrest in Tibet.

    In a statement earlier this week, India had said it would not allow any anti-Chinese activity on its territory.

    To a question on the recent developments in Lhasa, the Foreign Office said: “We are distressed by reports of the unsettled situation and violence in Lhasa, and by the deaths of innocent people. We would hope that all those involved will work to improve the situation and remove the causes of such trouble in Tibet, which is an autonomous region of China, through dialogue and non-violent means.”

    India had earlier stated that its law and order machinery was competent to deal with any protests on its soil. In response to the threats by Tibetans based at Dharamshala in Himachal Pradesh to cross the border, New Delhi said any person, irrespective of nationality, would be dealt with firmly if found without valid travel documents.

    ‘Watching the situation’

    PTI reports:

    Earlier in the day, External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee said on the sidelines of a conference in Chandigarh that India was “watching the situation.” As Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was out of New Delhi on Friday, the issue could not be discussed, Mr. Mukhe rjee said.

    Chinese security

    deployed in Nepal

    after Tibet unrest: officials

    LIPANG VILLAGE, Nepal-China border (AFP) — China has deployed security personnel inside neighbouring Nepal to keep an eye out for protests by pro-Tibetan groups, Nepali officials have said.

    Plain-clothes Chinese officers could be seen on Saturday on the Nepali side of the border with Tibet, and even blocked an AFP correspondent and photographer from working on Nepali soil near the main border crossing with Chinese-controlled Tibet.

    The cross-border security measures come after unrest in Tibet and a major clampdown in Lhasa, the Tibetan capital.

    “Because of the situation in Lhasa, there are a lot more plain-clothes Chinese armed police on the Nepal side,” explained a senior Nepali military official who asked not to be named.

    “In India, there are Tibetan exiles starting marches to Tibet, and the Chinese are scared the same thing could happen here,” the military official told AFP from the border crossing near Lipang village, 70 kilometres (44 miles) northwest of Kathmandu.

    Another Nepali border official confirmed the presence of Chinese security officials inside Nepal.

    “Before, there were very few Chinese security on our side, but since the protest in Lhasa, there has been at least six Chinese security officials on the Nepali side of the border post all the time. Sometimes, there are as many as 12,” said the Nepali border official, who also asked not to be named.

    An AFP photographer was challenged by 10 Chinese security officials in civilian clothing and uniforms more than 200 metres (yards) inside Nepali territory, and ordered to erase his images of the area.

    “We are a very small country. China is very powerful so we must do what the Chinese tell us,” said the Nepali official, while refusing to say if Chinese security officials were allowed to detain people inside Nepal.

    Landlocked and impoverished Nepal, which is wedged between Asian giants India and China, officially backs its northern neighbour’s “One China policy,” which sees Tibet and Taiwan as an integral part of China.

    Nepal hosts thousands of Tibetan refugees, and each year about 2,500 Tibetans make the dangerous journey across the Himalayas from Tibet into Nepal on their way to Dharamshala — the home of the exiled spiritual leader the Dalai Lama — in northern India.

    Travellers also described security on the Tibetan side of the border as tight.

    “They’ve put up more barriers on the road and there are a lot more army and police around,” said Keshab Timilsina, a Nepali truck driver who plies the road between Nepal and China.

    Although the border appeared to be open to local travellers and traders, Nepali tour operators said they had been told not to bring in foreign tour groups.

    “Our operator in Tibet is saying that the groups cannot come through the border any longer, and we are hearing that people who were on their way to Lhasa from Kathmandu are being turned around,” said a tour operator, who also asked not to be named.

    YouTube blocked in China

    after Tibet clips appear
     

    BEIJING: Access to YouTube in China was denied on Sunday after footage of recent deadly protests in Tibet appeared on the video posting site.Attempts to call up the site met with a blank screen and an error message saying the web page could not be displayed.

    The access problems came after video clips began appearing on the site showing violent unrest in the Tibetan capital Lhasa that triggered a virtual lockdown of the city by security forces.

    China, which strictly controls access to information, has kept a tight lid on news out of Lhasa, with foreign journalists being denied access and foreign tourists ordered out of the city.

    The only footage broadcast by state-run media so far has been a short clip showing Tibetan rioters in the city destroying Chinese shops, but nothing has been released on the resulting crackdown by police.

    China’s official death count puts the toll at 10, but the India-based Tibetan government-in-exile says at least 80 deaths have been confirmed.

    China also has been regularly blacking out the domestic feed of CNN whenever it runs a story about the Tibet unrest.

    Access to popular Chinese-language video posts such as tudou.com were operational on Sunday but a search for videos of the Tibet violence came back with no results.

    In late January, China introduced new restrictions on posting online video that critics saw as an extension of the Communist Party’s tight noose on the nation’s media outlets.

    Amid China’s information clampdown, the Internet has provided a rare window into the situation, with amateur video and pictures popping up on websites around the world.

    Riots-hit Lhasa tense;

    China launches ‘people’s war’

    Beijing (PTI): Chinese security forces poured into a tense but relatively peaceful Lhasa even as the local government on Sunday launched a “people’s war” to crush the massive pro-independence protests, ahead of the deadline to agitating Tibetans to surrender.

    No fresh bloodletting was reported in the riots-scarred Tibetan capital Lhasa where 10 people were killed and 12 security personnel injured after the protests launched as part of the stir to mark the 49th anniversary of the failed Tibetan uprising against the 57-year Chinese rule turned violent.

    However, rights groups claimed that seven people were killed on Sunday after the violent protests spilled to nearby provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai and Gansu with significant Tibetan population.

    A day after setting a Monday deadline for rioters to surrender or face punishment, Tibetan political and security chiefs declared a “people’s war” against the protesters and vowed to “expose” the Dalai Lama group.

    “We must wage a people’s war to beat splittism and expose and condemn the malicious acts of these hostile forces and expose the hideous face of the Dalai Lama group to the light of day,” they were quoted as saying by media after an emergency meeting.

    International pressure mounted on Beijing to show restraint in handling the protests that convulsed Tibet at a time when Beijing is going all out to showcase China through the Olympic eyes.

    A Letter from Barack Hussein Obama and half-past-six Burma

    A Letter from Barack Hussein Obama

    and half-past-six Burma 

    • Originally by_ Dr Azly Rahman
    • I copied from the website of_ DYMM Raja Petra   
    • Based on that core, I have added alot of my remarks and facts about Burma.
    • This is what I will bring to the office of the Presidency of the United States . I will deal with Muslims from a position of familiarity and respect and at this time in the history of our nation that is something sorely needed.

      Even the Burmese opposition leaders and activists wish to maintain the status quo with the excuse of secularism, even refused to allow the Muslims to highlight their sufferings, Racial Discriminations and Religious Suppressions.

      The Muslim heritage of my family

      Barack Hussein Obama

      There has been a lot made in the recent weeks about the Muslim history of my family. Some of the things that have been said are true, others are false, so I am writing this letter to clear up the misunderstandings on this issue.

      Yes, it is true that I have a name that is common amongst Kenyan Muslims where my father came from and that my middle name is Hussein. Barack is a name which means “blessing” and Hussein is a masculine form of the word beauty. 

      Continue reading

    Burmese Chinese

      Burmese Chinese

    The Burmese Chinese or Chinese Burmese are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Burma (Myanmar).

    Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population, this figure may be underestimated because of _

    1. intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar,
    2. and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to declare themselves as Bamar when applying for birth certificate or national identification card).

    The Burmese Chinese_

    1. dominate the Burmese economy,
    2. have a disproportionately high percentage of the educated class.

    Generally, the Burmese Chinese in Lower Burma fall into three main groups:

    1. Burmese called eingyi shay, or let shay lit. long-sleeved shirts to Hokkien and Hakkas from Fujian Province
    2.  Burmese called eingyi to, or let to lit. short-sleeved shirts to Cantonese and Hakka   from Guangdong Province
    3. So Burmese sometimes called zaka, lit. mid-length sleeve to all the Hakka  from Fujian and Guangdong provinces.
    4. But Hakkas are further subdivided into those with
    5. ancestry from Fujian Province, called ein-gyi shay ha-ka
    6. and Guangdong Province, eingyi to haka respectively.

    The Hokkien and Cantonese comprise 45% of the ethnic Chinese population.

    The groups have different stereotypical associations.

    1. The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese,
    2. the Hokkiens are generally wealthier,
    3. occupying high positions in the economy,
    4. and having connections to the government.

    In Upper Burma and Shan Hills,

    1. the Panthay
    2. and Kokang, are speakers of a Mandarin dialect of the Southwestern Mandarin branch, most akin to Yunnanese.

    Combined, they form 21% of Burmese Chinese.

    Kokang are_

    1. mountain-dwellers
    2. and farmers
    3. classified as a part of the Shan national race, although they have no linguistic or genetic affinity to the Tai-Kadai-speaking Shan.

    Muslim Panthay_

    1. are considered as separate local nationalities
    2. rather than a Chinese diaspora community.

    The Tayoke kabya of mixed Chinese and indigenous Burmese parentage.

    1. The kabya (Burmese: mixed heritage) have a tendency to follow the customs of the Chinese more than of the Burmese.
    2. Indeed those that follow Burmese customs are absorbed into and largely indistinguishable from the mainstream Burmese society.
    3. A large portion of Burmese is thought to have some kabya blood,
    4. because immigrants could acquire Burmese citizenship through intermarriage with the indigenous Burmese peoples.

    Culture

    Politics

    Now, we see the Muslims and Indians participating in the monks led peoples protesting. However, the Chinese seem to be curiously missing – in shape or form – within the context of the current protests.

    Are they against the current protests or in support of the protests? Or simply indifferent to any of this since they already have a stronghold over Burma’s economy and anything that takes attention away from them would be positive?

    Either way, the bigger question here is not a question of why aren’t the Chinese involved in these protest rather when will the Chinese get involved. The bottom line is why do the minorities, specifically the Chinese and the so called Indians or Muslims, continue to feel disenfranchised?

    Language

    1. Most Burmese Chinese typically speak Burmese as their mother tongue.
    2. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin
    3. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin and/or English.
    4. Some modern educated use English.
    5. Some use, Chinese dialects/languages.
      • Hokkien is mostly used in Yangon as well as in Lower Burma,
      • while Taishan Cantonese and
      • Yunnanese Mandarin are well preserved in Upper Burma.

    Conditions of Chinese-language schools_

    1. General Ne Win’s (1962-1988) banned on the Chinese-language schools caused a decline of Mandarin speakers.
    2. Chinese schools are growing again nowadays because of the increase in investors and businessmen from Mainland China and Taiwan, who uses Standard Mandarin,

    Religion

    Most Burmese Chinese practice_

    1. Theravada Buddhism,
    2. incorporating some Mahayana Buddhist
    3. and Taoist beliefs,
      • such as the worship of Kuan Yin.
      • Chinese New Year celebrations,
      • as well as other Chinese festivals, are subdued and held privately.
      • Clan associations are often the only places where the Chinese culture is retained.

    The Panthay or Chinese Muslims practice Islam.

    Education

    The Burmese Chinese_

    1. place a high importance on education,
    2. a disproportionate big share with advanced (medical, engineering or doctorate) degrees. (SOA’s note: it is partly because Muslims are labeled Kala and denied the place for postgraduate educations. The Chinese not only escaped that kind of discrimination but they got the special privileges given by the Chinese blooded political, military and education authorities.)
    3. The number would be higher still had it not been for the longstanding ban on those without Burmese citizenship from pursuing advanced degrees.
    4. Nowadays, many wealthy Burmese Chinese send their children overseas for further studies especially in US, UK, Canada, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

    Names

    The Burmese Chinese have_

    1. Burmese names
    2. and many also have Chinese names.

    Names in various Chinese dialects are roughly transliterated into the Burmese.

    1. For example, a person named ‘Khin Aung’ may have the Chinese name of 慶豐 (pinyin: Qìngfēng), with ‘慶’ (pinyin: qìng) corresponding to ‘Khin’, and ‘豐’ (pinyin: fēng) corresponding to ‘Aung’.
    2. However, variations of transcription do exist (between dialects),
    3. and some Burmese Chinese do not choose to adopt similar-sounding Burmese and Chinese names.
    4. Because the Burmese lack surnames, many Burmese Chinese tend to pass on portions of their given names to future generations, for the purpose of denoting lineage.

    According to publications of Longsei Tang, a clan association based in Yangon, the ten most common Chinese surnames in Yangon are:

    1. Li (李)
    2. Peng (彭)
    3. Shi (時)
    4. Dong (董)
    5. Min (閔)
    6. Niu (牛)
    7. Bian (邊)
    8. Xin (辛)
    9. Guan (關)
    10. Tsui/Hsu(徐)

    Cuisine

    The Burmese Chinese cuisine is based on Chinese cuisine, particularly from

    1. Fujian,
    2. Guangdong
    3. and Yunnan provinces, with local influences.
    4. Spices such as turmeric and chili are commonly used.
      • Pauk si
      • Bhè kin
      • Igyakway
      • Htamin kyaw
      • La mont
      • Mewswan
      • San-byoat
      • Panthay khaukswè
      • Sigyet khaukswè

    History

    1. The earliest records of Chinese migration were in the Song and Ming dynasties.
    2. In the 1700s, Ming Dynasty princes settled in Kokang (the northern part of Burma).
    3. Chinese traders, however, traveled up to the capital city, northern towns on the Irrawaddy such as Bhamo.
    4. There was a Chinese community at Amarapura.
    5. Another wave of immigration occurred in the 1800s under the British rule.
    6. They came to Burma via Malaysia.
    7. When the Chinese Communists expelled the Kuomintang, many fled to Burma and Thailand over the borders of Yunnan Province.
    8. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan; those who managed to stay prospered.
    9. The Chinese dominate the highly lucrative rice and gem industries.
    10. Many became merchants and traders owning both wholesale and retail businesses.
    11. The northern region of Burma has seen an influx of mainland Chinese immigrant workers, black market traders and gamblers.
    12. In the Kachin State, which borders China in three directions, Mandarin Chinese is the lingua franca.

     They integrated well into Burmese society because they, like the Bamar,

    1. were of Sino-Tibetan stock
    2. and were Buddhists,

    Their success_

    1. is reflected in the Burmese saying, “Earn like the Chinese, save like the Indian, and don’t waste money like the Bamar”.
    2. They got the nickname pauk hpaw (lit. sibling).
    3. During the 1950s, Burma was one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China as a nation.

    However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens.

    1. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards (FRC), which declared that they were citizens of China.
    2. A similar discrimination policy was set up for Indians.

    In 1962, Ne Win led a coup d’état and declared himself head of state. Although a kabya himself, he banned Chinese-language education, and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave.

    1. Ne Win’s government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China.
    2. When Ne Win implemented the “Burmese Way to Socialism”, a plan to nationalize all industries, the livelihoods of many entrepreneurial Chinese were destroyed and some 100,000 Chinese left the country.
    3. All schools were nationalized, including Chinese-language schools.

     Beginning in 1967 and continuing throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government.

    1. Many Burmese Chinese left the country during Ne Win’s rule, largely because of a failing economy and widespread discrimination.
    2. The first government-sponsored racial riots to take place in Burma was in 1967, during General Ne Win’s rule. In the riots, the general populace went on a killing spree because of sedition and instigation against the Chinese by various government departments.
    3. The massacre lasted for about five consecutive days, during which thousands of Chinese died or were left dying in the streets of Rangoon. Some of the Chinese were thrown alive from the second and third floors of buildings in downtown Rangoon. The dead and wounded Chinese were hauled up unceremoniously and dumped onto army trucks and taken to ‘htauk kyan’ incinerators and the ‘carcasses’ were sent up in smoke.
    4. That showed the true bestial and cruel side of the character of the ruling Burma Military Junta. The only “crime” the Chinese committed was the wearing of Chairman Mao’s badges on their shirts.
    5. Latha Secondary School was torched by the henchmen of General Ne Win’s government, where school girls were burnt alive.
    6. Chinese shops were looted and set on fire.
    7. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation, scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice.

    Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of_

    1. Yangon,
    2. Mandalay,
    3. Taunggyi,
    4. Bago, and their surrounding areas.
    5. According to Global Witness, 30 to 40% of Mandalay’s population consists of ethnic Chinese.
    6. Although there are Chinatowns (tayoke tan) in the major cities, the Chinese are widely dispersed.

    Notable Burmese Chinese

    1. Aung Gyi leading army dissident and Ne Win’s former deputy/co-conspirator in the 1962 coup
    2. Aw Boon Haw (Hakka) – Inventor of Tiger Balm
    3. Aw Boon Par (Hakka) – Brother of Aw Boon Haw
    4. Eike Htun (Kokang) – Managing director of Olympic Construction Co. and deputy chairman of Asia Wealth Bank, two large conglomerates in Burma
    5. Khun Sa (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
    6. Khin Nyunt – Former Prime Minister (2003-2004) and Chief of Intelligence (1983-2004) of Myanmar
    7. Lo Hsing Han (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
    8. Steven Law (also known as Tun Myint Naing; Kokang) – Managing director of Asia World Company, a major Burmese conglomerate and son of Lo Hsing Han
    9. Ne Win (Hakka) – Leader of Burma from 1960s to 1980s
    10. San Yu (Hakka) – President of Burma in the 1980s
    11. Serge Pun – Proprietor of Yoma Bank, a major banking chain in Myanmar and chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co. Ltd (FMI), one of Myanmar’s leading investment companies
    12. Taw Sein Ko (Hokkien) – eminent Director of Archaeology (1901-1915)
    13. Thakin Ba Thein Tin – Communist leader from the 1970s to the 1990s
    14. Maung Aye – Vice chairman of SPDC and Chief of Staff of Armed Forces
    15. Major General Kat Sein – former Minister of Health
    16. Dr. Kyaw Myint – Present Minister of Health
    17. Myo Thant – Former Minister of Information under SLORC
    18. Colonel Tan Yu Sai – Minister of Trade under Ne Win’s government
    19. Colonel Kyi Maung– NLD member (1989-2004) and Army Commander of Rangoon in 1960s
    20. U Thaung – Minister of Labour & Technical Science, Retired Legion and Ambassador
    21. Lun Thi – Minister of Energy
    22. Thein Sein – First Secretary of SPDC
    23. Kyaw Ba – General Formal Minister of Hotel and Tourism

    Reference

    Wikipedia

    The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI

     The Golden days of the

    Great Shan Empire VI

    Country Profile 

    myanmarshan.png

    Size:
    Lies between 19 and 24 degrees latitude North, and Stretches from 96 to 101 degrees longitude East, covering approximately 64,000 square miles; shares boundaries with Burma, China, Laos, Thailand and the Karenni.

    shanstateflag.png

    Topography and Drainage:

    Bisected north to south by the Salween River, one of the longest rivers in Asia. It lies at an average of 2,000 feet above sea-level, and the highest point, Mount Loilaeng, is 8,777 feet. It is composed of broad valleys, thickly wooded mountain ranges and rolling hills forming scenic landscapes.

    Jong-ang, the biggest waterfall (972 feet) can be found near the town of Kengtong in Mongnai State.

    Climate

    There are three seasons:

    1. Monsoon (May to October),
    2. Cold season(November to January)
    3. and Summer (February to April).

    Annual rainfalls average between 40-60 inches.

    The overall temperature is equable throughout the year: not too cold and not too hot.

    Vegetation

    Pine and evergreen forests can be found in abundance. Teak and various kinds of hardwood cover over 47,210 square miles.

    Minerals
    The bulk of the so-called Burmese natural resources are in the Shan State: silver, lead, gold, copper, iron, tin, wolfram, tungsten, manganese, nickel, coal, mica, antimony, fluorite, marble, gemstones and even uranium.

    Major Operating Mines are:

    • the Mogok (Mognkut in Shan) and Mongsu ruby mines,
    • and the Namtu Bawdwin silver mines discovered by the Chinese traders and renovated in 1904 by none other than Herbert Clerk Hoover (1874-1964) who became the 31st President of the United State.
    • A study of the Indian geological reports made by Drs Cogging and Sondhi in 1993 reveals Northern Shan States as incredible mining potential…
    • As for Southern Shan’s remarkable resources, they can be studied from the reports made by a G.V. Hovson (Shanland’s Grievances, by Htoon Myint of Taunggyi, )

    People :

    The population of these multi-racial people, described by ancient travelers as the most peace loving people who trust everybody and envy nobody is estimated at 7-10 million, the majority of whom are Tai, of the same ethnological stock as Thai and Laos, plus several other racial groups including Pa-o, Palaung and Wa of Mon-Khmer stock; and Kachin, Akha and Lahu of the Tibeto-Burman stock.

    All in all, it’s various indigenous races have lived harmoniously together for centuries. This fact is supported by the political analyst Josef Silverstein, who say’s:

    “Although the Shans dominated the people in the area both politically and numerically, they never assimilated the minorities; as a result, cultural pluralism existed through out the Shan States”. (Politics in the Shan State, The Question of Secession from the Union of Burma, 1958, by J. Silverstein).

    The Shan’s stand on the racial question is best described by Sao Shwe Thaike, who in his capacity as the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly,

    countered the objection that Muslims could not be considered as being indigenous by saying :

    “Muslims of the Arakan certainly belong to one of the indigenous races of Burma. If they do not belong to the indigenous races, we also cannot be taken as indigenous races.”

    Culture:

    Shan is still the first language of the majority, though due to 60 years under the British Protectorate and 40 years under Burmese neo-colonialism, usage of English and Burmese has become fairly common.

    As for attire, Shan men, unlike the Burmese, who wear longyis or long skirts, don long baggy trousers. Theravada Buddhism is the pre-eminent faith, and perhaps due to this tolerant religion, Hinduism, Christianity, Islamism and even animisms flourish in this land.

    Agriculture:

    Primarily a self-sufficient agricultural economy, being blessed with fertile soil, it produces rice, tea, cheroot leaves, tobacco, potatoes, oranges, lemon, pears, and opium.

    Cattle-and horse-breeding is also a common sight in low grasslands. Added to the fact that it is rich in mineral resources and abundant in teak timber, there is no reason why the Shan State could not become one of the richest and most economically dynamic countries in Southeast Asia, given a favorable political climate. 

    Shan States is a beautiful and fertile land, with green hills and mist-covered mountains. 

    Shans are on the whole, good natured gentle, independent people.

    Shan States have a diverse mix of ethnic groups; Tai Yai, Tai Khurn, Tai Lui or Tai Neir, Tai Keiy, Pa-O or Daung Su, Daung Yoe, Palaung, Kachin, Dai Nawng or in Burmese Intha, Danu, Lisu, Lahu, Wa, Kaw, Padaung, as well as Chinese, Indians, Burmans and others. 

    The Shans are the most widely scattered of the ethnic people in Myanmar and they can be found in every part of the country.

    Their Mans (villages), Mongs (city-states) and settlements stretch from the northernmost region of Hkamti Long down to Tharrawaddy and then to southern Taninthayi (Tenasserim) and from the tip of Kengtung in the east to Hsawng Hsup, Kabaw valley and Ta-mu in the west.

    In central Myanmar many Shan settlements can be found around Ava, Pinya, Sagaing, Toungoo, Pyinmana and Pyi (Prome). 

    Now-a-days, Shan people are spread around the world, many having left Burma to escape the persecution and brutality of the SPDC, many to study overseas. 

    Shans live overseas in Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Europe, Taiwan, China, Japan and elsewhere.  Many overseas groups are actively campaigning for freedom in Shan States and Burma. 

    Until recently many groups worked almost independently.  In recent years the more widespread use of e-mail and internet technology means that overseas Shan groups can communicate more easily with one another, sharing ideas, discussing campaigns and global change.

    Shans feel immensely sad that their beautiful homeland has been ravaged and abused by SPDC, and because they have deep love for their motherland, they feel deeply bereft and betrayed.

    sao.jpg

    Two Soa Hso Kham Pha is the eldest son of the late Last year Soa Hso Kham Pha, also known as Tiger Yawnghwe, founded the Interim Shan Government with the cooperation of a group of Shan elders. Recently the ISG has established a freedom fighting force called Shan State Army (Central) with thousands of troops to fight against the neo-fascist military regime in Burma.  

    List of Shan state rulers

     Read more in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.The Shan State of Burma (Myanmar) was once made up of a large number of traditional monarchies or fiefdoms. Three ranks of chiefs where recognized by the Burmese king and later by the British administration. These ranks were Saopha or Chaofa (Shan for king or chieftain) or Sawbwa in Burmese, Myosa (”duke” or chief of town), and Ngwegunhmu (silver revenue chief).

    se_asia_lang_map.png

    Contents

    1 Shan states

    1. 1.1 Hierarchy and Precedence

    2. 1.2 Baw (Maw)

    3. 1.3 Hopong (Hopon)

    4. 1.4 Hsahtung (Thaton)

    5. 1.5 Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)

    6. 1.6 Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)

    7. 1.7 Hsenwi (Theinni)

      1. 1.7.1 North Hsenwi

      2. 1.7.2 South Hsenwi

    8. 1.8 Hsihkip (Thigyit)

    9. 1.9 Hsipaw (Thibaw)

    10. 1.10 Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)

    11. 1.11 Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)

    12. 1.12 Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)

    13. 1.13 Kenglön (Kyainglon)

    14. 1.14 Kengtung (Kyaingtong)

    15. 1.15 Kokang

    16. 1.16 Kyon

    17. 1.17 Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)

    18. 1.18 Laihka (Lègya)

    19. 1.19 Lawksawk (Yatsauk)

    20. 1.20 Loi-ai (Lwe-e)

    21. 1.21 Loilong (Lwelong)

    22. 1.22 Loimaw (Lwemaw)

    23. 1.23 Mawkmai

    24. 1.24 Manglon

    25. 1.25 Monghsu

    26. 1.26 Mawkmai (Maukme)

    27. 1.27 Mawnang (Bawnin)

    28. 1.28 Mawsön (Bawzaing)

    29. 1.29 Möngkawng (Mogaung)

    30. 1.30 Mongkung

    31. 1.31 Möngleng (Mohlaing)

    32. 1.32 Mönglong

    33. 1.33 Möngmit (Momeik)

    34. 1.34 Mong Nai (Monè)

    35. 1.35 Mongnawng

    36. 1.36 Mong Pai (Mobye)

    37. 1.37 Mong Pan

    38. 1.38 Mong Pawng (Maing Pun)

    39. 1.39 Möngping (Maingpyin)

    40. 1.40 Möngsit (Maingseik)

    41. 1.41 Möngtung (Maington)

    42. 1.42 Möngyang (Mohnyin)

    43. 1.43 Möngyawng

    44. 1.44 Namhkai (Nanke)

    45. 1.45 Namhkok (Nankok)

    46. 1.46 Namhkom (Nankon)

    47. 1.47 Namtok (Nantok)

    48. 1.48 Namkhok-Nawngwawn

    49. 1.49 Panglawng

    50. 1.50 Pangmi

    51. 1.51 Pangtara (Pindara)

    52. 1.52 Pwehla (Poila)

    53. 1.53 Sakoi

    54. 1.54 Samka

    55. 1.55 Tawngpeng

    56. 1.56 Wanmaw (Bhamo)

    57. 1.57 Wanyin (Banyin)

    58. 1.58 Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)

    59. 1.59 Ywangan (Yengan)

    60. 1.60 Bibliography

    Shan states

    State Area (sq. mi) Classical Name Notes
    Sawbwas
    Kengtung 12,400 Khemarata Tungaburi
    Hsipaw 4,524 Dutawadi
    Mongnai 2,717 Saturambha/Nandapwa
    Yawnghwe 1,392 Kambawsarata
    Tawngpeng 800 Pappatasara
    South Hsenwi 2,400 Siwirata or Kawsampi Also known as Mongyai
    North Hsenwi 6,330 Siwirata or Kawsampi
    Mongmit 3,733 Gandhalarata
    Mongpai 730
    Lawksawk 2,362 Hansawadi?
    Laikha 1,560 Hansawadi
    Mawkmai 2,557 Lawkawadi
    Mongpan 2,988 Dhannawadi
    Mongpawn 366 Rajjawadi
    Manglun Jambularata
    Kantarawadi 3,015
    Samka 314
    Mongkung 1,593 Lankawadi
    Myosas
    Nawngwawn 28 Pokkharawadi Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
    Mongnawng 1,646 Nandawadi
    Mongsit
    Kehsi-bansam 551
    Mawnang Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1934
    Loilong (Pinlaung) 1,098
    Hsahtung 471
    Wanyin 219
    Hopong 212
    Namkhok 108 Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
    Sakoi 82
    Mongshu 470 Hansawadi
    Kenglun 54 Amalgamated with Kehsh Bansam, 1926
    Bawlake 565
    Kyetbogyi 700
    Hsamongkham 449
    Baw 741
    Pwela 178
    Ngwegunhmus
    Yengan (Ywangan) 359
    Pangtara (Pindaya) 86
    Pangmi 30
    Loi-ai 156 Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1930
    Kyaukku 76 Amalgamated with Pwela, 1928
    Loimaw 48 Amalgamated with Yawnghwe, 1928
    Kyone 24
    Namtok 14 Amalgamated with Loilong, 1931

        Chinese provinces with the name Shan

    1. Shan is another name of the Dai, an ethnic group in China.

    2. Shan, an abbreviation for the Shaanxi province of the People’s Republic of China

    3. Shan, or Shan county, also refers a county in Shandong province of PRC

    4. Shan, or Shantou (汕头), a city in Guangdong province of PRC

    5. Shan, name for a region in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    6. Shan, also refers to the name of ancient Western Regions (西域)

    Shan also means hill, peak, or mountain in Chinese languages and Japanese There is also Chinese surname, Shan (surname), is a in Chinese.There is also river name with Shan , in Zhejiang Province of PRC

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    Photos of the His Royal Highness Tzao Hso Khan Pha, President and Head of States, Interim Shan Government of the Federated Shan States.The remaining  are Shan Freedom Fighters’ photos, Six photos are copyright of Chris Sinclair mailto:csinclair@pobox.com.Four…….. Four other photos are courtesy of TSY taisamyone@yahoo.co.uk. All are taken from Burma Digest.

    The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V

    The Golden days of the

    Great Shan Empire V

    Shans around the world (Tai peoples) 

    The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity

    The Tai or Tai-Kadai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from_

    • Hainan to eastern India
    • and from southern Sichuan to Laos,
    • Thailand, and parts of Vietnam,

    which speak languages in the Tai-Kadai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including Songkran or Thingyan water festival.  

    • Despite never having a unified nation-state of their own,
    • the peoples also have historically shared a vague idea of a Shan or Tai or “Siam” nation, corrupted to Shan in Burma or Assam in India, and most of them self-identified themselves as “Tai”. 

    Origin of the Tai Comparative linguistic research seems to indicate that the Tai people were a proto Tai-Kadai speaking culture of southern China, and that they may have originally been of Austronesian descent.

    Prior to inhabiting mainland China, the Tai are suspected to have migrated from a homeland on the island of Taiwan where they spoke a dialect of Proto-Austronesian or one of its descendant languages.

    After the arrival of Sino-Tibetan speaking ethnic groups from mainland China to the island of Taiwan, the Tai would have then migrated into mainland China, perhaps along the Pearl River, where their language greatly changed in character from the other Austronesian languages under influence of Sino-Tibetan and Hmong-Mien language infusion.

    The coming of the Han Chinese to this region of southern China may have prompted the Tai to migrate in mass once again, this time southward over the mountains into Southeast Asia. 

    While this theory of the origin of the Tai is currently the leading theory, there is insufficient archaeological evidence to prove or disprove the proposition at this time, and the linguistic evidence alone is not conclusive.

    DNA Analysia

    1. However, in further support of the theory, it is believed that the O1 Y-DNA haplogroup is associated with both the Austronesian people and the Tai.
    2. The prevalence of Y-DNA Haplogroup O1 among Austronesian and Tai peoples also suggests a common ancestry with the Sino-Tibetan, Austro-Asiatic and Hmong-Mien peoples some 35,000 years ago in China. 
    3. Y-DNA Haplogroup O1 is a subclade of O Y-DNA haplogroup, which itself is a clade of Y-DNA Haplogroup K, a genetic mutation that is believed to have originated 40,000 somewhere between Iran and Central China. 
    4. In addition to the ethnicities previously mentioned, the progenator of Haplogroup K was probably the ancestor of nearly all modern Melanesian people, as well as the Mongols and the Native Americans.
    5. Haplogroup K, in turn, is a clade of Y-DNA Haplogroup F, which is believed to have originated in Northern Africa some 45,000 years ago.
    6. Haplogroup F is believed to be associated with the second major wave of migration out of the African continent.
    7. In addition to the ethnicities previously mentioned, the progenator of Haplogroup F was probably the ancestor of all Indo-Europeans. 

    Subdivisions of the Tai Ethnic Group

    The exact structure of the clades of the Tai ethnicity are a topic of present debate among linguists and other social scientists.

    There is only a general consensus as to the existence of the following distinct groups: 

    1. the nuclear Tai peoples of China and much of Southeast Asia,
    2. including most notably the  Thai, Lao, Isan, Shan and Zhuang
    3. the Li people of China (also known as the Hlai people)
    4. the Kadai peoples of China and Vietnam (also known as the Geyan peoples)
    5. the Kam-Sui peoples (which may or not include the Biao people)
    6. the Saek people of Laos and Thailand
    7. the Biao people of China  

    Other Tai-Kadai speaking ethnic groups of non-Tai ethnic descent 

    There is an ethnic group called the Lakkia in the Guangxi Province of China (Tai Lakka in neighboring portions of Vietnam) which is ethnically of Yao descent whose members speak a Tai-Kadai language called Lakkia. These Yao were likely in an area dominated by Tai speakers and assimilated an early Tai-Kadai language (possibly the language of the ancestors of the Biao people).

    The Lingao people in the Hainan Province of China speak a Tai-Kadai language called Lincheng, although the ethnicity of the Lingao traces back to the Han nationality.

    Geographic Distribution 

    1. The Tai have historically resided in China, India and continental Southeast Asia since the early Tai expansion period.
    2. Their primary geographic distribution in those countries is roughly in the shape of an arc extending from_
    3. northeastern India through southern China and down to Southeast Asia.
    4. Recently Tai migrated to Sri Lanka, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, the United Arab Emirates, Argentina and North America as well.
    5. Greatest ethnic diversity within the Tai occurs in China. 
    6. Nuclear Tai peoples throughout China, India and Southeast Asia 

    Further information:

    • Tai ethnic groups in China
    • Tai ethnic groups in Southeast Asia
    • and Tai ethnic groups in India

    Li people

    The Li reside primarily, if not completely, within the Hainan Province of China. 

    Kadai peoples

    The Kadai peoples are clustered in the Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan, Hunan and Hainan Provinces of China, as well as the Ha Giang, Cao Bang, Lao Cai and Son La Provinces of Vietnam.

    Kam-Sui peoples

    The Kam-Sui peoples are clustered in China as well as neighboring portions of northern Laos and Vietnam.

    Saek people

    The center of the Saek population is the Mekong River in central Laos. A smaller Saek community makes its home in the Isan region of northeast Thailand, near the border with Laos. 

    Biao people

    The Biao people are clustered in the Guangdong Province of China.

    Lakkia people

    The Lakkia are an ethnic group clustered in the Guangxi Province of China and neighboring portions of Vietnam, whose members are of Yao descent, but speak a Tai-Kadai language called Lakkia.

    These Yao were likely in an area dominated by Tai speakers and assimilated an early Tai-Kadai language (possibly the language of the ancestors of the Biao people). 

    Lingao people

    The Lingao people are an ethnic group clustered in the Hainan Province of China who speak a Tai-Kadai language called Lincheng.

    They are categorized as Han Chinese under China’s system of ethnic classification. 

    Other Tai populations throughout Asia

    There is a large Shan community within Sri Lanka which settled in Sri Lanka from mainland India.

    In other parts of Asia, substantial Thai communities can be found in Japan, Taiwan and the United Arab Emirates.

     Tai of North America

    The United States is home to a significant population of Thai, Lao, Tai Kao, Isan, Lu, Phutai, Tai Dam, Northern Thai, Southern Thai, Tay and Shan people.

    There are a significant number of Thai and Lao people living in Canada as well. 

    Tai of Europe

    The most significant communities of Tai peoples in Europe are in_

    1. the Lao communities of the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Switzerland,
    2. the Isan communities of the United Kingdom and Iceland,
    3. the Thai communities of Finland, Iceland and Norway,
    4. the Tai Dam and Tay communities of France,
    5. and the Southern Thai community of the United Kingdom. 

    Thai of Oceania

    There is a sizable Thai community in Australia, as well as a Northeastern Thai community in New Zealand 

    Lao of Argentina

    In recent times, large numbers of Lao have migrated to Argentina 

    Common CultureLanguage 

    The languages spoken by the Tai people are referred to as the Tai-Kadai language family.

    The most widely spoken of the Tai-Kadai languages are_

    1. the Tai languages, including Thai, the national language of Thailand,
    2. Lao or Laotian, the national language of Laos,
    3. Burma‘s Shan language,
    4. and Zhuang, a group of languages of southern China.

    These languages are tonal languages,

    • meaning variations in tone of a word can change that word’s meaning. 

    Festivals 

    The Tai throughout Asia celebrate a number of common festivals, including a holiday known as Songkran, which originally marked the vernal equinox. 

    Thailand

    The Tai migration from the northern mountains into Thailand and Laos was a slow process, with the Tai generally remaining near to the mountainous regions within the region, where they were able to use their specialized agricultural knowledge relating to the use of mountain water resources for rice production.

    The earliest Tai settlements in Thailand were along the river valleys in along the northern border of the country. Eventually, the Tai settled the central plains of Thailand (which were covered with dense rainforest) and displaced and inter-bred with the pre-existing Austro-Asiatic population.

    The languages and culture of the Tai eventually came to dominate the regions of both modern-day Laos and Thailand.

    In more recent times, many of the Tai tribes of Laos also migrated west across the border establishing communities in Thailand. The Laotian Tai ethnic groups, often referred to as the Lao), are largely clustered in the Isan region of Thailand.

    The coming of the Han Chinese to this region of southern China may have prompted the Tai to migrate in mass once again, this time southward over the mountains of southern China into Southeast Asia via the mountains of Burma and Laos to the north of Thailand.

    It is believed that the Tai ethnic groups began migrating southward from China and into Southeast Asia during the first millennium A.D.

    Tai ethnic fusion

    Over the years, the Tai intermarried and absorbed many of the other populations who co-inhabited and/or politically occupied the region, particularly populations of Mon-Khmer, Burmese, and Chinese descent.

    This fusion of ethnicity has led to considerable genetic diversity in the modern Thai people, and has resulted in a Tai population significantly different in culture, language and physical appearance from the Tai ethnic groups who remained in China.

    In addition, many of the individual Tai ethnic groups have merged under a common Thai identity, and have adopted a nationalistic view of their culture. 

    Individual Tai ethnic groups in Thailand

    There are presently upwards of 30 distinct Tai ethnic groups within Thailand, making up nearly 85% of the nation’s population. The genetic stratification of the ethnic clades of the Tai ethnicity is a topic of present debate among linguists and other social scientists.

    What’s up China?

    What’s up China?

    When compare to our other good neighbour, India, you are so cruel on all the countries in South East Asia, including Burma.

    You had kicked out or forced out or pushed out almost all the ethnic groups of South East Asia including all the ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar and the Bama people’s ancestors. After that you shamelessly bully all of us again by following to our new home land and asked for the protection money or ransom money.

    See your neighbour India, it had given the great religions, Hindu, Buddhism and Islam to all the nations of South East Asia including Burma.

    India had given culture, arts, literature etc to all of us, including Burma/ Myanmar.

    India had just fought two wars in the whole history on our South East Asia. ( We leave behind three wars with China and wars in South Asia.)

    ( What’s up is an informal question meaning, depending on situation and emphasis: “what are you doing”, “how are you?”, “what is happening” or “what gives.” It is sometimes used as an informal, casual greeting in itself.)

    Now I wish to ask China to repent and pay back the the historical debts instead the present shameful stance of its hindrance in  our current struggle  for the democratization movements against SPDC Junta. China is actively supporting this pariah Junta and protecting this régime in the UNSC.

    Please red my article in Burma Digest, C.C.C.C. or C4 ,Communist Chinese Colonialist’s Cruelties with MAHA BANDULA pseudonym to know about the China.

    If we look at the China’s long history of aggressive behaviour on its own citizens, neighbours and the world, it is quite alarming. The world must do something to protect itself from this big bully instead of closing one eye to get the big economic opportunity by supporting its one China policy and undemocratic unruly bullying on its neighbours and on its own citizens.

    If we look at the history of South East Asia, including almost all of our ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar, almost all of us had to migrate down and out of China because of the violent, aggressive Chinese new comers that pushed or forced all of us out.

    Later after settling in the new home land, Chinese Kings tried to continue their bully by demanding to pay tributes regularly. Not only Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Laos but far away countries like, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bengal, Europe, Mecca and Medina are also not spared.

    And during the late 60’s and 70’s, just because General Ne Win massacred the Burmese Chinese in the anti-Chinese Riots, they supported the Burmese Communist Party with 100,000 Chinese Red army troops, disguised as Wa rebels.

    According to the Burmese language, Peking radio reports, 100,000 Chinese soldiers deserted with full ammunition and joined forces with them. So, the so called, Wa Ethnic Minorities, who could not even speak or understand a word in Burmese, became full citizen now. They could easily get the Myanmar National Registration Cards and many of them even managed to get the Myanmar Passports.

    Just look at the various groups of Burmese Muslims’ dilemma in getting the National Registration Cards and Passports. And our cousin brothers, Rohingyas are unfairly discriminated.

    Is that because our skin are darker than Chinese?

    Is that because our nose are sharper than Chinese?

    Is that because we are Muslims and could not assimilate thoroughly like Chinese who could assimilate easily?

    Is that because the Burmese girls need not convert if they marry the Chinese?

    Although PURE Chinese Nationals who disguised as ‘Myanmar Ethnic Minority’ Wa could grease the hands of Myanmar local and national authorities, just because they-are not-Indian factor and because of their Chinese features paved their way easily.

    But anyway please look back the history of South East Asia, India. [We all are not Indians but anyway Burmese Muslims are called Kalas/Indian (people of the Indian sub-continent) mixed blooded people.]

    Except for the South India dynasty of Chola’s attack on Indonesia’s Srivijaya and Moghul  King Aurangzeb, attacked the Arakan once only. His elder brother Shah Shuja’ was the second son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal of India. Shah Shuja’ lost to his brother and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), the Arakan King accepted and allow him to settle there but later arrested and killed. Although Aurangzeb was the enemy of the Shah Shuja’, he was upset by the massacre and attacked Arakan.

    India and China shaped the present South East Asia, and the Colonial masters polished into the present finished products.

    Indianized kingdoms

    The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic cultural and economic influences in Southeast Asia.

    Ancient and classical kingdoms

    Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China.

    The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories.

    The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia.

    Examples are the Ayutthaya Kingdom, based on the Chao Phraya River delta and the Khmer Empire on the Tonle Sap.

    The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Malacca and Srivijaya were maritime states. A succession of trading systems dominated the trade between China and India.

    First goods were shipped through Funan to the Isthmus of Kra, portaged across the narrow , and then transhipped for India and points west.

    Around the sixth century CE merchants began sailing to Srivijaya where goods were transhipped directly. The limits of technology and contrary winds during parts of the year made it difficult for the ships of the time to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

    The third system involved direct trade between the Indian and Chinese coasts. Several kingdoms developed on the mainland, initially in modern-day Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    The first dominant power to arise in the archipelago was Srivijaya in Sumatra. Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards.

    • Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

    • The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.

    • The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago for its forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China.

    • Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire’s official religions.

    • Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

    • The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its ruler Hayam Wuruk, (1350 to 1389) dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.

    • The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and they influence the local cultures.

    • Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

    • Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

    • States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

    • Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built.

    • Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

    • States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

    • Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built. Southeast Asian rulers were founders of these states_

    • and then imported the Indian ritual specialists as advisers on raja dharma, or the practices of Indian kingship.

    • The Indianized kingdoms developed a close affinity

    • and internalised Indian religious, cultural and economic practices without significant direct input from Indian rulers themselves.

    • Indianization was the work of Indian traders and merchants, although later the travels of Buddhist monks such as Atisha became important. Southeast Asian rulers enthusiastically adopted elements of raja dharma,

    • (Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, codes and court practices)

    • to legitimate their own rule • and constructed cities, such as Angkor,

    • to affirm royal power by reproducing a map of sacred space derived from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

    • Southeast Asian rulers frequently adopted lengthy Sanskrit titles

    • and founded cities, such as Ayutthaya in Thailand, named after those in the Indian epics.

    • Most Indianized kingdoms combined both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices in a syncretic manner.

    • Kertanagara, the last king of Singhasari, described himself as Sivabuddha, a simultaneous incarnation of the Hindu god and the Buddha.

    • Also a significant part of the current population in South East Asia has a trace of Indian ancestry from distant antiquity. Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures These kingdoms prospered from the Spice Route, trade among themselves and the Indian kingdoms.

    • The influence of Indian culture is visible in the script, grammar, religious observances, festivities, architecture and artistic idioms even today.

    • The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures, created a new synthesis. The Southeast Asian region was previously called by the name Indochina.

    • The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures are both strongly visible in this region even today, with the majority of the region being Indianized and Vietnam Sinocized.

    • The reception of Hinduism and Buddhism aided the civilization maturity of these kingdoms but also subjected them to aggression by Indian and Chinese rulers.

    • Cultural practices like the performances of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana across all of Southeast Asia.

    • Traces of Hindu culture are visible also in the Sanskrit etymology of words in Myanmar language, Malay language, Indonesian and other regional languages as well as personal names. The Chinese ruled Vietnam for a millennium, while the Chola dynasty of South India ruled over Srivijaya briefly.

    • And though Southeast Asia is an economic powerhouse in its own right, the need to balance Chinese economic and political influence with that of India remains an important factor for the region.

    • Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola kingdom of South India and the South East Asian Hindu kingdoms, led the Bay of Bengal to be called “The Chola Lake”

    • and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the tenth century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.

    • The subsequent arrival of Islam, by Arab traders,

    • and Christianity, by Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch colonial rulers significantly weakened the connection with India.

    • Chinese influence grew with the gradual migration of Chinese traders and merchants. Chinese influence dominated in Vietnam, although other states such as the Khmer empire and Malacca were drawn into Chna’s diplomatic orbit.

    • While Buddhism remains the dominant religion in mainland Southeast Asia,

    • Hinduism survives in Bali and

    • Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.

    The History of Burma (or Myanmar) is long and complex.

    Several races of people have lived in the region, the oldest of which are probably the Mon or the Pyu. In the 9th century the Bamar (Burman) people migrated from the then China-Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady, and now form the governing majority.

    ‘Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans’.

    Though there is ‘scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race’, nevertheless, Burma’s proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have ‘an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation’, resulting in some historians proclaiming that ‘Myanmars were descendants of Aryans’.

    The history of the region comprises complexities not only within the country but also with its neighbouring countries, China, India, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Laos and Thailand.

    India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

    1. weddings

    2. and ear-piercings

    3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.

    Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

    India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

    1. weddings

    2. and ear-piercings

    3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival. Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

    1. Early history of Burma Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum), was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.

    Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC, though definitely by the 2nd century BC when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon’s written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations.

    By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Myanmar. From that time, Northern Burma was a group of city-states in a loose coalition.

    The ‘King’ of each city-state would change allegiance as he saw fit, so throughout history.

    1. Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

    (i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

    (ii) another came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

    (iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

    (i) One came down from above like

    Shan, (ii) and another from India , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Talaings originated from the Talingana village of India and arrived to lower  Burma , met and intermarried with Mons, who came down from Yunnan, spreads through Burma up to Thailand, Laos and Kambodia.

    They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc.. Our  Burmese spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language.

    But our Burmese writing language was from India, Brami Script we took not from our native Mon but her cousin Mons resided in Thailand.

    Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma Orissa

    Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

    Andhra Dynasty Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

    Talaings or Mons Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. Mon

    Early History of Burma_

    Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.

    The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma.

    Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.

    The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman’n’adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.

    The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.

    The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

    Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.

    The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

    After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

    Mon kingdoms A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states. These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.

    Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai หงสาวดี Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma. Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy ) Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon. According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD.

    It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries. The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056. After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence. From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma.

    The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.

    They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

    Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history.

    It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.

    PYU

    The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

    In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey.

    The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.

    Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.

    The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

    India and Arakan Intercourse

    Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras “The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.

    In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).

    This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,

    • … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;

    • … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal

    • … Both government and people were Indian.

    • It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.

    • Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.

    The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra. Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

    The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD.

    Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

    Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.

    1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,

    2. “Tsit-ta-gung”

    3. meaning “there shall be no war”.

    4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.

    Chittagong under Arakanese rule Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD

    Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

    Pyu

    Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups;

    (i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

    (ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

    (iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.

    The famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD.

    1. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D.

    2. and Mon from 5th century A.D.

    3. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D. Beikthano (Vishnu) Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD. (Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.

    Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship.

    There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as ‘Vishnu City’.

    Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

    Pyu Kings are Maharajas

    In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul..

    • There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese.

    • Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

    • Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.

    • In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu. Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.

    • On Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC. and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.

    • Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left.

    • And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.

    • Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.

    • The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so‘ far to be excavated in that area.

    Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa

    In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).

    The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.

    In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.

    Thamala and Wimala.

    Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.

    The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan ‘was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.

    Chinese trade Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan’s voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.

    Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.

    Han Li Po’s well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

    The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote “He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice”.

    The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.

    • Brunei

    • o Malacca (满剌加 / 馬六甲) 拜里米苏拉

    • Indonesia[citation needed]

    o Java

    o Lanfang Republic

    • Japan

    o Wa[3] (also Wae, Wei, 倭)

    o Nippon (日本)

    • Korea

    • Philippines[10]

    o Manila

    o Sulu (蘇祿)

    • Thailand[3]

    o Siam 邏羅

    • Bhutan 不丹

    • Nepal 尼伯爾

    o Karakum (喀喇庫木)

    o Yuli (also Weili, 尉犁)

    o Kushana (also Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)

    o Boluo’er (博羅爾)

    • Vietnam[3]

    o Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)

    o Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, 林邑, 占城)

    • Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)

    • Nippon (日本)

    • Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)

    • Annam (every three years since 1369) • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))

    • Siam (every three years since 1371)

    • Champa (every three years since 1369)

    • Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)

    • Pahang (1378, 1414)

    • Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)

    • Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)

    • Samudra (on Sumatra (?)or Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)

    • Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)

    • Sulu (1417, 1421)

    • Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)

    • Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)

    • Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)

    • Kollam (1407)

    • Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)

    • Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)

    • Jaunpur (1420)

    • Syria (Fulin?, 1371)

    • Cochin (1404, 1412)

    • Melinde (1414)

    • Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)

    • Maldives,

    • Burma (YaWa),

    Lambri (NanWuLi),

    • Kelatan,

    • Bengal (PengJiaNa),

    • Kashgar

    Sairam

    • SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)

    • Badakhshan

    • Bukhara(?)

    • PaLa(?)

    • Shiraz

    • Nishapur

    • Kashmir

    • Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)

    Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)

    Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)

    • A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest. Qing Dynasty This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875.

    Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)

    Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)

    • Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)

    • Laos (17 times)

    • Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)

    • Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)

    • Russia (1676 and 1727)

    • England (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)

    • Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)

    • Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)

    Holy See (1725)

    • Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)

    Europeans

    Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia while missionaries also tagged along the ships as they hoped to spread Christianity into the region.

    Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.

    The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region.

    The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines (named after Phillip II of Spain) from 1560s.

    Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory.

    Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene.

    Starting with Penang, the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire.

    They also temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars,

    In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia.

    From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. This phenomenon, denoted New Imperialism, saw the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers.

    The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.

    Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.

    1. By 1913, the British occupied Burma, Malaya and the Borneo territories,
    2. the French controlled Indochina,
    3. the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies
    4. while Portugal managed to hold on to Portuguese Timor.
    5. In the Philippines, Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain in 1898
    6. but was handed over to the United States despite protests as a result of the Spanish-American War.

    Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia.

    1. While the colonial powers profited much from the region’s vast resources and large market,
    2. colonial rule did develop the region to a varying extent.

    Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period.

    Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change.

    The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories.

    Reference

    Wikipedia

     

    The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III

    The Golden days of the 

    Great Shan Empire III

    To make it easy for the busy readers who could not give much time to read, I have prepared another version in notes form  below_ 

    1. Shan (also known as Tai) lived independently up north round about 650 B.C. in China at the lower part of the Yangtze River.

    2. Shan’s (also known as Tai) migrated down through the present day Yunnan and desended further down into Burma and settled in the Shan Plateau.

    3. A large group of them made a detour U turn and went up north and climbed the Tibet hills and stayed there forming the Tibeto-Burman ancestors of the whole region. (According to Thailand history books.)

    4. One group continued their journey west, up to the present day Rakhine.

    5. Another group even decided to continue the long march up into the present day north eastern part of India.

    6. One of the group continued south in Burma and settled in lower Burma closely with Mon and  Kayins.

    7. Few of them decided to continue to just stay-put in the present day Yunnan.

    8. One group broke away from all others and decided to go straight southwards and settled in present Thailand.

    9. One of them also broke away from all and moved to the east, settling in present day Lao and Cambodia.

    10. Actually they are a little bit different, some had more of the Chinese blood and some even have mixed blood with Khamars and some even went further and said to be settled in Vietnam.

    11. One of the group, known as Thet mixed the Pyus and their decedents are part of the ancestors of Bamars.

    12. Some of the ethnic groups, who made a detour U turn, went up north, climbs the Tibet hills and later came down and they were known as Kan Yan and formed one of the ancestors of Bama.

    13. At last intermarriage of the groups who were the descendents of Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet give rise to the present day Bama ethnic group.

    Note (A) : the long march travelers of Shan came down in different times in batches. Because it happened in the prehistoric times, I have searched and collected data, and made it simple and easy from various references below.

    I hereby wish to go into some details of what I had given as a gist above: Shan’s other cousins descended from the same ancestors, now inhabit northeast Assam or Asom in India.

    Note (B) : they established the Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed_

    • indescribable cruelties

    • and barbarities  as to

    • annihilate something like 2/3 of the population

    • and certainly 1/3 of the men and boys –

    • disemboweling them,

    • eating their flesh

    • and burning them alive in cages

    • to intimidate

    • and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam, India.

    This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British.

    Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao 568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese).

    Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.

    Some groups of Shan settled along the way, at  Yunnan in the north east of Burma.

    Some mixed blooded with Chinese and Khamar, went to the east and founded the Laos and  Cambodia.

    Others went down to the southeast and settled in Thailand. No wonder Thailand was known as Siam or we could even easily understand it is just a slang of Shan.

    Shans were  gradually pushed south, at about the beginning of the Christian era by the advancement of the Tar Tars.

    About 650 A.D. one group of Shans formed a powerful country at Nan Chao, now known as Yunnan.

    Nan Chao Shans were quite powerful and could resist Chinese attempts at conquest until 1253.

    During the years 754 to 763 A.D. the Nan Chao Shans extended their rule even up to the upper basin of the Irrawaddy River and came into contact with the Pyu.

    Pyu was one of three ancestors who founded our Burma: viz, Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet.

    Pyu was then the ruler of the Upper  Burmese Plains.

    Some of Shan’s descendents ventured beyond Upper Burma into Lower Burma to mingle and live together with the Mons.

    During the heydays of the Nan Chao Shans, some of them had even crossed Upper Burma to reach far west and established the once powerful Ahom Shan Kingdom, in the northeastern part of India, now known as Assam or Assom , as stated above.

    Shans had moved into the area now known as the Shan Pyae of Burma in large numbers and settled down and were well established by the time our first Burmese King Anawrahta ascended his throne in 1st century.

    Nan Chao  Shans tried desperately to defend their Nan Chao  kingdom from the Chinese attackers, but in 1253 the Nan Chao Kingdom fell.

    Some of the Nan Chao Shans, unwilling to live under foreign domination there; move towards the south in strength, to seek freedom in present day Tailand area.

    They joined forces with the other Shans, who had already settled in that area, and

    • in 1262 took over Chiang Rai,
    • in 1296 Chiang Mai 
    • and in 1315 took Ayuddhaya, and established their own kingdoms.

    In Upper Burma the Shans established the kingdoms of

    • Mo Gaung (Mong Kawng),
    • and Mo Hnyin (Mong Yang),
    • and in the Shweli basin, the Mao Kingdom.

    Anawrahta ruled the Pagan for 43 year. He was able to unify the whole Burma under his rule for the first time in history.

    During this time he sent his armed soldiers into the Shan’s kingdoms to help ensure the security of his Pagan Kingdom. However, he had no intention of annexing or taking over of the Shan’s kingdoms. He merely wished to defend the low lying plains of his Burma from raids by the Shan’s disgruntled militias.

    For this purpose he established a string of fortified towns along the length of the foothills.

    Relations between Shan and Burma became friendlier under Anawrahta’s successors , but the Burmese Pagan fell to the attackers from China in 1287 A. D. and was destroyed.

    Then in 1312 A. D. one of the groups of Shans took the kingly Title of “Thihathu” and ascended as the Burmese king or throned in Pinya.

    The (Mao) Shans, who had established kingdoms in Mo Hnyin, Mo Gaung and the Shweli areas then overran the villages of Pinya and Sagaing in 1364 A.D.

    After they had withdrawn, Shan’s from Ava, whose title was Thadominbya, combined Pinya and Sagaing and established a new Kingdom, over which he ruled.

    So Shans effectively became Kings in Burma from 1282 A.D. to 1531 A.D.

    In 1527 A.D. due to the attacks of the Mo Hnyin Saw Bwa on Ava, the Shan’s and Burmese of the area left their homes and descended southwards towards Toungoo, where they established a new kingdom.

    Thohanbwa, the son of the Moehnyin Saw Bwa, who became the King of Ava, was soon assassinated due to his lack of skill in statecraft and administration, and in 1543 A.D. Onbaung Khun Maing succeeded him as the King.

    Early Shan Settlements in North Myanmar

    The successive conquests achieved by Sao Hsam Long Hpa over the northern territory encouraged greater Shan migration to these new areas and led to further establishment of their Ban-Mong system. Territories which now belong to Kachin State were once under the rule of the Mong Kawng Saohpa and many Shans (affiliated to the Thai-Long ethnic group) can still be found dominating the following Bans and Mongs of the region shown below:

    1. Alambo
    2. Aungthagon
    3. Bilumyohaung or Waing Hpai Kao
    4. Bilumyothit or Waing Hpai Mai
    5. Gurkhaywa
    6. Hopin or Ho-Pang
    7. Htantabin or Ban Htan Ton Leo
    8. Htopu or Ban Hto Hpu
    9. Inbaung or ban Kyapt Naung
    10. Ingyigon (old) or Ban Kaung Pao Kao
    11. Ingyingon (new) or Ban Kaung Pao Mai
    12. Kangon or Ban Kong Naung
    13. Kanhla or Ban Naung Ngarm
    14. Kayuchaung or Ban Nam Haung Hoi
    15. Kondangyi or Ban Kong Khay
    16. Kyakyikwin Ban Naung Mo Long
    17. Letpandan
    18. Lwelaw or Ban Loi Law
    19. Mahaung
    20. Maing Naung or Mong Naung
    21. Mamana
    22. Manywet or Ban Ywet
    23. Mawhan
    24. Mogaung or Mong Kawng
    25. Mohnyin or Mong Yang
    26. Moknaung
    27. Myadaung
    28. Myohla
    29. Myothitgyi or Waing Mai
    30. Nam Khwin
    31. Namma
    32. Nampoke
    33. Namti
    34. Nanhaing
    35. Nansawlaw
    36. Nansun
    37. Natgyikon or Ban Hpi Long
    38. Natyingya
    39. Nyaunggaing
    40. Nyaunggon or Ban Kon Nyaung
    41. Ohnbaung
    42. Pinbaw or Ban Pang Baw
    43. Pinhe
    44. Pinlon or Ban Panglong
    45. Pintha or Ban Pyin Hsa
    46. Pwinbusu
    47. Sahmaw or Ban Mao Khay
    48. Shanzu
    49. Shwe-in or Ban Naung Hkam
    50. Tagwin
    51. Ta-paw
    52. Taungbaw or Ban Ho Loi
    53. Taungni or Ban Loi Leng
    54. Tiggyaingsu
    55. Theikwagon
    56. Thutegon
    57. Yawthit or Ban Mai
    58. Yawathikyi or Ban Mai Long
    59. Thayetta

    In Kamaing Township:
    1. Chaungwa or Ban Pak Haung
    2. Haungpa or Ban Haung Par
    3. Hepan or Haipan
    4. Hepu or Haipu
    5. Kamaing
    6. Lawsun
    7. Lepon
    8. Letpangon
    9. Lonsan or Long San
    10. Lonton
    11. Lwemun or Loimun
    12. Maing Pok or Mong Pok
    13. Mapyin
    14. Maubin Natlatan
    15. Nammun
    16. Nanhlaing
    17. Nankat
    18. Nanya
    19. Nyaungbin
    20. Sezin
    21. Taunghaw

    In Myitkyina Township:
    1. Akye
    2. Ayeindama
    3. Baingbin
    4. Hokat
    5. Katcho or Kat Kiao
    6. Khaungpu or Hkaunghpu old
    7. Khaungpu or Hkaungpu new
    8. Kokma
    9. Kwitu
    10. Legon
    11. Maingmaw or Mong Maw
    12. Mainga or Mong Na
    13. Male
    14. Mangin
    15. Mankin Saragatawng
    16. Mankin Shewzet
    17. Manmakan or Man Mark Karm
    18. Manpwa
    19. Mintha
    20. Myitkyina
    21. Nampong
    22. Nanhe
    23. Namkalan
    24. Nankwe
    25. Nanpomaw
    26. Nanwa
    27. Naunghi
    28. Naungmun
    29. Naungpakat
    30. Nyaungbintha
    31. Okkyin
    32. Pamati
    33. Panpa
    34. Pidaung
    35. Pinlontaw
    36. Pinlonyana
    37. Rampur
    38. Sanga
    39. Sangin
    40. Sekow
    41. Sinbo
    42. Sitapur
    43. Tahona or Ta Ho Na
    44. Taiklon
    45. Talawgyi
    46. Tasaing
    47. Talkon
    48. Thagaya
    49. Tonpakut
    50. Ulauk
    51. Wainglon
    52. Waingmaw
    53. Washaung
    54. ZigyunSource:

    The Kachin Hill Manual. Rangoon: The Superintendent Government Printing, Union of Burma, 1959. pp. 17-18

    Appendix II: Shan Kings in Myanmar

    The list of Shan kings who succeeded the kings of Bagan and reigned at Myinsaing and Pinya is:

    1. The three Shan brothers who acquired power after the fall of Bagan and governed the country with equal status from A.D. 1298:
      • Athinhkaya,
      • Yazathinkyan
      • and Thihathu, Their joint reign lasted fourteen years.
    2. Thihathu or Ta-tsi-shin, youngest of the three brothers who made himself king at Pinya in 1312 and reigned for ten years.
    3. Uzana son of Kyawswa (1287-98, deposed king of Bagan) and the adopted son of Thihathu.
    4. Ngasishin Kyawswa (half brother of 3), son of Thihathu, he became king in 1343 and reigned eight years.
    5. Kyawswa-nge (son of 4) became king in 1350 and reigned five years.
    6. Narathu (brother of 5) became king in 1354 and reigned nine years.
    7. Uzana Pyaung (brother of 6) became king in 1364, and was assassinated after three months’ rule by Thadonminbya.

    Sagaing Kings

    There were seven Shan kings who reigned from 1315 to 1364:

    1. Sawyun or Saoyun, the son of Thihathu or Tai-tsi-shin who also reigned at Myinsaing and Pinya. He became king in 1315 and reigned seven years.
    2. Tarabyagyi (step brother of 1), became king in 1323 and reigned fourteen years.
    3. Shwetaungtet (son of 2), became king in 1336 and reigned three years.
    4. Kyawswa (son of 2), became king in 1340 and reigned ten years.
    5. Nawrahtaminye (brother of 4), became king in 1350 and reigned seven months.
    6. Tarabyange (brother of 5) bcame king in 1350 and reigned three years.
    7. Minbyauk Thiapate (brother-in-law of 6) was driven from Sagaing by a Shan army from the north and murdered by his stepson, Thadonminbya in 1364.

    Ava 

    Ava, the capital of upper Myanmar for many years, was founded with the help of the Shan chief Thadominbya in 1364.

    There were nineteen chiefs of Shan descent who reigned in Ava from 1364 to 1555:

    1. Thadominbya said to be descended from the ancient Shan kings of Takawng or Tagaung on his mother’s side, he was the grandson of Athinhkaya Sawyun, the Shan king of Sagaing. He founded Ava in 1364, became king in the same year and reigned three years.

    2. Nga Nu (usurper), a paramour of Sao Umma, became king in 1368, and reigned only for a few days.

    3. Mingyiswasawke, said to be descended from both the Bagan dynasty and the Shan brothers, became king in 1368 and reigned thirty-five years.

    4. Tarbya or Sinbyushin (eldest son of 3), became king in 1401 but reigned only seven months, being murdered by his attendant.

    5. Nga Nauk Hsan, became king in 1401 and reigned only a few weeks.

    6. Minkhaung (another son of 3) hesitated to accept the throne, but his younger brother Theiddat killed a cousin claimant and made him king. He became king in 1401 and reigned twenty-one years.

    7. Thiathu (son of 6) became king in 1422 and reigned four years. He was murdered at the instigation of Queen Shin Bo Me.

    8. Minhla Ngai (son of 7) king in 1426 and reigned only three months before he was poisoned.

    9. Kalekyetaungnyo (usurper) became king in 1426 but reigned only seven months.

    10. Mohnyithado or Mohnyinmintara, chief of Shan descent who justified his claim to the throne as a descendant of the kings Narapatisithu (1173-1210) and Ngasishin (1343-1350) of Bagan and of the family of the three Shan brothers. He became king in 1427 and reigned thirteen years.

    11. Minrekyawswa (son of 10) became king in 1440 and reigned three years.

    12. Narapati (Thihathu) (brother of 11), became king in 1443 and reigned twenty-six years.

    13. Thihathu or Mahathihathura (son of 12), became king in 1469 and reigned twelve years.

    14. Minhkaung (son of 13), became king in 1481 and reigned twenty-one years.
      15. Shwenankyawshin (son of 14), became king in 1502 and reigned twenty-five years. He was killed by Thohanbwa or Hso Hom Hpa.

    15. Thohanbwa or Hso Hom Hpa, son of Mohyin Saolon who conquered Ava. He became king in 1527 and reigned sixteen years. He was murdered.

    16. Hkonmaing or Hkun Mong, Saohpa of On Baung or Hsipaw and related to Shwenanshin, was elected king of Awa in 1543 and reigned three years.

    17. Mobye (or Mong Pai) Narapati (son of 17), Saohpa of Mong Pai became king in 1546 and reigned six years and abdicated.

    18. Sithukyawhtin, a Shan chief of Salin, seized Ava and became king in 1552, and reigned three years. He was conqured and deposed by Bayinnaung in 1555.

    Source: G.E. Harvey. History of Burma, from “The Earliest Time to March 1824, The Beginning of English Conquest”. London: Frank Case and Co. Ltd., 1967. p. 160.

    Appendix III:

    Shan Kings of Bago

    The following is the list of the Shan kings of Bago of the dynasty established by Wareru in 1287:

    1. Wareru, the Shan chief who established the dynasty but had his capital at Madama. He became king in AD 1287 (S 649) and reigned nineteen years.

    2. Khun-lau’ or Tha Na’ran Bya Keit who became king in 1306 and reigned four years.

    3. Dza’u-a’u or Theng-Mha’ing (nephwe of 2), who became king in 1310 and reigned thirteen years.

    4. Dzau-dzip, or Binya-ran-da (brother of 3) who became king in 1323 and reigned seven years.

    5. Binya-e’-la’u (son of 2, Khun-lau and cousin of 4) who became king in 1330 and reigned eighteen years.

    6. Byinya-u or Tseng-Pyu-Sheng (son of 4 and cousin of 5), who restored the ancient capital Bago or Hansawadi. He became king in 1348 and reigned thirty-eight years.

    7. Binya-nwe, or Ra’dza’ Di-rit (son of 6) who became king in 1385 and reigned thirty-eight years.

    8. Binya Dham-ma Ra’-dza (son of 7) who became king in 1423 and reigned three years.

    9. Binya-Ra’n-kit (brother of who became king in 1426 and reigned twenty years.

    10. Binya-Wa-ru (nephew of 9) who became king in 1446 and reigned four years.

    11. Binya Keng (cousin of 10) who became king in 1450 and reigned three years.

    12. Mhau-dau (cousin of 11) who became king in 1453 and reigned seven months.

    13. Queen Sheng Tsau Bu or Binya-dau’ who became queen in 1453 and reigned seven years.

    14. Dham-ma Dze-di (cousin of 13) who became king in 1460 and reigned thirty-one years. He did not belong to the royal family.

    15. Binya Ran’ (son of 14 and son-in-law of 13) who became king in 1491 and reigned thirty-five years.

    16. Ta-ka’-rwut-bi (son of 15) who became king in 1526 and reigned fourteen years.He was conquered and deposed by Tabeng-Shweti, king of Taungoo in 1540.

    Source: Sir Arthur P. Phayre. History of Burma, Including Burma Proper, Taungu, Tenasserim and Arakan. London: 1883. pp. 290-291. 

    Meanwhile from Toungoo Kingdom, in the year 1555 A.D. King Bayinnaung succeeded in unifying the whole of Burma for the second time in our history.

    He was able to “persuade’ the Shan Saw Bwa to submit his suzerainty. In accordance with the traditions of the earlier Burmese Kings, the administrative setup was that the Shan Saw Bwas who submitted to the suzerainty of the Burmese King retained full powers to rule over their kingdom.

    This relationship was based on mutual respect.The military forces of Burma included contingents of Shan soldiers who proved their valour on the foreign battlefields.

    That is how Shan and Burmese descendents had lived closely together, like brethren, till the fall of Upper Burma in 1886.

    Then the Shan Saw Bwas, with the intention of restoring freedom to Burma and to the Shan State, chose the Burmese Princes Limbin and Saw Yan Naing to head their alliance, and started waging war against the colonialism.

    We could see in the above mentioned era how Shans  migrated and grew mightier.

    We should study how political, economical, social and philosophical patterns changed according to their coming.

    To sum up again, after the fall of Bagan , Ava kingdom was built in 1364 M.E.

    Subsequently, until Pinya, Sagaing and Myinsaing  eras, the power of Bagan collapsed and rebellious small kingdoms spread.

    When the invading conqueror Shans came across Burmese, they accepted the Buddhist cultures and Burmese customs.

    In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

    Anyway no one is sure the source of Shan ancestors’ conversion to Buddhism. We should consider the fact that Shans had very good relations with Mon and Khamars. Shans could even get the Buddhism directly from them. (This is my personal idea only without reference. So I may be wrong. Please do not take this fact seriously as I am a non Buddhist and not an historian) We could see that Shan Pagodas look more like Thai and Cambodia Pagodas than our Burmese.

    This episode of the history, Shans’ conquering over the  Burma, I have just highlighted is regarded by Myanmar governments as a taboo.  Our successive Bama governments’ history text books just used to mention one line only and always skipped forward to the glorious Burmese warrior Toungoo King Baying Naung who successfully established the 2nd Bama Empire.  

    Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire

    Renascences of the Golden days

    of the Great Shan Empire

    that shaped the present South East Asia

    Brief history review
    Burma, Shan and Thailand

    It is interesting to note that the linkage and emergence of the modern Shan State, its national day and the formation of the Union of Burma are so intertwined; it is almost impossible to discuss the making of this historical formation separately. And the history of Shans had greatly influence the history of the establishment, the evolution the modern present-day Myanmar/Burma and Thailand.

    burma_en.png
    Burma or Myanmar

    Shans

    Shan is a Burmese rendering of Siam. The Thai call our Shans as Thai-yai or Elder Thai – and Tai or Thai is only a dialectical rendering. The Tai  Speaking Peoples stretch from NE India, through Burma, the Kachin and Shan States, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and south and southwest China  Chinese Prime Minister Chou-en-lai of PRC [Communist Mainland China] said in 1957 to Soa Shwe Thaike, who was the first President of the Independent Burma, that in China there were then 100million Tai/Dai Speaking Peoples  in China.

    myanmarshan.png
    Orientation of Shan State

    Ethnic Groups in Yunnan and Myanmar

    The regions of Southwestern China and mainland Southeast Asia have been settled by many ethnic peoples since ancient times.

    Effects of the Himalaya mountain range between China and India.

     

     

     

     

    himalaya-map-3.png

    Their history has been marked by struggles, wars, alliances, the creation and disintegration of their Baans (villages), Mongs (city-states), kingdoms and empires, and the efforts to re-create new ones in new lands.

    Myanmar Neighbours, China and  India separated by Himilayan mountain ranges.

    himalaya-map-4.png

    Situation of Myanmar as a convenient highway between India and China

    Some ethnic groups succeeded in creating highly organized kingdoms and empires, but others failed and, abandoning their old settlements, continued their migration south- and southeastward.

    Their migration was sometimes gentle, sometimes forceful depending on the pressures from new emigrants and the conflicts that took place among themselves.

    bur-china-india-himalaya-map-7.png

    (d) Myanmar highway along the valleys with water-supply along it, connecting China and ASEAN.

    Indonesians, Malays and Polynesians were believed to be the earliest migrants came down from Yunnan through Burma to their homelands in south.

    bur-china-india-himalaya-map-5.png

    (d) Strategic situation of Myanmar between its Neighbours (China, India, Bangladesh, Thailand and Laos)

    bur-asean-map-5.png

    (e) Myanmar in ASEAN.

    Myanmar highway, connecting China and ASEAN. Indonesians, Malays and Polynesians were believed to be the earliest migrants came down from Yunnan through Burma to their homelands in south.

    bur-asean-map-2.png

     

     

     

     (f) Orietation of Myanmar in the world map

    bur-map-8.png

    (g) Burma or Myanmar

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    bur-map-1.png

     

     

     

     

     

    Those who picked hilltops and deep valleys for their settlements and were cut off and isolated from their parent stock became in the process of time a new ethnic group with a distinctive culture of their own, their linguistic affiliation later to be established by linguists and philologists. They survived on a simple sustainable type of economy and came to have new local names.

    Yunnan, where numerous ethnic peoples make their homeland, is situated in southwest China, bounded on the north by Sichuan and Sizang (Sikang), on the east by Guizhou and Guangxi, on the south by Vietnam and Myanmar, and on the west by Myanmar and Assam. It is extremely mountainous with only a limited area of level plains.

    It is furrowed by the Taiping, Shweli, Salween, Mekong, Black and Red rivers.

    The Salween and the Mekong are rivers of great length, having their sources in the interior part of Tibet, and flowing through Yunnan and the neighboring lands of Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.

    The basins of these rivers and their tributaries form deep, narrow valleys which, with the high parallel mountain ranges running generally north and south, constitute a favourable home for numerous ethnic minorities.

    Yunnan shares a long common border with Myanmar and many ethnic groups that live in Yunnan can also be found in Myanmar.

    For example, the following ethnic nationalities, among many others, are common to both Yunnan and Myanmar:
    1. Miao (Mhong)
    2. Yao
    3. Minchia (Pe-tso)
    4. Wa
    5. La
    6. P’u-man
    7. Palaung
    8. K’a-mu
    9. Shan (Tai)
    10. Chinese
    11. Tibetan (Petorpo)
    12. Li-so (Li-su)
    13. Mo-so (Na-She)
    14. La-hu (Lo-hei)
    15. A-ch’ang (Maingtha)
    16. Ma-ru
    17. La-shi
    18. Kachin (Ching P’aw)
    19. A-K’a
    Linguistically these ethnic peoples belong to three families: Mon-Khmer, Tai, Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

    Human migration from one region to another is known to have taken place since time immemorial.

    Even after “national” boundaries appeared in history, the migration process remained an on-going one, and the trends of human migration have continued to the present time, gathering momentum and involving large numbers of people at certain times more than others. In some places ethnic crossings over national boundaries become serious problems and disputes over such issues are common between adjacent countries. Today any ethnic problem occurring along a border can precipitate an international crisis, which may need either a short or a long term solution.

     

     

    Ethnology has also become a subject of study for scholars of international relations. Words such as ethnic identity, ethnic adaptation, ethnicity, ethnic politics, ethnic consciousness, ethnocentrism, ethnic discrimination, ethnic conflict, ethnic attachment, ethnic ideology, ethnic aspects, ethnic responses, ethnic issues, ethnic plurality, ethnic relations, ethnic misunderstanding, multi-ethnic problems, ethnogency and ethnography have become catch-words of the ethnologists in their dealings with ethnic issues in our international setting.

    In some countries, national governments have explicitly provided in their Constitutions certain provisions, regulations, and laws regarding the rights and roles of ethnic minorities.

    Assurances and guarantees are given for the promotion and preservation of their cultures, languages, customs, traditions and beliefs.

    Usually, boundaries and areas that we call ethnic autonomy, ethnic centers, ethnic zones, ethnic belts, or ethnic communities are demarcated by national governments with the intention of having harmonious relationships among ethnic nationalities. Opportunities are also provided to ethnic nationalities to participate in local administration, in the management of national development projects and in the defense of sovereignty. In some countries provided with such assurances and guarantees, ethnic peoples co-exist peacefully and have cordial relations with each other.

    But in other places, racial prejudices are so deep-seated and socio-religious differences so great that conflict has occurred, quarrels have developed into armed clashes and ethnic cleansing, leading to loss of lives and property, and upheavals on a large scale. Such unrest and violent outbreaks have led to renewed ethnic migrations from one region to another and across national boundaries.

    Migration and Settlement of Tai Ethnic Groups

     

     

    Like many other ethnic peoples the Tai once had their homeland in China. Some historians believe that the Tai people first came to settle north of the Yellow (Huang Ho) river, occupying the region known as Hebei and Shanxi round about 2515 B.C. The Chinese annals also mention Tai settlements in the middle basin of the Yellow River in 850 B.C. They made their homeland here for a long time, establishing small feudal kingdoms and spreading their “Na” culture to neighboring regions. But new emigrants coming from Central Asia later impelled the Tai and other ethnic groups to move southwards to new fertile areas between the Yellow and Yangtze (Chang Jiang) rivers covering the present provinces of Hunan and Hubei.
    With the Yellow River in the north and the Yangtze river in the south as their natural boundaries, the Tai and other ethnic peoples felt safe, and rebuilt their feudal kingdoms and erected their “Na” which lasted for several centuries. However, another wave of emigrants from the north, which became powerful and aggressive, put new pressure on the Tai ethnic group. With inter-state rivalries and an inability to establish unity, the Tai and ethnic people of the south were unable to resist the intrusion from the north, and split up into numerous groups. Some took refuge in the neighboring hills and valleys of Sichuan, Guizhou and Yunnan, where they picked up new local names which concealed their identity and turned themselves into little-known hill tribes of the region, remaining obscure for centuries. Other Tai groups who were displaced by the new immigrants migrated into Honan to Hubei, and crossing the Yangtze river, fanned out in different directions to settle in Hunan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Vietnam, Laos, Thailand, Myanmar and Assam.
    The central point of my paper here is to trace the routes of migration of the Tai people and their areas of settlement in Myanmar. The Tai in Myanmar are known to the Myanmar people as Shan, to Kachins, A-ch’angs, Zis and La-shis as Sam, to the Ma-ru as Sen, to the Palaung as Tsen, to the Wa as Shem and to the Talaing or Mon as Sem and to the Yunnanese as Pai-Yi. But they themselves like to be called “Tai.” The Shans are the most widespread ethnic people in Myanmar, being found in every region. Their Baan or Maans (villages), Mongs (city-states) and settlements stretch from the northernmost region of Hkamti Long down to Taninthayi in the south, and from the eastern tip of Kengtung to Hsawng Hsup and Ta-mu to the west. In central Myanmar their settlements and communities can be found around Ava, Pinya, Sagaing, Taungoo, Phyu, Pyinmana and Pyay.
    As to when exactly the Shans entered Myanmar, scholars have different views. Some believe that the migration of the Shans into Myanmar started 2000 years ago citing three reasons: first, their restless character which prompted them to find new lands to settle; second, their warlike character; and third, the pressure of new invasions from the north, such as those of A.D. 78 and A.D. 1253.
    Most Shan chronicles say that a big wave of Shan migration took place in the 6th century A.D., the Shans moving from southern Yunnan into the Nam Mao valley and adjacent regions and establishing many Mongs, among them Bhamo, Mong Mit, Hsipaw, and Hsenwi. Making these places their first homeland in Myanmar, they spread out over the whole of the Shan State, establishing more Mongs and Kengs (towns) like Mong Naung, Mong Nang, Mong Hsu, Mong Kung, Mong Keshi-Mansam, Mong Laihka, Mong Nai, Mong Pan, Mong Maukmai, Mong Yawnghwe, Mong Sakoi, Mong Sam Kar, Mong Hsamongkham, Mong Lawk Sawk, Mong Pai, Keng Tawng, Keng Hkam and Keng Rom.
    From Mong Kawng, Mong Yang, Waing Hso, Kat Hsa, the Shans moved northwards to the Hkamti Long area where they established the eight Mongs of the Khamti Shans: Lokhun, Mansi, Lon Kyein, Manse-Hkun, Mannu, Langdao, Mong Yak and Langnu. Moving to the west, they then occupied and established new Mongs like Hsawng Hsup, Sinkaling Hkamti, Mong Kale, Mong Leng (Mohling), Maing Kaing or Mong Kang, Hu-Kawng, Maw Leik, Mong Nyaung, Homalin, Phaungbyin, Hkam-Pat and Ta-Mu, between the Ayeyarwaddy and the Chindwin, along the Uyu river and even up to Manipur and Assam.
    The Shan immigrants of north and northeastern Myanmar were recognized as the earliest branch of the Tai migration southwards, and they came to be known as Tai Long or Tai Yai, that is, “Great Tai”. The later branch of the Tai migration to Laos and Thailand were known as Tai Noi or “Little Tai.”
    More migration of Shans into Myanmar took place when the powerful Shan kingdom of Mong Mao Long was established in the Mao valley. According to the Shan chronicles, the Mao political power reached its height in the 14th century, especially during the reign of the twin brothers Sao Hso Hkan Hpa and Sao Hsam Long Hpa.
    All the principalities of northern and southern Shan State were united under the leadership of Sao Hso Hkan Hpa. He also extended his power to Laos, Cambodia and Thailand around about 1350. For the westward expansion, he assigned the task to his brother Sao Hsam Long Hpa who marched with his army to Mong Kawng which he easily annexed. Mong Kawng became the second capital next to Mong Mao. Making Mong Kawng his military base, Sao Hsam Long Hpa crossed the Ayarwaddy and Chindwin rivers to annex more new lands which included all the regions of the Kabaw valley, northern Rakhine, Manipur and Assam. New immigrants were settled into these newly conquered areas. Some of the followers who preferred to remain in Assam established their feudal communities along the Brahmaputra river and pledged their allegiance to the king of Tai Ahom. These Shans along the Brahmaputra river split in the course of time into Tai Ahom, Tai Aton, Tai Hkamyang, Tai Phake and Tai Tarong, to be later joined by Tai Hkamti from Myanmar. They survive to this day, although some have become Hinduized.
    During the reign of Sao Hsam Long Hpa in Mong Kawng, several Baans and Mongs were established throughout northern Myanmar. Each Mong was under the Chief or Saohpa, and there were altogether ninety-nine Saohpas who who pledged their allegiance to Mong Kawng. The ethnic Tai people who came with Sao Hsam Long Hpa to northern Myanmar called themselves Tai Leng, but were called Shan-Myanmar by others. They became very Myanmarized. The Tai Leng settlements were scattered all over the present-day Kachin State, which at that time was Shan (see Appendix I). Those who settled at the northern tip of Myanmar around Putao came to be known as Tai Khamti. There were also Tai Long, Tai Mao and Tai Nu settlements in Bhamo, Mong Mauk, Waing Maw, Kat Kiao, Nam Ma, Nam Ti, Mong Kawng, Mong Yang and many other places in north and northeastern Myanmar. The Shans in northern Myanmar were skilled farmers. They brought along with them from Mong Mao Long the art of cultivation and turned the fertile lands of northern Myanmar into Na or rice fields. These Shan farmers concentrated their settlements in places with good soil and fresh water. In the Kyaukse area, they improved the land and irrigation system and turned the place into a rice bowl for Bagan. After the reign of King Narathihapate (1254-87) Bagan became very weak from the effects of the Mongol invasion. The Three Shan Brothers, Athinkaya, Yazathinkyan and Thihathu who controlled the economic base of Kyaukse area became very powerful and played a leading role in Bagan power politics. For two and a half centuries the Shans established their dynasties and made their power felt over Myanmar (see Appendix II).
    In southern Myanmar there were several Shan settlements around Thaton, Mawlamyine, Madama and Bago. As elsewhere in Myanmar, the local chiefs of southern Myanmar locked themselves into the game of power politics. The most prominent and active of these was a Shan local chief named Wareru . He was the son of a Shan immigrant to Thaton and was born in a village called Doonwun near Thaton. When he grew up he went to Sukhotai and became a stable boy of the king. He was assigned to look after the royal elephants and to lead the elephant troops in times of war. He was also a good soldier and after a few successful campaigns he was promoted to the rank of captain of the guards. He later became acquainted with the king’s daughter, eloped with her and brought her to Thaton. He involved himself in the local politics and later became the governor of Madama in 1281. He next turned his attention to Bago and was able to take it over in 1369, following which he established a dynasty which lasted from 1287 to 1539 (see Appendix III). During the reign of king Wareru, the Shans from Chiangmai and Thailand moved to Lower Myanmar. There they mixed and mingled with the Mons and became good cultivators in the delta area which later became the rice bowl of Southeast Asia. During the period of the Wareru dynasty, trade and commercial relations developed with European countries, bringing prosperity to Bago, Madama and the Taninthayi coastal region. Native products such as rubies and other gems of northern Myanmar, lac, ivory, horn, lead, tin, Bago or Madama jars, long peppers, and nyper wine made from dani palm were exchanged with products brought by European merchants such as camphor, pepper, scented wood, Chinese porcelain and velvet.
    East of the Nam Kong river or the Salween, there are numerous Shan settlements called Waans and Kengs. The region is shaped like a triangle. Although the Shan immigrants of this area were closely affiliated ethnically to the Tai race, they retained local names such as Hkun, Lu, Lem, Ngio, Yun and Tai Nu. Based upon their Waan-Baan-Keng system the Tai ethnic people of this area established several Mongs and Kengs as their feudal states (see Appendix IV).
    Kengtung is the largest of the feudal states in the eastern Shan State. It covers an area of over 12,000 square miles and is bounded by Thailand on the south, China on the north, and Laos on the east. Its inhabitants are mostly Hkun, Lu, Tai Long and many other ethnic groups, among them Yun, Ngio, Tai Nu, Lem, Laotian, Wa, La, Tai Loi, Kaw, Mu-Hso (La Hu), Ako, Li Saw, En, Hsen Hsum, Pyen, Palaung, Kwi (La Hu Chi), Kang, Yao, Hsem, Miao, Mang Tam, Sawn (son) and Thai.
    The majority of the Tai Nu people have settlements mostly along the Yunnan-Myanmar border and the upper part of the Salween river in Yunnan where they had several feudal city states. Inside Myanmar the Tai Nu people live in Bhamo, Myitkyina, Mong Kawng, Mong Yang, Muse, Namhkam, Mong Kung, Laihka and Kengtung area especially in the northeastern part of the region around Mong Lem.
    The Shans penetrated deep into Myanmar in the long course of their history, to occupy its plains, hills and valleys and turn wasteland into Na to produce rice either for their own consumption or for trade. They were hardy farmers and food cultivators and adopted a feudal type of administration and a self-sufficient sustainable economy. Wherever they migrated they introduced their system of Mong and Keng city-states. They frequently fought among themselves but also formed alliances against common enemies. Endless wars are recorded in their local chronicles. The constant fighting among themselves and against neighboring foes exhausted their strength so that they eventually became very weak. They split and settled so much and so far that it became impossible for them to retain their unity as in the days of the Nanchao and Mong Maw Long. 

    To make it easy for the readers, there is another version in notes form I prepared below_ 

    Shan (also known as Tai) lived independently up north round about 650 B.C. in China at the lower part of the Yangtze River.

    1. Shan’s (also known as Tai) migrated down through the present day Yunnan and desended further down into Burma and settled in the Shan Plateau.

    2. A large group of them made a detour U turn and went up north and climbed the Tibet hills and stayed there forming the Tibeto-Burman ancestors of the whole region. (According to Thailand history books.)

    3. One group continued their journey west, up to the present day Rakhine.

    4. Another group even decided to continue the long march up into the present day north eastern part of India.

    5. One of the group continued south in Burma and settled in lower Burma closely with Mon and  Kayins.

    6. Few of them decided to continue to just stay-put in the present day Yunnan.

    7. One group broke away from all others and decided to go straight southwards and settled in present Thailand.

    8. One of them also broke away from all and moved to the east, settling in present day Lao and Cambodia. Actually they are a little bit different, some had more of the Chinese blood and some even have mixed blood with Khamars and some even went further and said to be settled in Vietnam.

    9. One of the group, known as Thet mixed the Pyus and their decedents are part of the ancestors of Bamars.

    10. Some of the ethnic groups, who made a detour U turn, went up north, climbs the Tibet hills and later came down and they were known as Kan Yan and formed one of the ancestors of Bama.

    11. At last intermarriage of the groups who were the descendents of Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet give rise to my present day Bama ethnic group.

    Note (A): the long march travelers of Shan came down in different times in batches. Because it happened in the prehistoric times, I have searched and collected data, and made it simple and easy from various references below.I hereby wish to go into some details of what I had given as a gist above: Shan’s other cousins descended from the same ancestors, now inhabit northeast Assam or Asom in India.

    Note (B) : they established the Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed_

    • indescribable cruelties
    • and barbarities  as to
    • annihilate something like 2/3 of the population
    • and certainly 1/3 of the men and boys
    • disemboweling them,
    • eating their flesh
    • and burning them alive in cages
    • to intimidate
    • and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam, India.

    This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British.Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao 568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese). Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.

    Some groups of Shan settled along the way, at  Yunnan in the north east of Burma.

    Some mixed blooded with Chinese and Khamar, went to the east and founded the Laos and  Cambodia.

    Others went down to the southeast and settled in Thailand. No wonder Thailand was known as Siam or we could even easily understand it is just a slang of Shan.

    Shans were  gradually pushed south, at about the beginning of the Christian era by the advancement of the Tar Tars.

    About 650 A.D. one group of Shans formed a powerful country at Nan Chao, now known as Yunnan.Nan Chao Shans were quite powerful and could resist Chinese attempts at conquest until 1253.

    300px-hsipawcountry.jpg

    Hsipaw country

    During the years 754 to 763 A.D. the Nan Chao Shans extended their rule even up to the upper basin of the Irrawaddy River and came into contact with the Pyu.

    Pyu was one of three ancestors who founded our Burma: viz, Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet. Pyu was then the ruler of the Upper  Burmese Plains.

    Some of Shan’s descendents ventured beyond Upper Burma into Lower Burma to mingle and live together with the Mons.

    During the heydays of the Nan Chao Shans, some of them had even crossed Upper Burma to reach far west and established the once powerful Ahom Shan Kingdom, in the northeastern part of India, now known as Assam or Assom , as stated above.

    Shans had moved into the area now known as the Shan Pyae of Burma in large numbers and settled down and were well established by the time our first Burmese King Anawrahta ascended his throne in 1st century.

    Nan Chao  Shans tried desperately to defend their Nan Chao  kingdom from the Chinese attackers, but in 1253 the Nan Chao Kingdom fell.

    Some of the Nan Chao Shans, unwilling to live under foreign domination there; move towards the south in strength, to seek freedom in present day Tailand area.

    They joined forces with the other Shans, who had already settled in that area, and in 1262 took over Chiang Rai, in 1296 Chiang Mai and in 1315 took Ayuddhaya, and established their own kingdoms.

    In Upper Burma the Shans established the kingdoms of Mo Gaung (Mong Kawng), and Mo Hnyin (Mong Yang), and in the Shweli basin, the Mao Kingdom.

    Anawrahta ruled the Pagan for 43 year. He was able to unify the whole Burma under his rule for the first time in history.During this time he sent his armed villagers into the Shan’s kingdoms to help ensure the security of his Pagan Kingdom. However, he had no intention of annexing or taking over of the Shan’s kingdoms. He merely wished to defend the low lying plains of his Burma from raids by the Shan’s disgruntled militias. For this purpose he established a string of fortified towns along the length of the foothills.

    Relations between Shan and Burma became friendlier under Anawrahta’s successors , but the Burmese Pagan fell to the attackers from China in 1287 A. D. and was destroyed.

    Then in 1312 A. D. one of the groups of Shans took the kingly Title of “Thihathu” and ascended as the Burmese king or throned in Pinya.The (Mao) Shans, who had established kingdoms in Mo Hnyin, Mo Gaung and the Shweli areas then overran the villages of Pinya and Sagaing in 1364 A.D.

    After they had withdrawn, Shan’s from Ava, whose title was Thadominbya, combined Pinya and Sagaing and established a new Kingdom, over which he ruled.

    So Shans effectively became Kings in Burma from 1282 A.D. to 1531 A.D.In 1527 A.D. due to the attacks of the Mo Hnyin Saw Bwa on Ava, the Shan’s and U Burmese of the area left their homes and descended southwards towards Toungoo, where they established a new kingdom.

    Thohanbwa, the son of the Moehnyin Saw Bwa, who became the King of Ava, was soon assassinated due to his lack of skill in statecraft and administration, and in 1543 A.D.

    Onbaung Khun Maing succeeded him as the King.

    Former Shan Settlements in North Myanmar

    The successive conquests achieved by Sao Hsam Long Hpa over the northern territory encouraged greater Shan migration to these new areas and led to further establishment of their Ban-Mong system. Territories which now belong to Kachin State were once under the rule of the Mong Kawng Saohpa and many Shans (affiliated to the Thai-Long ethnic group) can still be found dominating the following Bans and Mongs of the region shown below:
    1. Alambo
    2. Aungthagon
    3. Bilumyohaung or Waing Hpai Kao
    4. Bilumyothit or Waing Hpai Mai
    5. Gurkhaywa
    6. Hopin or Ho-Pang
    7. Htantabin or Ban Htan Ton Leo
    8. Htopu or Ban Hto Hpu
    9. Inbaung or ban Kyapt Naung
    10. Ingyigon (old) or Ban Kaung Pao Kao
    11. Ingyingon (new) or Ban Kaung Pao Mai
    12. Kangon or Ban Kong Naung
    13. Kanhla or Ban Naung Ngarm
    14. Kayuchaung or Ban Nam Haung Hoi
    15. Kondangyi or Ban Kong Khay
    16. Kyakyikwin Ban Naung Mo Long
    17. Letpandan
    18. Lwelaw or Ban Loi Law
    19. Mahaung
    20. Maing Naung or Mong Naung
    21. Mamana
    22. Manywet or Ban Ywet
    23. Mawhan
    24. Mogaung or Mong Kawng
    25. Mohnyin or Mong Yang
    26. Moknaung
    27. Myadaung
    28. Myohla
    29. Myothitgyi or Waing Mai
    30. Nam Khwin
    31. Namma
    32. Nampoke
    33. Namti
    34. Nanhaing
    35. Nansawlaw
    36. Nansun
    37. Natgyikon or Ban Hpi Long
    38. Natyingya
    39. Nyaunggaing
    40. Nyaunggon or Ban Kon Nyaung
    41. Ohnbaung
    42. Pinbaw or Ban Pang Baw
    43. Pinhe
    44. Pinlon or Ban Panglong
    45. Pintha or Ban Pyin Hsa
    46. Pwinbusu
    47. Sahmaw or Ban Mao Khay
    48. Shanzu
    49. Shwe-in or Ban Naung Hkam
    50. Tagwin
    51. Ta-paw
    52. Taungbaw or Ban Ho Loi
    53. Taungni or Ban Loi Leng
    54. Tiggyaingsu
    55. Theikwagon
    56. Thutegon
    57. Yawthit or Ban Mai
    58. Yawathikyi or Ban Mai Long
    59. Thayetta

    In Kamaing Township:
    1. Chaungwa or Ban Pak Haung
    2. Haungpa or Ban Haung Par
    3. Hepan or Haipan
    4. Hepu or Haipu
    5. Kamaing
    6. Lawsun
    7. Lepon
    8. Letpangon
    9. Lonsan or Long San
    10. Lonton
    11. Lwemun or Loimun
    12. Maing Pok or Mong Pok
    13. Mapyin
    14. Maubin Natlatan
    15. Nammun
    16. Nanhlaing
    17. Nankat
    18. Nanya
    19. Nyaungbin
    20. Sezin
    21. Taunghaw

    In Myitkyina Township:
    1. Akye
    2. Ayeindama
    3. Baingbin
    4. Hokat
    5. Katcho or Kat Kiao
    6. Khaungpu or Hkaunghpu old
    7. Khaungpu or Hkaungpu new
    8. Kokma
    9. Kwitu
    10. Legon
    11. Maingmaw or Mong Maw
    12. Mainga or Mong Na
    13. Male
    14. Mangin
    15. Mankin Saragatawng
    16. Mankin Shewzet
    17. Manmakan or Man Mark Karm
    18. Manpwa
    19. Mintha
    20. Myitkyina
    21. Nampong
    22. Nanhe
    23. Namkalan
    24. Nankwe
    25. Nanpomaw
    26. Nanwa
    27. Naunghi
    28. Naungmun
    29. Naungpakat
    30. Nyaungbintha
    31. Okkyin
    32. Pamati
    33. Panpa
    34. Pidaung
    35. Pinlontaw
    36. Pinlonyana
    37. Rampur
    38. Sanga
    39. Sangin
    40. Sekow
    41. Sinbo
    42. Sitapur
    43. Tahona or Ta Ho Na
    44. Taiklon
    45. Talawgyi
    46. Tasaing
    47. Talkon
    48. Thagaya
    49. Tonpakut
    50. Ulauk
    51. Wainglon
    52. Waingmaw
    53. Washaung
    54. Zigyun

    Source: The Kachin Hill Manual. Rangoon: The Superintendent Government Printing, Union of Burma, 1959. pp. 17-18
    Appendix II: Shan Kings in Myanmar

    The list of Shan kings who succeeded the kings of Bagan and reigned at Myinsaing and Pinya is:

    1. Athinhkaya, Yazathinkyan and Thihathu, the three Shan brothers who acquired power after the fall of Bagan and governed the country with equal status from A.D. 1298. Their joint reign lasted fourteen years.
    2. Thihathu or Ta-tsi-shin, youngest of the three brothers who made himself king at Pinya in 1312 and reigned for ten years.
    3. Uzana son of Kyawswa (1287-98, deposed king of Bagan) and the adopted son of Thihathu.
    4. Ngasishin Kyawswa (half brother of 3), son of Thihathu, he became king in 1343 and reigned eight years.
    5. Kyawswa-nge (son of 4) became king in 1350 and reigned five years.
    6. Narathu (brother of 5) became king in 1354 and reigned nine years.
    7. Uzana Pyaung (brother of 6) became king in 1364, and was assassinated after three months’ rule by Thadonminbya.

    Turning to Sagaing, there were seven Shan kings who reigned from 1315 to 1364:

    1. Sawyun or Saoyun, the son of Thihathu or Tai-tsi-shin who also reigned at Myinsaing and Pinya. He became king in 1315 and reigned seven years.
    2. Tarabyagyi (step brother of 1), became king in 1323 and reigned fourteen years.
    3. Shwetaungtet (son of 2), became king in 1336 and reigned three years.
    4. Kyawswa (son of 2), became king in 1340 and reigned ten years.
    5. Nawrahtaminye (brother of 4), became king in 1350 and reigned seven months.
    6. Tarabyange (brother of 5) bcame king in 1350 and reigned three years.
    7. Minbyauk Thiapate (brother-in-law of 6) was driven from Sagaing by a Shan army from the north and murdered by his stepson, Thadonminbya in 1364.

    Awa, the capital of upper Myanmar for many years, was founded with the help of the Shan chief Thadominbya in 1364. There were nineteen chiefs of Shan descent who reigned in Awa from 1364 to 1555:

    1. Thadominbya said to be descended from the ancient Shan kings of Takawng or Tagaung on his mother’s side, he was the grandson of Athinhkaya Sawyun, the Shan king of Sagaing. He founded Awa in 1364, became king in the same year and reigned three years.
    2. Nga Nu (usurper), a paramour of Sao Umma, became king in 1368, and reigned only for a few days.
    3. Mingyiswasawke, said to be descended from both the Bagan dynasty and the Shan brothers, became king in 1368 and reigned thirty-five years.
    4. Tarbya or Sinbyushin (eldest son of 3), became king in 1401 but reigned only seven months, being murdered by his attendant.
    5. Nga Nauk Hsan, became king in 1401 and reigned only a few weeks.
    6. Minkhaung (another son of 3) hesitated to accept the throne, but his younger brother Theiddat killed a cousin claimant and made him king. He became king in 1401 and reigned twenty-one years.
    7. Thiathu (son of 6) became king in 1422 and reigned four years. He was murdered at the instigation of Queen Shin Bo Me.
    8. Minhla Ngai (son of 7) king in 1426 and reigned only three months before he was poisoned.
    9. Kalekyetaungnyo (usurper) became king in 1426 but reigned only seven months.
    10. Mohnyithado or Mohnyinmintara, chief of Shan descent who justified his claim to the throne as a descendant of the kings Narapatisithu (1173-1210) and Ngasishin (1343-1350) of Bagan and of the family of the three Shan brothers. He became king in 1427 and reigned thirteen years.
    11. Minrekyawswa (son of 10) became king in 1440 and reigned three years.
    12. Narapati (Thihathu) (brother of 11), became king in 1443 and reigned twenty-six years.
    13. Thihathu or Mahathihathura (son of 12), became king in 1469 and reigned twelve years.
    14. Minhkaung (son of 13), became king in 1481 and reigned twenty-one years.
    15. Shwenankyawshin (son of 14), became king in 1502 and reigned twenty-five years. He was killed by Thohanbwa or Hso Hom Hpa.
    16. Thohanbwa or Hso Hom Hpa, son of Mohyin Saolon who conquered Awa. He became king in 1527 and reigned sixteen years. He was murdered.
    17. Hkonmaing or Hkun Mong, Saohpa of On Baung or Hsipaw and related to Shwenanshin, was elected king of Awa in 1543 and reigned three years.
    18. Mobye (or Mong Pai) Narapati (son of 17), Saohpa of Mong Pai became king in 1546 and reigned six years and abdicated.
    19. Sithukyawhtin, a Shan chief of Salin, seized Awa and became king in 1552, and reigned three years. He was conqured and deposed by Bayinnaung in 1555.

    Source: G.E. Harvey. History of Burma, from “The Earliest Time to March 1824, The Beginning of English Conquest”. London: Frank Case and Co. Ltd., 1967. p. 160.
    Appendix III: Shan Kings of Bago

    The following is the list of the Shan kings of Bago of the dynasty established by Wareru in 1287:

    1. Wareru, the Shan chief who established the dynasty but had his capital at Madama. He became king in AD 1287 (S 649) and reigned nineteen years.
    2. Khun-lau’ or Tha Na’ran Bya Keit who became king in 1306 and reigned four years.
    3. Dza’u-a’u or Theng-Mha’ing (nephwe of 2), who became king in 1310 and reigned thirteen years.
    4. Dzau-dzip, or Binya-ran-da (brother of 3) who became king in 1323 and reigned seven years.
    5. Binya-e’-la’u (son of 2, Khun-lau and cousin of 4) who became king in 1330 and reigned eighteen years.
    6. Byinya-u or Tseng-Pyu-Sheng (son of 4 and cousin of 5), who restored the ancient capital Bago or Hansawadi. He became king in 1348 and reigned thirty-eight years.
    7. Binya-nwe, or Ra’dza’ Di-rit (son of 6) who became king in 1385 and reigned thirty-eight years.
    8. Binya Dham-ma Ra’-dza (son of 7) who became king in 1423 and reigned three years.
    9. Binya-Ra’n-kit (brother of 8) who became king in 1426 and reigned twenty years.
    10. Binya-Wa-ru (nephew of 9) who became king in 1446 and reigned four years.
    11. Binya Keng (cousin of 10) who became king in 1450 and reigned three years.
    12. Mhau-dau (cousin of 11) who became king in 1453 and reigned seven months.
    13. Queen Sheng Tsau Bu or Binya-dau’ who became queen in 1453 and reigned seven years.
    14. Dham-ma Dze-di (cousin of 13) who became king in 1460 and reigned thirty-one years. He did not belong to the royal family.
    15. Binya Ran’ (son of 14 and son-in-law of 13) who became king in 1491 and reigned thirty-five years.
    16. Ta-ka’-rwut-bi (son of 15) who became king in 1526 and reigned fourteen years.

    He was conquered and deposed by Tabeng-Shweti, king of Taungoo in 1540.
    Source: Sir Arthur P. Phayre. History of Burma, Including Burma Proper, Taungu, Tenasserim and Arakan. London: 1883. pp. 290-291.

     Meanwhile from Toungoo Kingdom, in the year 1555 A.D. King Bayinnaung succeeded in unifying the whole of Burma for the second time in our history.

    He was able to “persuade’ the Shan Saw Bwa to submit his suzerainty. In accordance with the traditions of the earlier Burmese Kings, the administrative setup was that the Shan Saw Bwas who submitted to the suzerainty of the Burmese King retained full powers to rule over their kingdom. This relationship was based on mutual respect.

    The military forces of Burma included contingents of Shan soldiers who proved their valour on the foreign battlefields.That is how Shan and Burmese descendents had lived closely together, like brethren, till the fall of Upper Burma in 1886.

    Then the Shan Saw Bwas, with the intention of restoring freedom to Burma and to the Shan State, chose the Burmese Princes Limbin and Saw Yan Naing to head their alliance, and started waging war against the colonialism.We could see in the above mentioned era how Shans  migrated and grew mightier.

    We should study how political, economical, social and philosophical patterns changed according to their coming.To sum up again, after the fall of Bagan , Ava kingdom was built in 1364 M.E. Subsequently, until Pinya, Sagaing and Myinsaing  eras, the power of Bagan collapsed and rebellious small kingdoms spread. When the invading conqueror Shans came across Burmese, they accepted the Buddhist cultures and Burmese cultures.In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.Anyway no one is sure the source of Shan ancestors’ conversion to Buddhism. We should consider the fact that Shans had very good relations with Mon and Khamars. Shans could even get the Buddhism directly from them.We could see that Shan Pagodas look more like Thai and Cambodia Pagodas than our Burmese.

    This episode of the history, Shans’ conquering over the  Burma, which our successive Bama governments’ history text books just used to mention one line only and skipped forward to the glorious Burmese warrior Toungoo King Baying Naung who successfully established the 2nd Bama Empire. 

    The date 7th February 1947 is a defining moment in the record of the Shan history as a modern nation. On that day, Shan princes and the people’s representatives of the Shan States demonstrated their newfound unity to declare it a “national day” which were followed by the resolutions of “Shan National Anthem”, “Shan National Flag” and the formation of “Shan State Council” on the 11th and 15th of February, 1947 respectively. The people of Shan States and leaders decided in this very year later at Panglong, on the 12th of February, to join with U Aung San and the AFPFL (Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League) and leaders of other nationalities, to live together under one flag as co-independent and equal nations. This marks the birth of a nation-state now known as “Union of Burma”.

    National flag

    1.     The design of the national flag is as sanctioned at the Panglong Treaty conference in 1947.

    2.     The size of the flag is ( 5ft. x 3ft)

    3.     Diameter of the Moon is (1. ½ ft)

    4.     The breath of the three colors: yellow, green and reddish (1 ft) each.

    Example

    shanstateflag.png

    The meaning of the color:

    1. yellow is religion
    2. green is forest, and rich in natural resources and peace
    3. red is  bravery,
    4. white is purity
    sao.jpg

    Saopha-loong, Soa Shwe Thaike, who was the first President of the Independent Burma. When Burma fell under military dictatorship, Soa Shwe Thaike was put into jai by the military regime, and later died in jail under suspicious circumstances.

    Failed Cohabitation

    The experiment to live together in harmony within the Union of Burma has been a disaster. In 1962, the Burmese military sized state power in a coup and declared the Union Constitution abolished. In so doing, the Burmese terminated the only existing legal bond between them and the other ethnic nationalities. So much time has gone by since February 7 1947…A lot of changes have occurred, and many of them have been very painful and unfair. the leaders of Burma from Prime Minister U Nu in 1948, to General Ne Win in 1962, to General Than Shwe (now), have missed the opportunity to build a peaceful and prosperous nation based on mutual respect, understanding, and cooperation. As a result, the people of Burma are suffering unnecessarily.

     

    The problem that exist is not ethic “minority” rights versus the “majority” Burmese rights but rather of equality of rights for all.
                         

    The 1948 Union of Burma was understood by us to be a federal  union of equals. And though the intent of the 1948 Constitution was federal, in rushing it through the Constituent Assembly by the AFPFL [Fa-sa-pa-la], the federal Union  in practice became unitary.
                        

    When we during 1958-62 tried to institute constitutional reforms in the Union Parliament towards a more equitable federal system as envisaged by the 1947 Panglong Agreement, Ne Win staged his military coup and he and his successor Burmese military troops in Shan country raped, murdered & tortured to oppress, suppress and intimidate.”Since then, Shan State has been treated as a de facto colony and occupied territory by the Burmese army. Its forced assimilation and Burmanization policies to subdue our national identity have devastated the Shan homeland and make the people homeless and refugees. Looking at the contemporary situation, one could only term the Shan nation as a downtrodden and battered one, reeling under the occupation of the oppressive Burmese military regime. Gross human rights violations, genocide and cultural genocide, population transfer designed to make the Shan a minority in their homestead, and robbing them of their birthright sovereignty and self-determination are glaring injustice, which push the Shan into the category of sub-human or slaves, especially in the eyes of their occupiers.    But even under such circumstances and after more than four decades of brutal suppression and occupation, the Shan sense of “national identity” and the aspiration to be the master of their own faith have not diminish but have grown stronger.

    • The Shan Nationalities League for Democracy’s (SNLD) victory in 1990 nation-wide election in the whole Shan State;
    • the continued political activities of the Shan State Army North within the limited political space provided by the Burmese military junta;
    • the active armed resistance of the Shan State Army South,
    • together with the bulk of Shan State National Army;
    • and the highly self-conscious Shan civil societies in keeping the national identity alive under intense pressure of the Burmese military junta; are indications of a nation, which refuses to be cowed.
    • the mainstream Shan organizations are endorsing the notion to rebuild a new Federal Union – together with all the other ethnic nationalities, Burman included

    Practically, the Shan are faced with a dilemma to choose between secession and genuine federalism. But it is also important to note that the Federal Proposal of 1961, before the military coup,

    • is the brainchild of the Shan leadership at that time,
    • which was aimed at changing the Burman dominated unitary system into a genuine federal structure
    • with equal status for all ethnic nationalities.
    • All non-Burman ethnic groups endorse this as a balanced and acceptable solution until today.
    • Meanwhile, this proposed arrangement also find acceptance among most of the Burman opposition camps as a way to resolve the conflict as a whole.

    This is perhaps lowering the aspiration to a certain degree but nevertheless, a pragmatic approach and in line with the international mood. But this is not to say that the global trend will stay forever in favor of status quo. The people concerned would eventually adjust their needs and value system, according to the prevailing international norm and structure of the time.    Finally, if the Shan wants to be heard and advance their aspirations, they would need to seriously think globally and act locally.

    • It would need to sell the idea
    • that it is part and parcel of a viable force,
    • in collaboration with all non-Burman ethnic nationalities
    • and Burman opposition groups,
    • to replace the illegitimate military junta.
    • To do this, “broad coalition-building” among all the opposition is essential,
    • even those within the rank of the enemies, who are ready to reform, embrace justice, equality and democracy should not be neglected.
    • The Shan cannot win this fight alone
    • and it is crucial that the “multi-pronged” approach is employed,
    • coupled with the motto of “diverse actions, common goal”, as urged time and again by the late Chao Tzang Yawnghwe.

    If we can bring about change now, in twenty years, Burma can still be a peaceful and prosperous country.

     

    “Yugoslavia did break up into its components parts. The Shan States are larger both in population then Cambodia for instance and larger in area than some 24 States of the US and 20 or so Nation-States in Europe.
                        

    “I support all ethnic groups’ rights to have their own federal states, probably in US style or Canadian style. I understand that Quebac Province in Canada is an autonomic federal state. Shan state can be like that.
                    

    I never believe that “total separation of Union of Burma/Myanmar into a large number of totally separated & independent but very small tiny little countries” might be a wise decision.”

    Burma (Pagan) 1044

    Anawrata (d. 1077) seized royal power at Pagan and made it the political, religious, and cultural center of Burma; the Burmese written language was developed and Buddhist scriptures translated;

    • architectural monuments followed the inspiration of Ceylon and southern India.
    • In 1057, conquest of Thaton, Mon kingdom, which was in maritime contact with Ceylon and the Indian subcontinent and was a center for Buddhism as well as overseas trade.
    • Mon had a strong cultural influence at Pagan.
    • In 1060s-1070s, Anawrata initiated communication and exchanges with Vijayabahu I, Ceylon’s ruler (1055-1110), including the sharing of Pali Buddhist texts and monks.  

    Rule of Kyanzittha, (1084-1112 )best known for his _

    • synthesis of various cultural developments
    • and the process of assimilation of different ethnic groups that took place during his reign.
    • He created a distinctive Burman style.  
    • In 1106, a Burmese embassy at the Sung capital in China was received as from a fully sovereign state.    

    Pagan disintegrated into smaller states in ( 1287 )_

    • Following the rejection of Mongol demands for tribute in 1271
    • and later, Burmese raids into Yünnan,
    • and the death of Narathihapate (who ruled 1254-87),
    • Mongol forces looted Pagan and destroyed its power.
    • The invasion of Shan tribes, forced southward by the Mongols, led to the division of Burma into a number of petty states.

    The chief states among them being_

    • Toungoo (established 1280),
    • Pegu in southern Burma,
    • and Ava in the middle and lower Irrawaddy Valley (established as capital 1365).

    After the collapse of Pagan authority, Burma was divided.

    Sagaing had been established as a capital, but later Sagaing fell to the Shan, the court moved across the river to Ava.

    1. Burmese Ava Dynasty (1364-527) was eventually established at the city of Ava by 1364.
    2. The kings of Ava set about restoring Burmese supremacy, which had disintegrated after the collapse of Pagan to the Mongol invasion under Kublai Khan that ended the First Burmese Empire founded by King Anawrahta in 1057.
    3. The kingdom lacked easily defendable borders, however, and was overrun by the Shan in 1527.
    4. There were repeated Shan/Tai raids on the capital of Ava and Ava sent military northwards to attack Tai fiefdoms such as Mong Mao.
    5. The Kingdom of Ava was involved in continuous warfare with Tai (Shan) princelings to the north on the frontier with Yunnan.
    6. The Ming dynasty that ruled China from the late fourteenth century often tried unsuccessfully to put an end to this warfare through traditional Chinese diplomacy.
    7. Ava occasionally became involved in the warfare between the Ming and Tai in Yunnan such as in the Luchuan-Pingmian Campaigns (1436-49).

    Toungoo Dynasty  

    King Mingyinyo founded the First Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1599) at Toungoo, south of Ava, towards the end of the Ava dynasty.

    1. After the conquest of Ava by the Shan invaders in 1527 many Burmans migrated to Toungoo which became a new center for Burmese rule.
    2. The dynasty conquered the Mohnyin Shan peoples in northern Burma.By this time, the geopolitical situation in Southeast Asia had changed dramatically.
    3. Mingyinyo’s son king Tabinshwehti (1531-50) unified most of Burma.
    4. The Shan gained power in a new kingdom in the North, Ayutthaya (Siam), while the Portuguese had arrived in the south and conquered Malacca.
    5. With the coming of European traders, Burma was once again an important trading centre, and Tabinshwehti moved his capital to Pegu due to its strategic position for commerce. Tabinshwehti was able to gain control of Lower Burma up to Prome,
    6. but the campaigns he led to the Arakan, Ayutthaya, and Ava in Upper Burma were unsuccessful.
    7. When Tabinshwehti’s brother-in-law, Bayinnaung (1551-81), Tabinshwehti’s brother-in-law, succeeded to the throne he launched a campaign of conquest invading several states, including Manipur (1560) and Ayutthaya (1569).
    8. An energetic leader and effective military commander, he made Toungoo the most powerful state in Southeast Asia,
    9. and extended his borders from Laos to Ayutthaya, near Bangkok.
    10. His wars stretched Myanmar to the limits of its resources, however, and both Manipur and Ayutthaya, which had remained under Myanmar domination for 15 years, were soon independent once again.
    11. Bayinnaung was poised to deliver a final, decisive assault on the kingdom of Arakan when he died in 1581.

     The Toungoo rulers withdrew from southern Burma and founded a second dynasty at Ava as the Restored Toungoo Dynasty (1597-1752), because_

    • they Faced with rebellion by several cities
    • and renewed Portuguese incursions

    Bayinnaung’s grandson, Anaukpetlun, once again reunited Burma in 1613 and decisively defeated Portuguese attempts to take over Burma.

    Encouraged by the French in India, Pegu finally rebelled against Ava, further weakening the state, which fell in 1752.

    Siam (Thailand)

    Early in the 11th century, Dvaravati (See Mainland Southeast Asia) was annexed to Cambodia; Haripunjaya retained its independence.

    • In the 13th century, Haripunjaya was overrun by a migration of Tai, or Shan, peoples from the north.  
    • In the year 1281, Tai leader Mangrai (1239-1317) conquered the kingdom of Haripunjaya at Lamphun. For two decades he fought Mongols who were threatening Tais from the north.
    • He is known as the founder of the kingdom of Lan Na, centered at Chiengmai, with cultural contributions influenced by Buddhist thought.  
    • In the year 1279-98, Ramkamhaeng ruled over the kingdom of Sukothai,
    • which he extended from Vientiane in the east to Pegu in the west.
    • Most important contributions were in areas of literature, sculpture, and religion; these developments strongly influenced Tai (+ Myanmar) cultural attainments as well.  
    • In the year 1350, migration of Tai, or Shan, accelerated by the Mongol conquest of the Tai state of Nan-chao (in modern Yünnan and southern Szechwan) in 1253,
    • led eventually to the suppression of the Khmer kingdoms

    and the setting up of the Tai kingdom of Siam, with its capital at Ayuthia, founded by Rama Tiboti.

    The early Siamese state was from the first under the influence of both Hinayana Buddhism and Chinese political institutions. The location of the Siamese state at a center of maritime commerce gave it a distinct advantage in its power struggle with Angkor. The ability to_

    • adopt the Angkorian-style administrative skills of the Mons and Khmers,
    • the martial skills of the Tais,
    • and the wealth and commercial skills of the local Chinese merchant communities was its legacy to the Tais’ cultural development.

    Toward the end of the 13th century, a form of writing had been invented for the Siamese language.  

    Siamese invasion of Cambodia in 1350-1460  finally led to the abandonment of Angkor (1431) and collapse of the Khmer Empire.  

    In the year 1371, Siamese embassy at Nanking inaugurated tributary relations with the newly founded Ming dynasty.    

    Intermittent friction between Siam and the Tai state of Chiengmai in the northern Menam Valley in 1376-1557 _

    • ended with the destruction of Chiengmai by the Burmese.  
    • During the 14th and 15th centuries, strong Siamese influence was exerted over the disunited states of Burma
    • and the northern part of the Malay Peninsula.

     Siam (Ayutthaya)

    Administrative centralization of Siam attributed to efforts of King Trailokanat (r. 1448-88); but most of institutionalized form of government probably resulted from reign of King Naresuen the Great (r. 1590-1605).

    • Under this king, Siam regained its independence from Burma
    • and emerged as most powerful kingdom in mainland Southeast Asia.  
    • Development of overseas trade can be dated as early as 1368. By the early modern period, Siam was a major source for sappanwood and pepper in the Chinese trading network.  
    • Siamese adopted Hinduism along with Theravada Buddhism.
    • Hindu concept of divine kingship,
    • and accompanying rituals, provided important sources of legitimation.

    But in Siamese society, the claim to divinity operated without the internal checks characteristic of India, for Brahmans had little influence at the court. This may explain the pronounced aspect of absolutism in Siam.

    • Yet Buddhism was dominant in the cultural system that emerged in the early modern period, particularly in providing signs of legitimation (and delegitimation in the face of popular unrest) for rulers.
    • Royal interaction with sangha (groups of monks) provided especially important occasions for public statements of rulers’ support of Buddhist precepts; nevertheless, Thai rulers closely controlled the sangha through cultural patronage (their support ranged from sponsorship of architecture and sculpture to public processions).  

    In 1569, first fall of Ayutthaya to invading Burmese army although_ 

    • In 1538, as a measure of impact of military technology, King Phrachai (r. 1534-46) retained 120 Portuguese to instruct Siamese soldiers in musketry.  
    • In 1550, new fortification style was introduced around the Siamese capital.
    • King Maha Thammarcha (r. 1569-90) also purchased large supplies of foreign cannon.

    In 1590, King Naresuen the Great regained independence and utilized political, economic, and military forces to transform fragmented kingdom into relatively centralized state.  

    • Portuguese trading stations were established in the 16th century.
    • Around the beginning of the 17th century large numbers of Japanese were active in Siam in war and trade.
    • In 1602 a Dutch trading post was established at Patani,
    • where the English soon followed, until their withdrawal from Siam in 1623.
    • R. 1656-88 King Narai most energetic in pursuit of trade with foreigners.
    • His curiosity about Persian and French cultures made his court known for its openness.  
    • 1664 By a commercial treaty, the Dutch gained a monopoly of Siamese foreign trade,
    • which was, however, thwarted by French intrigue; a French embassy and military expedition (1685) in turn failed to secure the acceptance of Christianity and French influence and led to 
    • In 1688 a popular revolt that began a period of prolonged civil war. Prompted in part by reaction against Narai’s openness, it became anti-European. European trade languished,
    • But Chinese and Muslim trade continued at a high level to take up the slack.  
    • In 1690s, a dramatic decline in trade with Muslims and Europeans could be measured, although the Chinese trade helped to fill the gap. 

    In 1767, Burmese invasion destroyed Ayuthia

    • and compelled temporary acceptance of Burmese rule until 1782,
    • when Rama I founded a new Siamese dynasty, with its capital at Bangkok.
    • Even in period of political anarchy, great cultural activity emerged.
    • Rama issued royal decrees aimed at controlling the sangha and addressing the need to harness the manpower represented by idle monks.

    Contemporary Shan State

     From the Wikipedia enclyclopedia_

    Shan State is a state located in Myanmar (Burma), which takes its name from the Shan people, the majority ethnic group in the Shan State. Shan State comprises 69 townships, including 24 newly-created townships in Special Region 2 (Wa Area). Its capital is Taunggyi. The state is largely rural. Major cities of Shan State are Lashio, Kengtong and Taunggyi.

    Contents

    1. Sub states, districts and townships
    2. Geography
    3. Education
    4. Economy
    5. Population History References

    Continue to read about the Shan State in the Wikipedia enclyclopedia.

    Contemporary Shan Nationals 

    From the Wikipedia enclyclopedia_ 

    The Shan (Burmese: ; IPA: [ʃán lùmjóʊ]; Chinese: 掸族; pinyin: dǎn zú) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia. The Shan live primarily in the Shan State of Burma (Myanmar), but also inhabit parts of Mandalay Division, Kachin State, and Kayin State, and in adjacent regions of China, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. The Shan are estimated to number ~6 million; a reliable census has not been taken since 1935. The capital of Shan State is Taunggyi, a small city of about 150,000 people. Other major cities include Thibaw (Hsipaw), Lashio, Kengtong and Tachileik.

    The valleys and tableland are inhabited by the Shans, who in language and customs resemble the Thais, Dai, and the Lao. They are largely Buddhists and are mainly engaged in agriculture. Among the Shans live the Bamar, Chinese, and Karens. The hills are inhabited by various peoples, notably the Wa, who are numerous in the north and along the Chinese border.The Palaung People are numerous in the Northern Shan State, in Namkham, Muse, Nampaka, Kut Kai, and Lashio Townships along the Burma China Border and also in the middle of Shan State, in Namsarn, Kyat Mae and Thipal Townships. The population of the Palaung people is over 1 million. Some of the Palaung people in Kalaw and Aung Pan in the Southern Shan State. There is a dwindling population of Anglo-Burmese in major hill stations, such as Kalaw and in Taunggyi, a hold-over from the colonial period.

    Contents

    1. Etymology  
    2. Culture
    3. Language
    4.  History List of Shan States and rulers
    5. Politics Independence and exiled government

     

    Etymology

    The Shan identify themselves as “Tai”, which means “free men” while “Shan” is a Burmese language term.[1] The Shan share their creation myth with the Lao people and believe their race was founded by Khun Borom the first king to establish Sip Song Pan Na (12 thousand Fields) along the Mekong (Mae Nam Kong).

    The Shan people as a whole can be divided into four major groups:

    1. The Tai Yai or “Shan Proper”
    2. The Tai Lue, located in Sipsong Panna (China) and the eastern states
    3. The Tai Khuen, the majority of Keng Tung (Thai:เชียงตุง)
    4. The Tai Neua, mostly in Sipsong Panna(Thai:สิบสองปันนา or สิบสองพันนา).

    Culture

    The Shan are traditionally wet-rice cultivators, shopkeepers, and artisans. Most Shan are Theravada Buddhists and/or observe their traditional religion, which is related to animist practices.

    Language

    The Shan language, which is spoken by about 5 or 6 millions is closely related to Thai and Lao, and is part of the family of Tai-Kadai languages. It is spoken in Shan State, some parts of Kachin State, some parts of Sagaing Division in Burma, parts of Yunnan, and Mae Hong Son Province in northwestern Thailand.[2] The two major dialects differ in number of tones: Hsenwi Shan has six tones, while Mongnai Shan has five.[3] Its written script is an adaptation of the Mon script (like Burmese), although several other scripts exist.[3] However, few Shan are literate, and many are bilingual in Burmese.

    History

    The Tai-Shan people are believed to have migrated from Yunnan in China. The Shan are descendants of the oldest branch of the Tai-Shan, known as Tai Long (Great Tai) or Thai Yai (Big Thai). The Tai-Shan who migrated to the south and now inhabit modern-day Laos and Thailand are known as Tai Noi (or Tai Nyai), while those in parts of northern Thailand and Laos are commonly known as Tai Noi (Little Tai – Lao spoken) [1] The Shan have inhabited the Shan Plateau and other parts of modern-day Myanmar as far back as the 10th century AD. The Shan kingdom of Mong Mao (Muang Mao) existed as early as the 10th century AD but became a Burmese vassal state during the reign of King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan)(1044-1077). Note: the Mao people are consider a Shan subgroup.

    After the Bagan kingdom fell to the Mongols in 1287, the Tai-Shan people quickly gained power throughout South East Asia, and founded:

    • Lan Xang (Laos)
    • Lanna (Chiang Mai)
    • Ayutthaya (Siam)
    • Assam
    • Ava by Burmanized Shan kings
    • Bago by Monized Shan kings
    • Several Shan states in the Shan hills, Kachin hills, Yunnan and parts of Vietnam.

    Many famous Ava and Bago kings of Burmese history were of (partial) Shan descent. The Burmanized Shan kings of Ava fought Monized Shan kings of Bago for control of Ayeyarwady valley. Various Shan states fought Burmanized Shan kings of Ava for the control of Upper Myanmar. The Shan kingdom of Monyin (Mong Yang) defeated the Ava kingdom in 1527, and ruled all of Upper Myanmar until 1555.

    Burmese king Bayinnaung (1551-1581) conquered all of the Shan states in 1557. Although the Shan states would become a tributary to Ayeyarwady valley based Burmese kingdoms for many centuries, the Shan Saophas retained a large degree of autonomy and often allied themselves with either ChiangMai, Ayuttaya or Siam.

    After the Third Anglo-Burmese War in 1885, the British gained control of the Shan states and pushed the borders to the mountains, thereby robbing Siam of thousands of square miles of territory. (The last Burmese king Thibaw was half-Shan.) Under the British colonial administration, the Shan principalities were administered separately as British protectorates with limited monarchical powers invested in the Shan Saophas. [4]

    After World War II, the Shan and other ethnic minority leaders negotiated with the majority Burman leadership at the Panglong Conference, and agreed to gain independence from Britain as part of Union of Burma. The Shan states were given the option to secede after 10 years of independence. The Shan states became Shan State in 1948 as part of the newly independent Burma.

    General Ne Win’s coup d’etat overthrew the democratically elected government in 1962, and abolished Shan saopha system. In an effort to extract themselves from under the Burmese thumb, various Shan political organizations have attempted ro reassert Siam’s (Thailand) ancient claim to the Shan States, but without success.

    List of Shan States and rulers

    See List of Shan states and rulers.

    Politics

    The Shan have been engaged in an intermittent civil war within Burma for decades. There are two main armed rebel forces operating within Shan State: the Shan State Army/Special Region 3 and Shan State Army/Restoration Council of Shan State. In 2005 the SSNA was effectively abolished after its surrender to the Burmese government, some units joined the SSA/RCSS, which has yet to sign any agreements, and is still engaged in guerrilla warfare against the Burma Army.

    During conflicts, the Shan (Thai Yai) are often burned out of their villages and forced to flee into Thailand. There, they are not given refugee status, and often work as undocumented laborers. Whether or not there is an ongoing conflict, the Shan are subject to depredations by the Burmese government; in particular, young men may be impressed into the Burmese Army for indefinite periods, or they may be enslaved to do road work for a number of months — with no wages and no food. The horrific conditions inside Burma have led to a massive exodus of young Shan males to neighboring Thailand, where they typically find work in construction, at daily wages which run about 100-200 baht. However unsatisfactory these conditions may be, all of these refugees are well aware that at least they are being paid for their work, and that every day spent in Thailand is another day that the Burmese government cannot impress or enslave them. Some estimates of Shan refugees in Thailand run as high as two million, an extremely high number when compared with estimates of the total Shan population at some six million.

    Independence and Exiled Government

    His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Fa (sometimes written as Surkhanfa in Thai) of Yawnghwe, lives in exile in Canada. He is campaigning for the government of Burma to respect the traditional culture and indigenous lands of the Shan people, and he works with Shan exiles abroad helping to provide schooling for displaced Shan children whose parents are unable to do so. He hopes to provide Shan children with some training in life skills so they can fend for themselves and their families in the future.

    In addition, opinion has been voiced in Shan State and in neighbouring Thailand, and to some extent in farther-reaching exile communities, in favour of the goal of “total independence for Shan State.” This came to a head when, in May 2005, Shan elders in exile declared independence for the Federated Shan States.

    The declaration of independence, however, was rejected by most other ethnic minority groups, many Shan living inside Burma, and Burma’s leading opposition party, the National League for Democracy led by Aung San Suu Kyi. Despite this dissenting opinion, the Burma Army has begun a crackdown on Shan civilians as a result of the declaration, and Shan people have reported an increase in restrictions on their movements, and an escalation in Burma Army raids on Shan villages.

    See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khun_Sa

    Country Profile 

    Size:
    Lies between 19 and 24 degrees latitude North, and Stretches from 96 to 101 degrees longitude East, covering approximately 64,000 square miles; shares boundaries with Burma, China, Laos, Thailand and the Karenni.

    Topography and Drainage:

    Bisected north to south by the Salween River, one of the longest rivers in Asia. It lies at an average of 2,000 feet above sea-level, and the highest point, Mount Loilaeng, is 8,777 feet. It is composed of broad valleys, thickly wooded mountain ranges and rolling hills forming scenic landscapes. Jong-ang, the biggest waterfall (972 feet) can be found near the town of Kengtong in Mongnai State.

    Climate

    There are three seasons: Monsoon (May to October), Cold season(November to January) and Summer (February to April). Annual rainfalls average between 40-60 inches. The overall temperature is equable throughout the year: not too cold and not too hot.

    Vegetation

    Pine and evergreen forests can be found in abundance. Teak and various kinds of hardwood cover over 47,210 square miles.

    Minerals


    The bulk of the so-called Burmese natural resources are in the Shan State: silver, lead, gold, copper, iron, tin, wolfram, tungsten, manganese, nickel, coal, mica, antimony, fluorite, marble, gemstones and even uranium. Major Operating Mines are: the Mogok (Mognkut in Shan) and Mongsu ruby mines, and the Namtu Bawdwin silver mines discovered by the Chinese traders and renovated in 1904 by none other than Herbert Clerk Hoover (1874-1964) who became the 31st President of the United State.

    A study of the Indian geological reports made by Drs Cogging and Sondhi in 1993 reveals Northern Shan States as incredible mining potential…As for Southern Shan’s remarkable resources, they can be studied from the reports made by a G.V. Hovson (Shanland’s Grievances, by Htoon Myint of Taunggyi, )

    People :

    The population of these multi-racial people, described by ancient travelers as the most peace loving people who trust everybody and envy nobody is estimated at 7-10 million, the majority of whom are Tai, of the same ethnological stock as Thai and Laos, plus several other racial groups including Pa-o, Palaung and Wa of Mon-Khmer stock; and Kachin, Akha and Lahu of the Tibeto-Burman stock. All in all, it’s various indigenous races have lived harmoniously together for centuries. This fact is supported by the political analyst Josef Silverstein, who say’s: “Although the Shans dominated the people in the area both politically and numerically, they never assimilated the minorities; as a result, cultural pluralism existed through out the Shan States”. (Politics in the Shan State, The Question of Secession from the Union of Burma, 1958, by J. Silverstein). The Shan’s stand on the racial question is best described by Sao Shwe Thaike, who in his capacity as the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly, countered the objection that Muslims could not be considered as being indigenous by saying : “Muslims of the Arakan certainly belong to one of the indigenous races of Burma. If they do not belong to the indigenous races, we also cannot be taken as indigenous races.”

    Culture:

    Shan is still the first language of the majority, though due to 60 years under the British Protectorate and 40 years under Burmese neo-colonialism, usage of English and Burmese has become fairly common.

    As for attire, Shan men, unlike the Burmese, who wear longyis or long skirts, don long baggy trousers. Theravada Buddhism is the pre-eminent faith, and perhaps due to this tolerant religion, Hinduism, Christianity, Islamism and even animisms flourish in this land.

    Agriculture:

    Primarily a self-sufficient agricultural economy, being blessed with fertile soil, it produces rice, tea, cheroot leaves, tobacco, potatoes, oranges, lemon, pears, and opium. Cattle-and horse-breeding is also a common sight in low grasslands. Added to the fact that it is rich in mineral resources and abundant in teak timber, there is no reason why the Shan State could not become one of the richest and most economically dynamic countries in Southeast Asia, given a favorable political climate. 

    Shan States is a beautiful and fertile land, with green hills and mist-covered mountains.  Shans are on the whole, good natured gentle, independent people.

    Shan States have a diverse mix of ethnic groups; Tai Yai, Tai Khurn, Tai Lui or Tai Neir, Tai Keiy, Pa-O or Daung Su, Daung Yoe, Palaung, Kachin, Dai Nawng or in Burmese Intha, Danu, Lisu, Lahu, Wa, Kaw, Padaung, as well as Chinese, Indians, Burmans and others. 

    The Shans are the most widely scattered of the ethnic people in Myanmar and they can be found in every part of the country. Their Mans (villages), Mongs (city-states) and settlements stretch from the northernmost region of Hkamti Long down to Tharrawaddy and then to southern Taninthayi (Tenasserim) and from the tip of Kengtung in the east to Hsawng Hsup, Kabaw valley and Ta-mu in the west. In central Myanmar many Shan settlements can be found around Ava, Pinya, Sagaing, Toungoo, Pyinmana and Pyi (Prome).

     

    250px-shanstatevillage.jpg
    Shan State Village

    Now-a-days, Shan people are spread around the world, many having left Burma to escape the persecution and brutality of the SPDC, many to study overseas.  Shans live overseas in Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Europe, Taiwan, China, Japan and elsewhere. 

    250px-shanfields.jpg
    Shan Fields

    Many overseas groups are actively campaigning for freedom in Shan States and Burma.  Until recently many groups worked almost independently.  In recent years the more widespread use of e-mail and internet technology means that overseas Shan groups can communicate more easily with one another, sharing ideas, discussing campaigns and global change. Shans feel immensely sad that their beautiful homeland has been ravaged and abused by SPDC, and because they have deep love for their motherland, they feel deeply bereft and betrayed.

    250px-hsipaw2.jpg
    Hsipaw

    sss.png

    Two photos of the His Royal Highness Tzao Hso Khan Pha, President and Head of States, Interim Shan Government of the Federated Shan States. The remaining  are Shan Freedom Fighters’ photos, Six photos are copyright of Chris Sinclair mailto:csinclair@pobox.com.Four........ Four other photos are courtesy of TSY taisamyone@yahoo.co.uk. All are taken from Burma Digest.

    Soa Hso Kham Pha is the eldest son of the late Last year Soa Hso Kham Pha, also known as Tiger Yawnghwe, founded the Interim Shan Government with the cooperation of a group of Shan elders. Recently the ISG has established a freedom fighting force called Shan State Army (Central) with thousands of troops to fight against the neo-fascist military regime in Burma.  

    List of Shan state rulers

     Read more in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    The Shan State of Burma (Myanmar) was once made up of a large number of traditional monarchies or fiefdoms. Three ranks of chiefs where recognized by the Burmese king and later by the British administration. These ranks were Saopha or Chaofa (Shan for king or chieftain) or Sawbwa in Burmese, Myosa (“duke” or chief of town), and Ngwegunhmu (silver revenue chief).

    Contents

    1 Shan states

    1. 1.1 Hierarchy and Precedence
    2. 1.2 Baw (Maw)
    3. 1.3 Hopong (Hopon)
    4. 1.4 Hsahtung (Thaton)
    5. 1.5 Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)
    6. 1.6 Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)
    7. 1.7 Hsenwi (Theinni)
      1. 1.7.1 North Hsenwi
      2. 1.7.2 South Hsenwi
    8. 1.8 Hsihkip (Thigyit)
    9. 1.9 Hsipaw (Thibaw)
    10. 1.10 Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)
    11. 1.11 Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)
    12. 1.12 Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)
    13. 1.13 Kenglön (Kyainglon)
    14. 1.14 Kengtung (Kyaingtong)
    15. 1.15 Kokang
    16. 1.16 Kyon
    17. 1.17 Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)
    18. 1.18 Laihka (Lègya)
    19. 1.19 Lawksawk (Yatsauk)
    20. 1.20 Loi-ai (Lwe-e)
    21. 1.21 Loilong (Lwelong)
    22. 1.22 Loimaw (Lwemaw)
    23. 1.23 Mawkmai
    24. 1.24 Manglon
    25. 1.25 Monghsu
    26. 1.26 Mawkmai (Maukme)
    27. 1.27 Mawnang (Bawnin)
    28. 1.28 Mawsön (Bawzaing)
    29. 1.29 Möngkawng (Mogaung)
    30. 1.30 Mongkung
    31. 1.31 Möngleng (Mohlaing)
    32. 1.32 Mönglong
    33. 1.33 Möngmit (Momeik)
    34. 1.34 Mong Nai (Monè)
    35. 1.35 Mongnawng
    36. 1.36 Mong Pai (Mobye)
    37. 1.37 Mong Pan
    38. 1.38 Mong Pawng (Maing Pun)
    39. 1.39 Möngping (Maingpyin)
    40. 1.40 Möngsit (Maingseik)
    41. 1.41 Möngtung (Maington)
    42. 1.42 Möngyang (Mohnyin)
    43. 1.43 Möngyawng
    44. 1.44 Namhkai (Nanke)
    45. 1.45 Namhkok (Nankok)
    46. 1.46 Namhkom (Nankon)
    47. 1.47 Namtok (Nantok)
    48. 1.48 Namkhok-Nawngwawn
    49. 1.49 Panglawng
    50. 1.50 Pangmi
    51. 1.51 Pangtara (Pindara)
    52. 1.52 Pwehla (Poila)
    53. 1.53 Sakoi
    54. 1.54 Samka
    55. 1.55 Tawngpeng
    56. 1.56 Wanmaw (Bhamo)
    57. 1.57 Wanyin (Banyin)
    58. 1.58 Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)
    59. 1.59 Ywangan (Yengan)
    60. 1.60 Bibliography

    Shan states

    State Area (sq. mi) Classical Name Notes
    Sawbwas      
    Kengtung 12,400 Khemarata Tungaburi  
    Hsipaw 4,524 Dutawadi  
    Mongnai 2,717 Saturambha/Nandapwa  
    Yawnghwe 1,392 Kambawsarata  
    Tawngpeng 800 Pappatasara  

    South Hsenwi

    2,400 Siwirata or Kawsampi Also known as Mongyai

    North Hsenwi

    6,330 Siwirata or Kawsampi  
    Mongmit 3,733 Gandhalarata  
    Mongpai 730    
    Lawksawk 2,362 Hansawadi?  
    Laikha 1,560 Hansawadi  
    Mawkmai 2,557 Lawkawadi  
    Mongpan 2,988 Dhannawadi  
    Mongpawn 366 Rajjawadi  
    Manglun   Jambularata  
    Kantarawadi 3,015    
    Samka 314    
    Mongkung 1,593 Lankawadi  
    Myosas      
    Nawngwawn 28 Pokkharawadi Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
    Mongnawng 1,646 Nandawadi  
    Mongsit      
    Kehsi-bansam 551    
    Mawnang     Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1934
    Loilong (Pinlaung) 1,098    
    Hsahtung 471    
    Wanyin 219    
    Hopong 212    
    Namkhok 108   Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
    Sakoi 82    
    Mongshu 470 Hansawadi  
    Kenglun 54   Amalgamated with Kehsh Bansam, 1926
    Bawlake 565    
    Kyetbogyi 700    
    Hsamongkham 449    
    Baw 741    
    Pwela 178    
    Ngwegunhmus      
    Yengan (Ywangan) 359    
    Pangtara (Pindaya) 86    
    Pangmi 30    
    Loi-ai 156   Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1930
    Kyaukku 76   Amalgamated with Pwela, 1928
    Loimaw 48   Amalgamated with Yawnghwe, 1928
    Kyone 24    
    Namtok 14   Amalgamated with Loilong, 1931

        Chinese provinces with the name Shan

    1. Shan is another name of the Dai, an ethnic group in China.
    2. Shan, an abbreviation for the Shaanxi province of the People’s Republic of China
    3. Shan, or Shan county, also refers a county in Shandong province of PRC
    4. Shan, or Shantou (汕头), a city in Guangdong province of PRC
    5. Shan, name for a region in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
    6. Shan, also refers to the name of ancient Western Regions (西域)

    Shan also means hill, peak, or mountain in Chinese languages and Japanese There is also Chinese surname, Shan (surname), is a in Chinese.There is also river name with Shan , in Zhejiang Province of PRC

    Reference

    1. Wikipedia encyclopedia
    2. “Story of Myanmar told in pictures” by Dr Than Tun and translated by Maung Win War.
    3.  The Shan Herald Agency News’ Shan State Affairs section, Shan History.
    4. the folk tales of our Ethnic Minorities,
    5. the old records of Chinese and Indian travelers’ chronicles,
    6. Thailand and Khmer chronicles,
    7. from Hman Nan Yar Za Won, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma (Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.),
    8. Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) “Chin, Myu and Khumi, Notthern Rakhine” in Myanmar Magazine Kalya 1994 August and other publications
    9. and HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia
    10. and Burma’s old history text books published by Burmese Education Ministry. 
    11.  Edward Albert Gait’s “A history of Assam” book, published by Thacker, Spink in1963 at Calcutta.
    12. Shan State and Union of Burma“_ Editorial: Sai Wansai, .02.2006 Issue of Burma Digest
    13. Believing in a Change“_ Interview withSao Harn Yawnghwe
    14. Dialogue with a Shan Leader“_ Interview with Tiger Yawnghwe
    15. We Shall Cooperate with All Genuine Democrats“_ The Shan’s Pledge: Sao Hso Khan Pha
    16. Shan People, Shan State & Shan Government” _ Special Report: Interim Shan Government
    17. Shan Nationals“_ Commentary: Feraya Nangmone 
    18. Letter 1: A Valentine Present with Love” _  Compassionate Letters: Bo Aung Din
    19. Shan Freedom Fighters Photo article: Chris Sinclair & Tai Sam Yone
    20. SAI AUNG TUN, Yangon University, ” The Tai Ethnic Migration and Settlement in Myanmar” By the assistance of the Yunnan Institute for Nationalities, China and the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Japan he had  attended the Kunming International Workshop on the “Dynamics of Ethnic Cultures Across National Boundaries in Southwestern China and Mainland.
    21. Detained Ethnic Leaders Denied Outside Medical Aid“, By Shah Paung, January 8, 2008, Irrawaddy.
    22. The Kachin Hill Manual. Rangoon: The Superintendent Government Printing, Union of Burma, 1959. pp. 17-18
    23. G.E. Harvey. History of Burma, from “The Earliest Time to March 1824, The Beginning of English Conquest”. London: Frank Case and Co. Ltd., 1967. p. 160.
    24. Sir Arthur P. Phayre. History of Burma, Including Burma Proper, Taungu, Tenasserim and Arakan. London: 1883. pp. 290-291. 

     See also_

     

    1. Compassionate letter No 1: A Valentine Music DVD with Love for Dear Nan
    2. Compassionate letter number two, for my beloved Nan Sai   
    3. Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire           
    4. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
    5. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
    6. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
    7.  The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
    8.  The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
    9.   The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII
    10.  A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1A (In Burmese)View
    11. A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1B (In Burmese) View
    12. A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1C (In Burmese) View
    13. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No. 6 C (in Burmese) View
    14. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No. 6 B (in Burmese) View
    15. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No. 6 A (in Burmese) View 
    16. Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I
    17. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part II
    18. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III
    19. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part IV
    20. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V
    21. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI
    22. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VII
    23. The Golden days of the Great Mon Empire I

     

    NOTE:  Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan letters 1 to 12 were first written in English as my earlier contribution to BURMA DIGEST on the Shan National day/Burma’s National day/Valentine day after I read about the Shan leaders intention to separate Shan from Burma/Myanmar.

    Later I tried to made that letters in series imitating famous Indian first PM Neru’s letters to his daughter, who later the very famous and strong PM Indera Ghandi. I tried to rewrite the whole history of Burma like him but once I wrote about Burmese Muslims, some racists opposed.

    But BD Chief editor Dr Tay Za even allowed me to write with different pseudonyms (author names). I love BURMA, SHAN, all the ethnic minorities and I even try to learn about all thee religions esp Buddhism, Hindu, JEWS and found out the essence and common basic good things. 

    BD Chief editor Dr Tay Za even appointed me as a think tank member, editor and later senior editor, I tried to fulfill 99.99% of his request topics but I tried to squeeze in my interested topics. You all can see with your eyes what I have done for three years on Shan National day. THOSE WERE NOT APPRECIATED BUT I WAS RUDELY ORDERED NOT TO WRITE ANY RELIGIOUS ARTICLE. So without any quarrel or argument, I left BD sadly.

    The true secular politics is just a myth only.

    Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VIII

    Factors that influenced

    the evolution of Burma Part VIII

    Shans

    Shan (also known as  Tai) lived independently up north round about 650 B.C. in China at the lower part of the Yangtze River.

    1. Shan’s (also known as Tai) migrated down through the present day Yunnan and desended further down into our  Burma and settled in the Shan Plateau.

    2. A large group of them made a detour U turn and went up north and climbed the Tibet hills and stayed there forming the Tibeto-Burman ancestors of the whole region.

    3. One group continued their journey west, up to the present day Rakhine.

    4. Another group even decided to continue the long march up into the present day north eastern part of India.

    5. One of the group continued south in Burma and settled in lower Burma closely with Mon and  Kayins.

    6. Few of them decided to continue to just stay-put in the present day Yunnan.

    7. One group broke away from all others and decided to go straight southwards and settled in present Thailand.

    8. One of them also broke away from all and moved to the east, settling in present day Lao and Cambodia. Actually they are a little bit different, some had more of the Chinese blood and some even have mixed blood with Khamars and some even went further and said to be settled in Viet Nam.

    9. One of the group, known as Thet mixed the Pyus and their decedents are part of the ancestors of Bamars.

    10. Some of the ethnic group who made a detour U turn and went up north and climbs the Tibet hills later, came down and they were known as Kan Yan and formed one of the ancestors of Bama .

    11. At last intermarriage of the groups who were the descendents of Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet give rise to my present day Bama ethnic group.

    Note (A): the long march travelers of Shan came down in different times in batches. Because it happened in the prehistoric times, I have searched and collected data, and made it simple and easy from:

    1. the folk tales of our Ethnic Minorities,
    2. the old records of Chinese and Indian travelers’ chronicles,
    3. Thailand and Khmer chronicles,
    4. from Hman Nan Yar Za Won, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma (Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.),
    5. Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) “Chin, Myu and Khumi, Notthern Rakhine” in Myanmar Magazine Kalya 1994 August and other publications
    6. and HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia
    7. and Burma’s old history text books published by Burmese Education Ministry.

    I hereby wish to go into some details of what I had given as a gist above: Shan’s other cousins descended from the same ancestors, now inhabit northeast Assam or Asom in India.

    Note (B) : they established the Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed_

    • indescribable cruelties
    • and barbarities  as to
    • annihilate something like 2/3 of the population
    • and certainly 1/3 of the men and boys
    • disemboweling them,
    • eating their flesh
    • and burning them alive in cages
    • to intimidate
    • and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam, India.

    Edward Albert Gait’s “A history of Assam” book, published by Thacker, Spink in1963 at Calcutta

    This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British.

    Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao  568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese). Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.

    DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA”. Tiger Yawnghwe or His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Pha; he is the eldest son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the former Saopha[Prince] of Yawnghwe[Nyaung-Shwe] and the first President of Burma after Burma’s Independence from British colonial rule. Interview with Dr Tayza, Chief Editor of Burma Digest.

    Some groups of Shan settled along the way, at  Yunnan in the north east of Burma. Some mixed blooded with Chinese and Khamar, went to the east and founded the Laos and  Cambodia. Others went down to the southeast and settled in Thailand. No wonder Thailand was known as Siam or we could even easily understand it is just a slang of Shan.

    Shans were  gradually pushed south, at about the beginning of the Christian era by the advancement of the Tar Tars. About 650 A.D. one group of Shans formed a powerful country at Nan Chao, now known as Yunnan.

    Nan Chao Shans were quite powerful and could resist Chinese attempts at conquest until 1253.

    During the years 754 to 763 A.D. the Nan Chao Shans extended their rule even up to the upper basin of the Irrawaddy River and came into contact with the Pyu.

    Pyu was one of three ancestors who founded our Burma: viz, Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet. Pyu was then the ruler of the Upper  Burmese Plains.

    Some of Shan’s descendents ventured beyond Upper Burma into Lower Burma to mingle and live together with the Mons.

    During the heydays of the Nan Chao Shans, some of them had even crossed Upper Burma to reach far west and established the once powerful Ahom Shan Kingdom, in the northeastern part of India, now known as Assam or Assom , as stated above.

    Shans had moved into the area now known as the Shan Pyae of Burma in large numbers and settled down and were well established by the time our first Burmese King Anawrahta ascended his throne in 1st century.

    Nan Chao  Shans tried desperately to defend their Nan Chao  kingdom from the Chinese attackers, but in 1253 the Nan Chao Kingdom fell. Some of the Nan Chao Shans, unwilling to live under foreign domination there; move towards the south in strength, to seek freedom in present day Tailand area.

    They joined forces with the other Shans, who had already settled in that area, and in 1262 took over Chiang Rai, in 1296 Chiang Mai and in 1315 took Ayuddhaya, and established their own kingdoms.

    In Upper Burma the Shans established the kingdoms of Mo Gaung (Mong Kawng), and Mo Hnyin (Mong Yang), and in the Shweli basin, the Mao Kingdom.

    Anawrahta ruled the Pagan  for 43 year. He was able to unify the whole Burma under his rule for the first time in history.

    During this time he sent his armed villagers into the Shan’s kingdoms to help ensure the security of his Pagan Kingdom. However, he had no intention of annexing or taking over of the Shan’s kingdoms. He merely wished to defend the low lying plains of his Burma from raids by the Shan’s disgruntled militias. For this purpose he established a string of fortified towns along the length of the foothills.

    Relations between Shan and Burma became friendlier under Anawrahta’s successors , but the Burmese Pagan fell to the attackers from China in 1287 A. D. and was destroyed.

    Then in 1312 A. D. one of the groups of Shans took the kingly Title of “Thihathu” and ascended as the Burmese king or throned in Pinya.

    The (Mao) Shans, who had established kingdoms in Mo Hnyin, Mo Gaung and the Shweli areas then overran the villages of Pinya and Sagaing in 1364 A.D.

    After they had withdrawn, Shan’s from Ava, whose title was Thadominbya, combined Pinya and Sagaing and established a new Kingdom, over which he ruled.

    So Shans effectively became Kings in Burma from 1282 A.D. to 1531 A.D.

    In 1527 A.D. due to the attacks of the Mo Hnyin Saw Bwa on Ava, the Shan’s and U Burmese of the area left their homes and descended southwards towards Toungoo, where they established a new kingdom.

    Thohanbwa, the son of the Moehnyin Saw Bwa, who became the King of Ava, was soon assassinated due to his lack of skill in statecraft and administration, and in 1543 A.D. Onbaung Khun Maing succeeded him as the King.

    Meanwhile from Toungoo Kingdom, in the year 1555 A.D. King Bayinnaung succeeded in unifying the whole of Burma  for the second time in our history.

    He was able to “persuade’ the Shan Saw Bwa to submit his suzerainty. In accordance with the traditions of the earlier Burmese Kings, the administrative setup was that the Shan Saw Bwas who submitted to the suzerainty of the Burmese King retained full powers to rule over their kingdom. This relationship was based on mutual respect.

    The military forces of Burma included contingents of Shan soldiers who proved their valour on the foreign battlefields.

    That is how Shan and Burmese descendents had lived closely together, like brethren, till the fall of Upper Burma in 1886.

    Then the Shan Saw Bwas, with the intention of restoring freedom to Burma and to the Shan State, chose the Burmese Princes Limbin and Saw Yan Naing to head their alliance, and started waging war against the colonialism.

    (I hereby acknowledged that I have adapted the above facts from the Shan Herald Agency News’ Shan State Affairs section, Shan History.)

    We could see in the above mentioned era how Shans  migrated and grew mightier. We should study how political, economical, social and philosophical patterns changed according to their coming.

    To sum up again, after the fall of Bagan , Ava kingdom was built in 1364 M.E.

    Subsequently, until Pinya, Sagaing and Myinsaing  eras, the power of Bagan collapsed and rebellious small kingdoms spread. When the invading conqueror Shans came across Burmese, they accepted the Buddhist cultures and Burmese cultures.

    In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

    I adapted this last paragraph from the “Story of Myanmar told in pictures” by Dr Than Tun and translated by Maung Win War.

    Anyway no one is sure the source of Shan ancestors’ conversion to Buddhism. We should consider the fact that Shans had very good relations with Mon and Khamars. Shans could even get the Buddhism directly from them.

    We could see that Shan Pagodas look more like Thai and Cambodia Pagodas than our Burmese. from (

    This episode of the history, Shans’ conquering over the  Burma, which our successive Bama governments’ history text books just used to mention one line only and skipped forward to the glorious Burmese warrior Toungoo King Baying Naung who successfully established the 2nd Bama Empire.

    The same thing happened to the conqueror Tar Tars. They took over Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and they killed millions of the men and children but married those Muslim women.

    Their new wives strangely converted them into Islam and they accepted the Islamic cultures. In this case also, as the saying goes, ‘conquerors are conquered’.

    And those Tar Tar/Turk descendents’ armies invaded Afghanistan, India subcontinent (future India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.) and established the Moghol Islamic Empire.

    So the Central Asia Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Yunan Chinese Muslims and Burma’s Chinese Muslims or Panthays and many of the Burmese Muslims are also their descendents. Even the Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia got Islam from those Chinese Muslims.

    Ko Tin Nwe @ BO AUNG DIN

    Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI

    Factors that influenced  

    the evolution of Burma Part VI

     

    Pagan Kingdom

    During the time of the Pyu kingdom, between about 500 and 950, the Bamar, people of the Burmese ethnic group, began infiltrating from the area to the north into the central region of Burma which was occupied by Pyu people that had come under the influence of Mahayana Buddhism from Bihar and Bengal.

    Bamar were originally of three tribes:

    1. the Pyu;
    2. the Thet;
    3. and the Kanyan.

    Indeed, Pyu as a language and as a people simply disappeared soon after the Myazedi Inscription of 1113.

    The word Mranma, in both Mon and Myanmar inscriptions, came into being only at about the same time, lending support to this claim that the Pyu were an earlier vanguard of southward Tibeto-Burman migration who were entirely absorbed into a newly formed identity by later waves of similar people. The Pagan Kingdom grew in relative isolation until the reign of Anawrahta (1044-77) who successfully unified all of Burma by defeating the Mon city of Thaton in 1057. Consolidation was accomplished under his successors Kyanzittha (1084–1112) and Alaungsithu (1112-67), so that by the mid-12th century, most of continental Southeast Asia was under the control of either the Pagan Kingdom or the Khmer Empire.

    The Pagan kingdom went into decline as the Mongols threatened from the north.

    The last true ruler of Pagan, Narathihapate (1254-87) felt confident in his ability to resist the Mongols and advanced into Yunnan in 1277 to make war upon them. He was thoroughly crushed at the Battle of Ngasaunggyan, and Pagan resistance virtually collapsed.

    The king was assassinated by his own son in 1287, precipitating a Mongol invasion in the Battle of Pagan.

    The Mongols successfully captured most of the empire, including its capital, and ended the dynasty in 1289 when they installed a puppet ruler in Burma.

    See also_

    1. Basic factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part I
    2. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part II
    3. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part III
    4. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part IV
    5. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part V
    6. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VI
    7. Factors that influenced the evolution of Burma Part VII
    8. The Golden days of the Great Mon Empire I
    9. Renascences of the Golden days of the Great Shan Empire
    10. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire II
    11. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire III
    12. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire IV
    13. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire V
    14. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI
    15. The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII