What’s up UNHCR?

What’s up UNHCR?

We could not blame Christian dominant UNHCR and the donor western Christian countries for failing to assist non – Christian people of Burma/Myanmar with full enthusiasm when all the Muslim countries and Buddhist countries failed to even lift a finger to help Burmese/Myanmar refugees and people.

One Rohingya named, Altaff is a handicapped person. He suffered from ?Motor Neurone disease while staying here in Malaysia. UNHCR/NGO white lady doctor told him mercilessly that he could not be cured for life and WRONGLY accused him as hereditary disease.

One of those white ladies refused to help a Burmese refugee with blood in the urine, but the worse part is, she shouted rudely that he is not going to die tomorrow, does not need the urgent help. But that poor refugee was admitted to a government hospital next day on his own and sadly passed away within few days.

And another Burmese Buddhist lady with Toxic Multinodular goitre, with the proof of blood and ultrasound results, was told by the RUDE WHITE LADY DOCTOR from UNHCR that she could not die the next day or next month. She could even wait for a year and given the medicines and sent back.

The patient throw away the UNHCR afflated NGO Clinic medicine, went to the private hospital, the specialist look at the obvious MNG, glanced at the blood, Ultrasound reports and decided immediately but correctly that she needed operation. But as the prices are high, she went to the government hospital, seen a professor/specialist, done further tests and given her date for operation.

We later heard the rumours that UNHCR and those doctors were taught by some refugees the ways of how to scold the refugees and how to use delaying tactics to get under-table “donations”.

The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VII

The Golden days of the

Great Shan Empire VII

Detention of Ethnic Shan and other opposition Leaders

Read detail in Irrawaddy, “Detained Ethnic Leaders Denied Outside Medical Aid” By Shah Paung on January 8, 2008

Detained ethnic Shan leaders are being denied medical treatment from outside for serious health problems, according to the Shan National League for Democracy.

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SNLD chairman Hkun Htun Oo

SNLD spokesman Sai Lek told The Irrawaddy on Tuesday that prison authorities had rejected or ignored requests by the families of SNLD chairman Hkun Htun Oo and SNLD member Sai Hla Aung for medical attention from outside.

Hkun Htun Oo suffers from_

  1. prostate problems,
  2. diabetes,
  3. heart disease
  4. and high blood pressure.

Sai Hla Aung has_

  1. a hyperthyroid condition,
  2. diabetes
  3. and heart disease.

They were arrested in February 2005, together with_

  1. SNLD General-Secretary Sai Nyunt Lwin,
  2. Shan State Peace Council President Maj-Gen Sao Hso Ten
  3. and Shan politician Shwe Ohn, who was later released.

They were arrested days before a resumed session of the National Convention opposed by Shan leaders.

  • Hkun Htun Oo was sentenced to 92 years imprisonment and is detained in Putao prison, Kachin State.
  • Sai Nyunt Lwin received a 75 year sentence and is in Kalay prison, Sagaing Division.
  • Sao Hso Ten was sentenced to a total of 106 years imprisonment and is in Hkamti prison, Sagaing Division.
  • Sai Hla Aung received a sentence of 75 years and is in Kyauk Pyu prison, Arakan State.
  • Meanwhile, arrests of National League for Democracy members continue. NLD spokesman Nyan Win said five members of the NLD youth wing had been arrested between Burma Independence Day on January 4 and January 6. No reason has yet been given for the arrests.
  • According to the Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma), based in neighboring Thailand, there are more than 1,400 political prisoners in Burma.

SPDC Junta and Myanmar Tatmadaw failed to understand that patriotism is not the sole property of the Myanmar Tatmadaw and its Generals alone.

Each and every citizen_

  • regardless of his race,
  • religion,
  • social status
  • or political alignment,

has the right and is duty-bound to show his sense of patriotism to the country he loves in his own way.

Tatmadaw failed to acknowledge that the opposition parties like NLD, SNLD etc are equally patriotic, if not more so than SPDC leaders.

Many opposition leaders, to name a few_

  1. U Gambari lead real Buddhist monks,
  2. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi led NLD leaders like U Tin Oo,
  3. U Hkun Htun Oo led SNLD Shan leaders,
  4. Min Ko Naing lead 88 Student leaders, like Ko Ko Gyi etc,
  5. Burmese Muslims such as, Daw Win Mya Mya (NLD Mandalay, Panthay) and Ko Mya Aye (88 Student leader)

Are unlike those in the SPDC and Tatmadaw,

  • have given up much of their comforts in life,
  • endured so much pain and humiliation
  • and even have been detained
  • and tortured
  • under the illegal, undemocratic, unjust, draconian laws of the SPDC.

SPDC Junta should answer my question even if their brain is slightly larger than a bird’s brain.

If sacrificing the major part of one’s life for the nation is not patriotism, what is it then?

It is extremely distressing that the ruling Myanmar Generals and Tatmadaw want to cling onto power instead of being an instrument for the peace, progress, prosperity, unity of Myanmar and power house to start an inertia of change to democracy.

Not only the different Races and religions have become the cause of disunity, hate, violence and turmoil but the Myanmar Generals and Tatmadaw show the world that they are even willing to assault, arrest, torture and kill their own monks to stop the momentum of people’s peaceful struggle to initiate the changes to democracy.

So what’s left now to think about the safety or guarantee of other minority races and religious groups’ fate, life and property ?

We all now witnessed that Myanmar Tatmadaw is even willing to sacrifice and annihilate any one or any obstacle on their way to the road to their permanent dominance of Myanmar. 

But the whole world looks quite cool, slow and looks like willing to patiently waiting forever for the SPDC promised, “Rice presenting on the moon-plate”

SPDC Generals should stop playing the politics of fear and intimidation on the unarmed Myanmar civilians. They should not politicise or use the national security as an excuse because it would be the most unpatriotic act, amounting to treachery.

We have journeyed together, sharing a common brotherhood for 60 years and we have attained wisdom and maturity to effect change that would create an environment where all of the Burmese/Myanmar citizens can have our voices heard, rights respected and continue to live together without fear or suspicion of each other.

We should not allow selfish Military Generals to sow the seeds of disunity, suspicion, hate and jealousy that will only be detrimental to us in this multi-racial and multi-religious nation of Burma/Myanmar.

As Barrack Obama, the US presidential candidate, said after his first defeat in the primaries:

‘Change is hard. Change is always met by resistance from the status quo. The real gamble is to have the same old folks doing the same old things over and over and over again and somehow expect a different result’.

We cannot and should not expect a better outcome from the same old Tatmadaw system over and over again. They will try to keep all the issues and dialogue in the back burner.

In order to create a just government for all of the Burmese/ Myanmars, we must strive to effect a change.

We have no much time to wait for the evolution, until or unless, UN and Mr Gambari could forced the snail paced present (almost effectively stalled) dialogue on the rocket louncher to install on to the fast track.

To bring about that change may not be that easy, it may be a monumental task, but there must be a beginning for all good things to happen.

Why shouldn’t it be now?

Is the saying, “Time and Tide wait for no man” irrelevant to the inhumane, noncivilized uniformed Tatnadaw?

Why did UN and the whole world allow the Junta to procrastinate when all of us already know that what the SPDC want was TIME only.

SPDC stupidly thought that time could heal the bleeding hearts of the people seeing their beloved revered monks beaten, arrested and killed.

It is now in our hands to make that change.

Do we have the will and courage to do so?

Except for the USA and EU leaders,

  • are ASEAN leaders,
  • OIC leaders,
  • Common Wealth leaders,
  • Non Allied movement leaders
  • and UN member countries’ leaders

all became cowards? Eunuchs with any B–ls? Greedy Crooks?

Or are they all willing to close their eyes, as the Burmese saying, “Myauk Thar_ Sar Chin Yin_Myaul Myet Nher_Ma Kyi Ne’.” meaning. “if you want to eat the flesh of the monkey, avoid looking at the face of the monkey.”

So carry on world leaders, just close your eyes to avoid seeing us beatened, tortured, arrested and killed by the Than Shwe Junta.

Please continue to enjoy the following article I republished from Irrawaddy.

Pro-Democracy Political Prisoners in Poor Health Condition
By Shah Paung
January 16, 2008

At least four detained political prisoners in Burmese prisons are in poor health and need medical attention, according to their family members.

The four political prisoners are Hla Myo Naung and Kyaw Soe of the 88 Generation Students group, who are both in Insein Prison in Rangoon; Win Maw, a pro-democracy activist, also in Insein Prison; and Myint Oo, a committee member of the Magwe Division of the National League for Democracy, who is in Mandalay Prison.

Hla Myo Naung has eye problems and is nearly blind in both eyes, according to a family member. He has had eye problems since October 2007, and was arrested while he was enroute to a Rangoon clinic to have an operation on the left side of one eye.

After he was arrested, authorities performed an operation on one of his eyes, but it was not successful and an eye nerve was damaged.

Family members of both Win Maw and Kyaw Soe said they received medical treatment in prison after they were tortured by the authorities in an interrogation center.

However, Win Maw has now contracted pneumonia. Kyaw Soe suffers from fainting spells. Both men were victims of water torture, according to sources.

A family member of Win Maw said they have not been allowed to visit him for nearly three weeks.

Myint Oo, who also suffers from pneumonia, began receiving medical treatment in a Mandalay prison hospital three days ago, according to family members.

Tate Naing, the secretary of the exiled-based Assistance Association for Political Prisoners (Burma), said that since August 2007, the military government has arrested more than 7,000 people, including pro-democracy activists.  Prisoners are not allowed to receive outside medical treatment.

88 Generation Students leaders Min Ko Naing and Ko Ko Gyi also have health problems, say their family members. They were arrested by authorities in August 2007.

According to the AAPP, there are more than 1,850 political prisoners in Burmese prisons.

 

The Golden days of the Great Shan Empire VI

 The Golden days of the

Great Shan Empire VI

Country Profile 

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Size:
Lies between 19 and 24 degrees latitude North, and Stretches from 96 to 101 degrees longitude East, covering approximately 64,000 square miles; shares boundaries with Burma, China, Laos, Thailand and the Karenni.

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Topography and Drainage:

Bisected north to south by the Salween River, one of the longest rivers in Asia. It lies at an average of 2,000 feet above sea-level, and the highest point, Mount Loilaeng, is 8,777 feet. It is composed of broad valleys, thickly wooded mountain ranges and rolling hills forming scenic landscapes.

Jong-ang, the biggest waterfall (972 feet) can be found near the town of Kengtong in Mongnai State.

Climate

There are three seasons:

  1. Monsoon (May to October),
  2. Cold season(November to January)
  3. and Summer (February to April).

Annual rainfalls average between 40-60 inches.

The overall temperature is equable throughout the year: not too cold and not too hot.

Vegetation

Pine and evergreen forests can be found in abundance. Teak and various kinds of hardwood cover over 47,210 square miles.

Minerals
The bulk of the so-called Burmese natural resources are in the Shan State: silver, lead, gold, copper, iron, tin, wolfram, tungsten, manganese, nickel, coal, mica, antimony, fluorite, marble, gemstones and even uranium.

Major Operating Mines are:

  • the Mogok (Mognkut in Shan) and Mongsu ruby mines,
  • and the Namtu Bawdwin silver mines discovered by the Chinese traders and renovated in 1904 by none other than Herbert Clerk Hoover (1874-1964) who became the 31st President of the United State.
  • A study of the Indian geological reports made by Drs Cogging and Sondhi in 1993 reveals Northern Shan States as incredible mining potential…
  • As for Southern Shan’s remarkable resources, they can be studied from the reports made by a G.V. Hovson (Shanland’s Grievances, by Htoon Myint of Taunggyi, )

People :

The population of these multi-racial people, described by ancient travelers as the most peace loving people who trust everybody and envy nobody is estimated at 7-10 million, the majority of whom are Tai, of the same ethnological stock as Thai and Laos, plus several other racial groups including Pa-o, Palaung and Wa of Mon-Khmer stock; and Kachin, Akha and Lahu of the Tibeto-Burman stock.

All in all, it’s various indigenous races have lived harmoniously together for centuries. This fact is supported by the political analyst Josef Silverstein, who say’s:

“Although the Shans dominated the people in the area both politically and numerically, they never assimilated the minorities; as a result, cultural pluralism existed through out the Shan States”. (Politics in the Shan State, The Question of Secession from the Union of Burma, 1958, by J. Silverstein).

The Shan’s stand on the racial question is best described by Sao Shwe Thaike, who in his capacity as the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly,

countered the objection that Muslims could not be considered as being indigenous by saying :

“Muslims of the Arakan certainly belong to one of the indigenous races of Burma. If they do not belong to the indigenous races, we also cannot be taken as indigenous races.”

Culture:

Shan is still the first language of the majority, though due to 60 years under the British Protectorate and 40 years under Burmese neo-colonialism, usage of English and Burmese has become fairly common.

As for attire, Shan men, unlike the Burmese, who wear longyis or long skirts, don long baggy trousers. Theravada Buddhism is the pre-eminent faith, and perhaps due to this tolerant religion, Hinduism, Christianity, Islamism and even animisms flourish in this land.

Agriculture:

Primarily a self-sufficient agricultural economy, being blessed with fertile soil, it produces rice, tea, cheroot leaves, tobacco, potatoes, oranges, lemon, pears, and opium.

Cattle-and horse-breeding is also a common sight in low grasslands. Added to the fact that it is rich in mineral resources and abundant in teak timber, there is no reason why the Shan State could not become one of the richest and most economically dynamic countries in Southeast Asia, given a favorable political climate. 

Shan States is a beautiful and fertile land, with green hills and mist-covered mountains. 

Shans are on the whole, good natured gentle, independent people.

Shan States have a diverse mix of ethnic groups; Tai Yai, Tai Khurn, Tai Lui or Tai Neir, Tai Keiy, Pa-O or Daung Su, Daung Yoe, Palaung, Kachin, Dai Nawng or in Burmese Intha, Danu, Lisu, Lahu, Wa, Kaw, Padaung, as well as Chinese, Indians, Burmans and others. 

The Shans are the most widely scattered of the ethnic people in Myanmar and they can be found in every part of the country.

Their Mans (villages), Mongs (city-states) and settlements stretch from the northernmost region of Hkamti Long down to Tharrawaddy and then to southern Taninthayi (Tenasserim) and from the tip of Kengtung in the east to Hsawng Hsup, Kabaw valley and Ta-mu in the west.

In central Myanmar many Shan settlements can be found around Ava, Pinya, Sagaing, Toungoo, Pyinmana and Pyi (Prome). 

Now-a-days, Shan people are spread around the world, many having left Burma to escape the persecution and brutality of the SPDC, many to study overseas. 

Shans live overseas in Thailand, Australia, New Zealand, USA, Canada, Europe, Taiwan, China, Japan and elsewhere.  Many overseas groups are actively campaigning for freedom in Shan States and Burma. 

Until recently many groups worked almost independently.  In recent years the more widespread use of e-mail and internet technology means that overseas Shan groups can communicate more easily with one another, sharing ideas, discussing campaigns and global change.

Shans feel immensely sad that their beautiful homeland has been ravaged and abused by SPDC, and because they have deep love for their motherland, they feel deeply bereft and betrayed.

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Two Soa Hso Kham Pha is the eldest son of the late Last year Soa Hso Kham Pha, also known as Tiger Yawnghwe, founded the Interim Shan Government with the cooperation of a group of Shan elders. Recently the ISG has established a freedom fighting force called Shan State Army (Central) with thousands of troops to fight against the neo-fascist military regime in Burma.  

List of Shan state rulers

 Read more in Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.The Shan State of Burma (Myanmar) was once made up of a large number of traditional monarchies or fiefdoms. Three ranks of chiefs where recognized by the Burmese king and later by the British administration. These ranks were Saopha or Chaofa (Shan for king or chieftain) or Sawbwa in Burmese, Myosa (”duke” or chief of town), and Ngwegunhmu (silver revenue chief).

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Contents

1 Shan states

  1. 1.1 Hierarchy and Precedence

  2. 1.2 Baw (Maw)

  3. 1.3 Hopong (Hopon)

  4. 1.4 Hsahtung (Thaton)

  5. 1.5 Hsamönghkam (Thamaingkan)

  6. 1.6 Hsawnghsup (Thaungdut)

  7. 1.7 Hsenwi (Theinni)

    1. 1.7.1 North Hsenwi

    2. 1.7.2 South Hsenwi

  8. 1.8 Hsihkip (Thigyit)

  9. 1.9 Hsipaw (Thibaw)

  10. 1.10 Kehsi Mangam (Kyithi Bansan)

  11. 1.11 Kengcheng (Kyaingchaing)

  12. 1.12 Kenghkam (Kyaingkan)

  13. 1.13 Kenglön (Kyainglon)

  14. 1.14 Kengtung (Kyaingtong)

  15. 1.15 Kokang

  16. 1.16 Kyon

  17. 1.17 Kyawkku Hsiwan (Kyaukku)

  18. 1.18 Laihka (Lègya)

  19. 1.19 Lawksawk (Yatsauk)

  20. 1.20 Loi-ai (Lwe-e)

  21. 1.21 Loilong (Lwelong)

  22. 1.22 Loimaw (Lwemaw)

  23. 1.23 Mawkmai

  24. 1.24 Manglon

  25. 1.25 Monghsu

  26. 1.26 Mawkmai (Maukme)

  27. 1.27 Mawnang (Bawnin)

  28. 1.28 Mawsön (Bawzaing)

  29. 1.29 Möngkawng (Mogaung)

  30. 1.30 Mongkung

  31. 1.31 Möngleng (Mohlaing)

  32. 1.32 Mönglong

  33. 1.33 Möngmit (Momeik)

  34. 1.34 Mong Nai (Monè)

  35. 1.35 Mongnawng

  36. 1.36 Mong Pai (Mobye)

  37. 1.37 Mong Pan

  38. 1.38 Mong Pawng (Maing Pun)

  39. 1.39 Möngping (Maingpyin)

  40. 1.40 Möngsit (Maingseik)

  41. 1.41 Möngtung (Maington)

  42. 1.42 Möngyang (Mohnyin)

  43. 1.43 Möngyawng

  44. 1.44 Namhkai (Nanke)

  45. 1.45 Namhkok (Nankok)

  46. 1.46 Namhkom (Nankon)

  47. 1.47 Namtok (Nantok)

  48. 1.48 Namkhok-Nawngwawn

  49. 1.49 Panglawng

  50. 1.50 Pangmi

  51. 1.51 Pangtara (Pindara)

  52. 1.52 Pwehla (Poila)

  53. 1.53 Sakoi

  54. 1.54 Samka

  55. 1.55 Tawngpeng

  56. 1.56 Wanmaw (Bhamo)

  57. 1.57 Wanyin (Banyin)

  58. 1.58 Yawnghwe (Nyaungshwe)

  59. 1.59 Ywangan (Yengan)

  60. 1.60 Bibliography

Shan states

State Area (sq. mi) Classical Name Notes
Sawbwas
Kengtung 12,400 Khemarata Tungaburi
Hsipaw 4,524 Dutawadi
Mongnai 2,717 Saturambha/Nandapwa
Yawnghwe 1,392 Kambawsarata
Tawngpeng 800 Pappatasara
South Hsenwi 2,400 Siwirata or Kawsampi Also known as Mongyai
North Hsenwi 6,330 Siwirata or Kawsampi
Mongmit 3,733 Gandhalarata
Mongpai 730
Lawksawk 2,362 Hansawadi?
Laikha 1,560 Hansawadi
Mawkmai 2,557 Lawkawadi
Mongpan 2,988 Dhannawadi
Mongpawn 366 Rajjawadi
Manglun Jambularata
Kantarawadi 3,015
Samka 314
Mongkung 1,593 Lankawadi
Myosas
Nawngwawn 28 Pokkharawadi Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
Mongnawng 1,646 Nandawadi
Mongsit
Kehsi-bansam 551
Mawnang Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1934
Loilong (Pinlaung) 1,098
Hsahtung 471
Wanyin 219
Hopong 212
Namkhok 108 Amalgamated with Mong Pawn, 1931
Sakoi 82
Mongshu 470 Hansawadi
Kenglun 54 Amalgamated with Kehsh Bansam, 1926
Bawlake 565
Kyetbogyi 700
Hsamongkham 449
Baw 741
Pwela 178
Ngwegunhmus
Yengan (Ywangan) 359
Pangtara (Pindaya) 86
Pangmi 30
Loi-ai 156 Amalgamated with Hsamongkham, 1930
Kyaukku 76 Amalgamated with Pwela, 1928
Loimaw 48 Amalgamated with Yawnghwe, 1928
Kyone 24
Namtok 14 Amalgamated with Loilong, 1931

    Chinese provinces with the name Shan

  1. Shan is another name of the Dai, an ethnic group in China.

  2. Shan, an abbreviation for the Shaanxi province of the People’s Republic of China

  3. Shan, or Shan county, also refers a county in Shandong province of PRC

  4. Shan, or Shantou (汕头), a city in Guangdong province of PRC

  5. Shan, name for a region in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

  6. Shan, also refers to the name of ancient Western Regions (西域)

Shan also means hill, peak, or mountain in Chinese languages and Japanese There is also Chinese surname, Shan (surname), is a in Chinese.There is also river name with Shan , in Zhejiang Province of PRC

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Photos of the His Royal Highness Tzao Hso Khan Pha, President and Head of States, Interim Shan Government of the Federated Shan States.The remaining  are Shan Freedom Fighters’ photos, Six photos are copyright of Chris Sinclair mailto:csinclair@pobox.com.Four…….. Four other photos are courtesy of TSY taisamyone@yahoo.co.uk. All are taken from Burma Digest.

What’s up China?

What’s up China?

When compare to our other good neighbour, India, you are so cruel on all the countries in South East Asia, including Burma.

You had kicked out or forced out or pushed out almost all the ethnic groups of South East Asia including all the ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar and the Bama people’s ancestors. After that you shamelessly bully all of us again by following to our new home land and asked for the protection money or ransom money.

See your neighbour India, it had given the great religions, Hindu, Buddhism and Islam to all the nations of South East Asia including Burma.

India had given culture, arts, literature etc to all of us, including Burma/ Myanmar.

India had just fought two wars in the whole history on our South East Asia. ( We leave behind three wars with China and wars in South Asia.)

( What’s up is an informal question meaning, depending on situation and emphasis: “what are you doing”, “how are you?”, “what is happening” or “what gives.” It is sometimes used as an informal, casual greeting in itself.)

Now I wish to ask China to repent and pay back the the historical debts instead the present shameful stance of its hindrance in  our current struggle  for the democratization movements against SPDC Junta. China is actively supporting this pariah Junta and protecting this régime in the UNSC.

Please red my article in Burma Digest, C.C.C.C. or C4 ,Communist Chinese Colonialist’s Cruelties with MAHA BANDULA pseudonym to know about the China.

If we look at the China’s long history of aggressive behaviour on its own citizens, neighbours and the world, it is quite alarming. The world must do something to protect itself from this big bully instead of closing one eye to get the big economic opportunity by supporting its one China policy and undemocratic unruly bullying on its neighbours and on its own citizens.

If we look at the history of South East Asia, including almost all of our ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar, almost all of us had to migrate down and out of China because of the violent, aggressive Chinese new comers that pushed or forced all of us out.

Later after settling in the new home land, Chinese Kings tried to continue their bully by demanding to pay tributes regularly. Not only Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Laos but far away countries like, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bengal, Europe, Mecca and Medina are also not spared.

And during the late 60’s and 70’s, just because General Ne Win massacred the Burmese Chinese in the anti-Chinese Riots, they supported the Burmese Communist Party with 100,000 Chinese Red army troops, disguised as Wa rebels.

According to the Burmese language, Peking radio reports, 100,000 Chinese soldiers deserted with full ammunition and joined forces with them. So, the so called, Wa Ethnic Minorities, who could not even speak or understand a word in Burmese, became full citizen now. They could easily get the Myanmar National Registration Cards and many of them even managed to get the Myanmar Passports.

Just look at the various groups of Burmese Muslims’ dilemma in getting the National Registration Cards and Passports. And our cousin brothers, Rohingyas are unfairly discriminated.

Is that because our skin are darker than Chinese?

Is that because our nose are sharper than Chinese?

Is that because we are Muslims and could not assimilate thoroughly like Chinese who could assimilate easily?

Is that because the Burmese girls need not convert if they marry the Chinese?

Although PURE Chinese Nationals who disguised as ‘Myanmar Ethnic Minority’ Wa could grease the hands of Myanmar local and national authorities, just because they-are not-Indian factor and because of their Chinese features paved their way easily.

But anyway please look back the history of South East Asia, India. [We all are not Indians but anyway Burmese Muslims are called Kalas/Indian (people of the Indian sub-continent) mixed blooded people.]

Except for the South India dynasty of Chola’s attack on Indonesia’s Srivijaya and Moghul  King Aurangzeb, attacked the Arakan once only. His elder brother Shah Shuja’ was the second son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal of India. Shah Shuja’ lost to his brother and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), the Arakan King accepted and allow him to settle there but later arrested and killed. Although Aurangzeb was the enemy of the Shah Shuja’, he was upset by the massacre and attacked Arakan.

India and China shaped the present South East Asia, and the Colonial masters polished into the present finished products.

Indianized kingdoms

The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic cultural and economic influences in Southeast Asia.

Ancient and classical kingdoms

Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China.

The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories.

The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia.

Examples are the Ayutthaya Kingdom, based on the Chao Phraya River delta and the Khmer Empire on the Tonle Sap.

The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Malacca and Srivijaya were maritime states. A succession of trading systems dominated the trade between China and India.

First goods were shipped through Funan to the Isthmus of Kra, portaged across the narrow , and then transhipped for India and points west.

Around the sixth century CE merchants began sailing to Srivijaya where goods were transhipped directly. The limits of technology and contrary winds during parts of the year made it difficult for the ships of the time to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

The third system involved direct trade between the Indian and Chinese coasts. Several kingdoms developed on the mainland, initially in modern-day Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

The first dominant power to arise in the archipelago was Srivijaya in Sumatra. Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards.

• Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

• The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.

• The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago for its forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China.

• Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire’s official religions.

• Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

• The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its ruler Hayam Wuruk, (1350 to 1389) dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.

• The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and they influence the local cultures.

• Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built. Southeast Asian rulers were founders of these states_

• and then imported the Indian ritual specialists as advisers on raja dharma, or the practices of Indian kingship.

• The Indianized kingdoms developed a close affinity

• and internalised Indian religious, cultural and economic practices without significant direct input from Indian rulers themselves.

• Indianization was the work of Indian traders and merchants, although later the travels of Buddhist monks such as Atisha became important. Southeast Asian rulers enthusiastically adopted elements of raja dharma,

• (Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, codes and court practices)

• to legitimate their own rule • and constructed cities, such as Angkor,

• to affirm royal power by reproducing a map of sacred space derived from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

• Southeast Asian rulers frequently adopted lengthy Sanskrit titles

• and founded cities, such as Ayutthaya in Thailand, named after those in the Indian epics.

• Most Indianized kingdoms combined both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices in a syncretic manner.

• Kertanagara, the last king of Singhasari, described himself as Sivabuddha, a simultaneous incarnation of the Hindu god and the Buddha.

• Also a significant part of the current population in South East Asia has a trace of Indian ancestry from distant antiquity. Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures These kingdoms prospered from the Spice Route, trade among themselves and the Indian kingdoms.

• The influence of Indian culture is visible in the script, grammar, religious observances, festivities, architecture and artistic idioms even today.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures, created a new synthesis. The Southeast Asian region was previously called by the name Indochina.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures are both strongly visible in this region even today, with the majority of the region being Indianized and Vietnam Sinocized.

• The reception of Hinduism and Buddhism aided the civilization maturity of these kingdoms but also subjected them to aggression by Indian and Chinese rulers.

• Cultural practices like the performances of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana across all of Southeast Asia.

• Traces of Hindu culture are visible also in the Sanskrit etymology of words in Myanmar language, Malay language, Indonesian and other regional languages as well as personal names. The Chinese ruled Vietnam for a millennium, while the Chola dynasty of South India ruled over Srivijaya briefly.

• And though Southeast Asia is an economic powerhouse in its own right, the need to balance Chinese economic and political influence with that of India remains an important factor for the region.

• Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola kingdom of South India and the South East Asian Hindu kingdoms, led the Bay of Bengal to be called “The Chola Lake”

• and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the tenth century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.

• The subsequent arrival of Islam, by Arab traders,

• and Christianity, by Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch colonial rulers significantly weakened the connection with India.

• Chinese influence grew with the gradual migration of Chinese traders and merchants. Chinese influence dominated in Vietnam, although other states such as the Khmer empire and Malacca were drawn into Chna’s diplomatic orbit.

• While Buddhism remains the dominant religion in mainland Southeast Asia,

• Hinduism survives in Bali and

• Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.

The History of Burma (or Myanmar) is long and complex.

Several races of people have lived in the region, the oldest of which are probably the Mon or the Pyu. In the 9th century the Bamar (Burman) people migrated from the then China-Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady, and now form the governing majority.

‘Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans’.

Though there is ‘scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race’, nevertheless, Burma’s proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have ‘an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation’, resulting in some historians proclaiming that ‘Myanmars were descendants of Aryans’.

The history of the region comprises complexities not only within the country but also with its neighbouring countries, China, India, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Laos and Thailand.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.

Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival. Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

1. Early history of Burma Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum), was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC, though definitely by the 2nd century BC when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon’s written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations.

By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Myanmar. From that time, Northern Burma was a group of city-states in a loose coalition.

The ‘King’ of each city-state would change allegiance as he saw fit, so throughout history.

1. Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) another came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

(i) One came down from above like

Shan, (ii) and another from India , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Talaings originated from the Talingana village of India and arrived to lower  Burma , met and intermarried with Mons, who came down from Yunnan, spreads through Burma up to Thailand, Laos and Kambodia.

They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc.. Our  Burmese spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language.

But our Burmese writing language was from India, Brami Script we took not from our native Mon but her cousin Mons resided in Thailand.

Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma Orissa

Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

Andhra Dynasty Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

Talaings or Mons Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. Mon

Early History of Burma_

Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.

The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.

The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman’n’adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.

The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.

The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.

The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

Mon kingdoms A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states. These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.

Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai หงสาวดี Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma. Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy ) Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon. According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD.

It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries. The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056. After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence. From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma.

The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.

They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history.

It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.

PYU

The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey.

The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.

Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.

The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

India and Arakan Intercourse

Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras “The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.

In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).

This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,

• … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;

• … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal

• … Both government and people were Indian.

• It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.

• Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.

The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra. Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD.

Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.

1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,

2. “Tsit-ta-gung”

3. meaning “there shall be no war”.

4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.

Chittagong under Arakanese rule Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD

Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

Pyu

Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups;

(i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.

The famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD.

1. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D.

2. and Mon from 5th century A.D.

3. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D. Beikthano (Vishnu) Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD. (Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.

Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship.

There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as ‘Vishnu City’.

Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

Pyu Kings are Maharajas

In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul..

• There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese.

• Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

• Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.

• In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu. Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.

• On Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC. and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.

• Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left.

• And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.

• Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.

• The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so‘ far to be excavated in that area.

Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa

In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).

The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.

In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.

Thamala and Wimala.

Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.

The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan ‘was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.

Chinese trade Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan’s voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.

Han Li Po’s well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote “He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice”.

The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.

• Brunei

• o Malacca (满剌加 / 馬六甲) 拜里米苏拉

• Indonesia[citation needed]

o Java

o Lanfang Republic

• Japan

o Wa[3] (also Wae, Wei, 倭)

o Nippon (日本)

• Korea

• Philippines[10]

o Manila

o Sulu (蘇祿)

• Thailand[3]

o Siam 邏羅

• Bhutan 不丹

• Nepal 尼伯爾

o Karakum (喀喇庫木)

o Yuli (also Weili, 尉犁)

o Kushana (also Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)

o Boluo’er (博羅爾)

• Vietnam[3]

o Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)

o Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, 林邑, 占城)

• Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)

• Nippon (日本)

• Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)

• Annam (every three years since 1369) • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))

• Siam (every three years since 1371)

• Champa (every three years since 1369)

• Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)

• Pahang (1378, 1414)

• Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)

• Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)

• Samudra (on Sumatra (?)or Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)

• Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)

• Sulu (1417, 1421)

• Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)

• Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)

• Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)

• Kollam (1407)

• Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)

• Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)

• Jaunpur (1420)

• Syria (Fulin?, 1371)

• Cochin (1404, 1412)

• Melinde (1414)

• Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)

• Maldives,

• Burma (YaWa),

Lambri (NanWuLi),

• Kelatan,

• Bengal (PengJiaNa),

• Kashgar

Sairam

• SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)

• Badakhshan

• Bukhara(?)

• PaLa(?)

• Shiraz

• Nishapur

• Kashmir

• Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)

Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)

Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)

• A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest. Qing Dynasty This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875.

Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)

Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)

• Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)

• Laos (17 times)

• Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)

• Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)

• Russia (1676 and 1727)

• England (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)

• Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)

• Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)

Holy See (1725)

• Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)

Europeans

Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia while missionaries also tagged along the ships as they hoped to spread Christianity into the region.

Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.

The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region.

The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines (named after Phillip II of Spain) from 1560s.

Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory.

Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene.

Starting with Penang, the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire.

They also temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars,

In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia.

From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. This phenomenon, denoted New Imperialism, saw the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers.

The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.

Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.

  1. By 1913, the British occupied Burma, Malaya and the Borneo territories,
  2. the French controlled Indochina,
  3. the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies
  4. while Portugal managed to hold on to Portuguese Timor.
  5. In the Philippines, Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain in 1898
  6. but was handed over to the United States despite protests as a result of the Spanish-American War.

Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia.

  1. While the colonial powers profited much from the region’s vast resources and large market,
  2. colonial rule did develop the region to a varying extent.

Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period.

Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change.

The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories.

Reference

Wikipedia

 

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

of time

Procrastination

Procrastination is a type of avoidance behaviour which is characterised by deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite procrastination as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.

For the person procrastinating this may result in stress, a sense of guilt, the loss of personal productivity, the creation of crisis and the disapproval of others for not fulfilling one’s responsibilities or commitments. While it is normal for individuals to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological or physiological disorder.

The word itself comes from the Latin word procrastinatus: pro- (forward) and crastinus (of tomorrow). The term’s first known appearance was in Edward Hall’s Chronicle (The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancestre and Yorke), first published sometime before 1548.[2] The sermon reflected procrastination’s connection at the time to task avoidance or delay, volition or will, and sin.

Causes of procrastination

Psychological

The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth and a self-defeating mentality. Procrastinators are also thought to have a higher-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the “dreams and wishes” of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential.

Author David Allen brings up two major psychological causes of procrastination at work and in life which are related to anxiety, not laziness.[citation needed] The first category comprises things too small to worry about, tasks that are an annoying interruption in the flow of things, and for which there are low-impact workarounds; an example might be organizing a messy room. The second category comprises things too big to control, tasks that a person might fear, or for which the implications might have a great impact on a person’s life; an example might be the adult children of a deteriorating senior parent deciding what living arrangement would be best.

A person might unconsciously overestimate or underestimate the scale of a task if procrastination has become a habit.

From the behavioral psychology point of view, James Mazur has said that procrastination is a particular case of “impulsiveness” as opposed to self control.[citation needed] Mazur states that procrastination occurs because of a temporal discounting of a punisher, as it happens with the temporal discount for a reinforcer. Procrastination, then, as Mazur says, happens when a choice has to be made between a later larger task and a sooner small task; as the absolute value of the task gets discounted by the time, a subject tends to choose the later large task.

Physiological

Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex. This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual’s ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe’s role in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common. [3]

Procrastination and mental health

Procrastination can be a persistent and debilitating disorder in some people, causing significant psychological disability and dysfunction. These individuals may actually be suffering from an underlying mental health problem such as depression or ADHD.While procrastination is a behavioral condition, these underlying mental health disorders can be treated with medication and/or therapy. Therapy can be a useful tool in helping an individual learn new behaviors, overcome fears and anxieties, and achieve an improved quality of life. Thus it is important for people who chronically struggle with debilitating procrastination to see a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.

Severe procrastination can cross over into internet addiction or computer addiction. In this instance the individual has a compulsion to avoid reality by surfing the web or playing video games (game addiction) or looking at online pornography (pornography addiction). Although these are relatively new phenomena, they are being considered as psychiatric diagnoses by mental health professionals.

Perfectionism

Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one’s own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one’s abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and workaholism. Slaney (1996) found that adaptive perfectionists were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety).[4]

Academic procrastination

While academic procrastination is not a special type of procrastination, procrastination is thought to be particularly prevalent in the academic setting[citation needed], where students are required to meet deadlines for assignments and tests in an environment full of events and activities which compete for the students’ time and attention. More specifically, a 1992 study showed that “52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination”[5].Some students struggle with procrastination due to a lack of time management or study skills, stress, or feeling overwhelmed with their work.[

Quotations on procrastination

  1.  ”I’ll stop procrastinating, I swear… Starting on Monday.” — Frikkin Ninja

  2. “You can read this one later!” – Evrim

  3. “If it weren’t for the last minute, I wouldn’t get anything done.” — Anon

  4. “I think a lot of the basis of the open source movement comes from procrastinating students…” — Andrew Tridgell (Article)

  5. “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” — Douglas Adams

  6. “Waiting is a trap. There will always be reasons to wait – The truth is, there are only two things in life, reasons and results, and reasons simply don’t count.” — Robert Anthony

  7. “We don’t have anything as urgent as mañana in Ireland.” — Stuart Banks

  8. “A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.” — Alyce P. Cornyn-Selby

  9. “Procrastination: Hard work often pays off after time, but laziness always pays off now.” — Larry Kersten

  10. “Anyone can do any amount of work provided it isn’t the work he’s supposed to be doing at the moment.” — Robert Benchley

  11. “Procrastination is the art of waiting.” — Procrastination help

  12. “Procrastination is like masturbation, It’s fun until you realize you just screwed yourself”–Anonymous

  13. “Only Robinson Crusoe had everything done by Friday.” — Author Unknown

  14. “Procrastinate now, don’t put it off.” — Ellen DeGeneres

  15. “Procrastination is the thief of time.” — Edward Young

  16. “You can procrastinate later.” — kanzure

  17. “Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday.” — Don Marquis

  18. “Procrastination is my sin. It brings me naught but sorrow. I know that I should stop it. In fact, I will–tomorrow!” — Gloria Pitzer

  19. “Procrastination will kill us all if it ever gets around to it.” — Anon

  20. “Time you enjoy wasting isn’t wasted time.” — Bertrand Russell

  21. “Procrastination is the key to flexibility” — Anon

  22. Between saying and doing many a pair of shoes is worn out. ~ Italian Proverb

  23. One of these days is none of these days. ~ English

  24. “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.” — Mark Twain

  25. “Telling someone who procrastinates to buy a weekly planner is like telling someone with chronic depression to just cheer up.” — Joseph Ferrari

  26. “Faith in to-morrow, instead of Christ, is Satan’s nurse for man’s perdition.” Rev. Dr. Cheever

  27. “To be always intending to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it; this is as if a man should put off eating and drinking and sleeping from one day and night to another, till he is starved and destroyed.” Tillotson

  28. ‘By the streets of “By and By” one arrives at the house of “Never.”‘ Cervantes

  29. “By one delay after another they spin out their whole lives, till there’s no more future left for them.” L’Estrange

  30. “For Yesterday was once To-morrow.” Persius

  31. “Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day” Franklin

  32. “Indulge in procrastination, and in time you will come to this, that because a thing ought to be done, therefore you can’t do it.” Charles Buxton

  33. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  34. Procrastination isn’t the problem, it’s the solution. So procrastinate now, don’t put it off. Ellen DeGeneres

  35. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness; no laziness; no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Lord Chesterfield (1694 – 1773)

  36. My evil genius Procrastination has whispered me to tarry ’til a more convenient season. Mary Todd Lincoln (1818 – 1882)

  37. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  38. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  39. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  40. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he next comes to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Thomas De Quincey, Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts – 1827

  41. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness, no delay, no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Earl of Chesterfield

  42. Procrastination is the grave in which opportunity is buried. Author Unknown

Reference

  1. Wikipedia encyclopedia

  2. Wikiquote

  3. And Google search of various Quotations

  4. All Quotations search site

Decision Time in Burma

Decision Time in Burma

By R. Nicholas Burns, the U.S. undersecretary of state for political affairs

Tuesday, January 8, 2008

Excerpts  

Three months have passed since the world called on Burma’s dictators, Gens. Than Shwe and Maung Aye,

  • to end their brutal crackdown on tens of thousands of peaceful monks and other demonstrators

  • and begin a genuine dialogue with Burma’s democratic and ethnic minority leaders –

  • with the goal of a transition to democracy. The time has come for them to act.

A. The regime

The regime initially appointed an official to interact with Aung San Suu Kyi and allowing her to meet once with a few democratic colleagues, it has since halted.

  1. It has continued to arrest activists and harass Buddhist monks.

  2. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi remains under house arrest.

  3. The junta has refused her request to have two colleagues serve as liaisons to the government.

  4. On Dec. 3, senior regime officials delivered their harshest comments yet,

  •  rejecting any role for the opposition in drafting the constitution,
  • blaming Aung San Suu Kyi for the lack of progress on a dialogue

  • and describing the September demonstrations it suppressed as “trivial.”

   5. The regime argues that it is the only force capable of keeping the country unified and that any change outside its control risks turmoil and instability.

   6. The military rulers have brought about a steady decline in living standards and a deterioration in educational and public health systems.

   7. They have caused a continuing flow of refugees, narcotics and dangerous diseases into neighboring countries, and have so distressed and frustrated the people that they took to the streets by the thousands despite the risk of brutal suppression.

  8. With Than Shwe and Maung Aye showing no willingness to move in this direction, to a peaceful transition to democracy.

  9. This is a horrendous track record.

 10. The reality is that the regime and its policies are the greatest threat to Burma’s unity, stability and prosperity.

B. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi

  1. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi has reaffirmed her willingness to participate in a “meaningful and time-bound” dialogue to be joined by representatives of the country’s ethnic minority groups.

  2. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other democratic leaders have nevertheless said that the Burmese military has an important role to play in a peaceful transition to democracy.

C. USA

  1. The United States does not regard such violence and the beating, detention and reported torture of peaceful protesters, including monks, as trivial.

  2. As first lady Laura Bush has said, “It seems the generals are indifferent to the Burmese people’s suffering, but the rest of the world is not.”

  3. The United States wants to see a strong, prosperous, stable and free Burma.

  4. As part of this effort, the United States will continue to target regime leaders and their cronies with sanctions.

  5. President Bush has promised that our country will continue to pressure the Burmese dictators to ensure that there is no return to business as usual.

 D. Need to do

  1. Dialogue would enable the Burmese people, through legitimate political and ethnic representatives, to discuss with the regime ways to broaden the political process – including participation in the drafting of a constitution.

  2. This way the results will have legitimacy and popular support.

  3. Allowing the full array of talent available in Burmese society to tackle the country’s many problems.

  4. There are steps the junta could take immediately that would signal its seriousness –

  5. Releasing Aung San Suu Kyi and others,

  6. Allowing them freedom of association and ending the ongoing crackdown.

E. UN

  1. We are convinced that the only way to achieve this objective is through the sort of broad national dialogue that U.N. special adviser Gambari is trying to facilitate with Security Council support.

  2. It is also why the United Nations should quicken the pace of its diplomacy.

F. The World

  1. The world must not turn its back on the people of Burma and allow the regime’s disregard for human dignity to continue.

  2. Together, we must apply sustained and strong pressure while making clear that a successful dialogue leading to a political transition would enable Burma to make a full return to the international system.

  3. Meanwhile, Ibrahim Gambari plans to return to Burma soon.

G. It is time for the generals to tell him – and the Burmese people –

  • That they will begin a genuine dialogue

  • And take the steps necessary for it to succeed.

The time has come to ask the senior generals:

What are you waiting for?

Counting the Disguised Blessings

Counting the Disguised Blessings

Please may you kindly allow me to present some quotations related to this article’s theme because former Prime Minister of Britain, Sir Winston Churchill had said:

“The quotations when engraved upon the memory give good thoughts. They also make you anxious to read the authors and look for more.”

Failure

 “It is hard to fail, but it is worse never to have tried to succeed. In this life, we get nothing save by effort.”

~ Theodore Roosevelt

Forget about the consequences of failure. Failure is only a temporary change in direction to set you straight for your next success. ~ Denis Waitley, Seeds of Greatness

Don’t be afraid of failure; be afraid of petty success. ~ Maude Adams

I’ve come to believe that all my past failure and frustrations were actually laying the foundation for the understandings that have created the new level of living I now enjoy.

~ Anthony Robbins

If you worried about falling off the bike, you’d never get on.

~ Lance Armstrong, Every Second Counts

He who has never failed somewhere, that man cannot be great. ~ Herman Melville, Moby Dick

I’ve missed over 9,000 shots in my career, lost over 300 games. Twenty-six times I took the game-winning shot and missed. ~ Michael Jordan

Failure should be our teacher, not our undertaker. Failure is delay–not defeat. It is a temporary detour, not a dead-end street. ~ John Maxwell

The real mark of your character comes from not how you react to your successes, of which I know there will be many. How you react to your failures, of which there will be, if you are bold, a number in your lifetime. ~ Daniel S. Goldin, MIT Graduation, 6/8/01

“When I was young I observed that nine out of every ten things I did were failures, so I did ten times more work.” ~ George Bernard Shaw

 

Erase the word “failure” from your vocabulary. No case is ever truly closed, and no challenge is ever over.

~ Mary Lou Retton

I train so hard to make sure failure doesn’t happen. If I do everything I can, and run as fast as I possibly can and someone still beats me, I don’t think of that as failure.

~ Marion Jones

A man’s life is interesting primarily when he had failed – for it’s a sign that he tried to surpass himself. ~ Georges Clemenceau

There is only one kind of failure I cannot tolerate: the failure to risk failure. ~ Richard Marcinko

Failure is usually the line of least persistence. ~ Wilfred Beaver

There is the greatest practical benefit in making a few failures early in life. ~ Thomas Henry Huxley, On Medical Education

When we begin to take our failures nonseriously, it means we are ceasing o be afraid of them. It is of immense importance to learn to laugh at ourselves. ~ Katherine Mansfield

Determination

“There is no chance, no destiny, no fate that can circumvent or hinder or control the firm resolve of a determined soul.” ~ Ella Wheeler Wilcox

Where the determination is, the way can be found. ~ George S. Clason

The man who can drive himself further once the effort gets painful is the man who will win. ~ Roger Bannister, IBD, 6/16/04

Great determination can overcome most odds. ~ Aesop’s Fables

I learned that if you want to make it bad enough, no matter how bad it is, you can make it. ~ Gale Sayers

I think most about my determination to be born and to claim my place in the world. It is an image of a doer and an activist, never a victim. ~ Harilyn Rousso

A champion is one who gets up when he can’t. ~ Jack Dempsey

When I finally make up my mind that I want to do something, it’s never been hard for me to do. ~ Janet Jackson

You have to fight for the things you want. ~ Jennifer Lopez

I have a woman’s ability to stick to a job and get on with it when everyone else walks off and leaves. ~ Margaret Thatcher

Failure will never overtake you if your determination to succeed is strong enough. ~ Og Mandino

Determination

For the resolute and determined there is time and opportunity. ~ Ralph Waldo Emerson

I ran and ran and ran every day, and I acquired this sense of determination, this sense of spirit that I would never, never give up, no matter what else happened. ~ Wilma Rudolph

An invincible determination can accomplish almost anything and in this lies the great distinction between great men and little men. ~ Thomas Fuller

I had to will my way through that game. Sometimes, it takes more than talent or more than a 95-mile-an-hour fastball. You have to will it. ~ Roger Clemens

I have not yet begun to fight. ~ John Paul Jones

The difference between the impossible and the possible lies in a person’s determination. ~ Tommy Lasorda

Have a determination that is strong enough to move walls. ~ Aaron Feuerstein

Disappointment

 “I’ve learned that you’ll never be disappointed if you always keep an eye on uncharted territory, where you’ll be challenged and growing and having fun.” ~ Kirstie Alley

Disappointment is the nurse of wisdom. ~ Bayle Roche

Most of my major disappointments have turned out to be blessings in disguise. So whenever anything bad does happen to me, I kind of sit back and feel, well, if I give this enough time, it’ll turn out that this was good, so I shouldn’t worry about it too much. ~ William Gaines

Disappointments should be cremated, not embalmed. ~ Henry S. Haskings

One’s best success comes after their greatest disappointments. ~ Henry Ward Beecher

Many of our disappointments and much of our unhappiness arise from our forming false notions of things and persons. ~ Abigail Adams

Vote for the man who promises least; he’ll be the least disappointing. ~ Bernard Baruch

The pleasure of expecting enjoyment is often greater than that of obtaining it, and the completion of almost every wish is found a disappointment. ~ Samuel Johnson

For, he that expects nothing shall not be disappointed, but he that expects much if he lives and uses that in hand day by day shall be full to running over. ~ Edgar Cayce

Blessed is he who expects nothing, for he shall never be disappointed. ~ Alexander Pope

Friendship is certainly the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love. ~ Jane Austen

We know finite disappointment, but we know infinite hope. ~ Martin Luther King, Jr.

I think life goes through a cycle of losing and refinding yourself all the time. Everyone has disappointments all the time, some of them pretty small, some of them pretty big. ~ Bruce Springsteen

 Doubts

 “Who knows most, doubts most.” ~ Robert Browning

What makes a river so restful to people is that it doesn’t have any doubt – it is sure to get where it is going, and it doesn’t want to go anywhere else. ~ Hal Boyle

I am living proof that uncertainty is vastly underrated and often times a blessing in disguise. ~ Tony Shalhoub

When we are not sure, we are alive. ~ Graham Greene

When the mind is in a state of uncertainty, the smallest impulse directs it to either side. ~ Terence

I had as many doubts as anyone else. Standing on the starting line, we’re all cowards. ~ Alberto Salazar

Where there is doubt, there is freedom. ~ Latin Proverb

Our doubts are traitors and make us lose the good we oft might win by fearing to attempt. ~ William Shakespeare, Measure For Measure

It is never worth while to make rents in a garment for the sake of mending them? Nor to create doubts in order to show how cleverly we can quiet them. ~ Charles Haddon Spurgeon

If you would be a real seeker after truth, it is necessary that at least once in your life you doubt, as far as possible, all things. ~ René Descartes

If you must tell me your opinions, tell me what you believe in. I have plenty of doubts of my own. ~ Johann von Goethe

Doubt is uncomfortable, but certainty is ridiculous. ~ Voltaire

Nothing will ever be attempted is all possible objections must be first overcome. ~ Samuel Johnson

Doubts are more cruel that the worst of truths. ~ Jean Baptiste Molière

Doubt begins only at the last frontiers of what is possible. ~ Giovanni Jacopo Casanova

 Endurance

“Sorrow and silence are strong, and patient endurance is godlike.” ~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Beyond talent lie all the usual words: discipline, love, luck– but, most of all, endurance. ~ James Baldwin

Endurance is not just the ability to bear a hard thing, but to turn it into glory. ~ William Barclay

In the darkest hour the soul is replentished and given strength to continue and endure. ~ Heart Warrior Chosa

Yes, as my swift days near their goal, ‘Tis all that I implore: in life and death a chainless soul with courage to endure. ~ Emity Bronte

We all have the strength to endure the misfortunes of others. ~ François de La Rochefoucauld

To struggle when hope is banished!/To live when life’s salt is gone!/To dwell in a dream that’s vanished/To endure, and go calmly on! ~ Ben Jonson

He that can’t endure the bad will not live to see the good. ~ Yiddish Proverb

Endurance is the cure for any pain. ~ Latin Proverb

Endure and save yourselves for happier times. ~ Virgil

He conquers who endures. ~ Persius

Without the strength to endure the crisis, one will not see the opportunity within. It is within the process of endurance that opportunity reveals itself. ~ Chin Ning Chu

I never was content unless I was trying my skill…or testing my endurance. ~ Jim Thorpe

Il faut d’abord durer (First One Must Endure). ~ Ernest Hemingway

Endurance pierces marble. ~ Moroccan Proverb

 Difficulties

  “When you have a great and difficult task, something perhaps almost impossible, if you only work a little at a time, every day a little, suddenly the work will finish itself.” ~ Isak Dinesen

It is almost as difficult to keep a first class person in a fourth class job, as it is to keep a fourth class person in a first class job. ~ Paul H. Dunn

Difficulties mastered are opportunities won. ~ Winston Churchill

The difficulties, hardships and trials of life, the obstacles… are positive blessings. They knit the muscles more firmly, and teach self-reliance. ~ William Matthews

Some men storm imaginary Alps all their lives, and die in the foothills cursing difficulties which do not exist. ~ E. W. Howe

If all difficulties were known at the outset of a long journey, most of us would never start out at all. ~ Dan Rather

There are two ways of meeting difficulties. You alter the difficulties or you alter yourself to meet them. ~ Phyllis Bottome

It is surmounting difficulties that makes heroes. ~ Louis Kossuth

Man needs difficulties; they are necessary for health. ~ Carl Gustav Jung

You do not know what life means when all the difficulties are removed! I am simply smothered and sickened with advantages. It is like eating a sweet dessert the first thing in the morning. ~ Jane Addams

Real difficulties can be overcome, it is only the imaginary ones that are unconquerable. ~ Theodore N. Vail

“The greatest difficulties lie where we are not looking for them.” ~ Johann von Goethe

Can it be that man is essentially a being who loves to conquer difficulties? The creature whose function is to solve problems? ~ Gorham Munson

My own life has been much more than a fairy tale. I’ve had my share of difficult moments, but whatever difficulties I’ve gone through, I’ve always gotten a prize at the end. ~ Audrey Hepburn

In youth we run into difficulties, in old age difficulties run into us. ~ Josh Billings

Looking back, we see with great clarity, and what once appeared as difficulties now reveal themselves as blessings. ~ Dan Millman

To strive with difficulties, and to conquer them, is the highest human felicity. ~ Samuel Johnson

A pessimist is one who makes difficulties of his opportunities and an optimist is one who makes opportunities of his difficulties. ~ Harry S Truman

You can’t fly a kite unless you go against the wind and have a weight to keep it from turning a somersault. The same with man. No man will succeed unless he is ready to face and overcome difficulties and is prepared to assume responsibilities. ~ William J. H. Boetcker

Conquering any difficulty always gives one a secret joy, for it means pushing back a boundary-line and adding to one’s liberty. ~ Henri-Frédéric Amiel

“Many men owe the grandeur of their lives to their tremendous difficulties.” ~ Charles Spurgeon

When you encounter difficulties and contradictions, do not try to break them, but bend them with gentleness and time. ~ St. Francis De Sales

For every difficulty that supposedly stops a person from succeeding there are thousands who have had it a lot worse and have succeeded anyway. So can you. ~ Brian Tracy

To get out of a difficulty, one usually must go through it.~ Samuel Easton

Every difficulty slurred over will be a ghost to disturb your repose later on. ~ Frederic Chopin

Difficulty is the excuse history never accepts. ~ Edward R. Murrow

Divide each difficulty into as many parts as is feasible and necessary to resolve it. ~ Rene Descartes

Difficulties are meant to rouse, not discourage. The human spirit is to grow strong by conflict. ~ William Ellery Channing

Difficulties increase the nearer we approach the goal. ~ Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe

The lowest ebb is the turn in the tide. ~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Difficulties are meant to rouse, not discourage. The human spirit is to grow strong by conflict. ~ William E. Channing

Easy is to occupy a place in a telephone book. Difficult is to occupy someone’s heart; know that you’re really loved. ~ Carlos Drummond de Andrade

 Depression

  “Depression can be the sand that makes the pearl.” ~ Joni Mitchell, Woman of Heart & Mind, 2003

The best cure for worry, depression, melancholy, brooding, is to go deliberately forth and try to lift with one’s sympathy the gloom of somebody else. ~ Arnold Bennett

Measure yourself by your best moments, not by your worst. We are too prone to judge ourselves by our moments of despondency and depression. ~ Robert Johnson

It’s a recession when your neighbor loses his job; it’s a depression when you lose your own. ~ Harry S Truman

Planning is an unnatural process; it is much more fun to do something. The nicest thing about not planning is that failure comes as a complete surprise, rather than being preceded by a period of worry and depression. ~ John Harvey Jones

Habits of pessimism lead to depression, wither achievement, and undermine physical health. The good news is that pessimism can be unlearned, and that with its removal depression, underachievement, and poor health can be alleviated. ~ Martin Seligman

It is well known that panic, despair, depression, hate, rage, exasperation, frustration all produce negative biochemical changes in the body. ~ Norman Cousins

Happiness and depression cannot blossom on the same vine. Some people affirm their woes and beg for sympathy. Others, unfortunately, cast gloom wherever they go. These poor souls were born sick and tired. ~ Louis Sullivan

No matter what form of depression you may suffer from, love and acceptance are the two essential elements necessary in developing control over your symptoms. ~ Amy Weintraub

“Depression is the feeling of separation from self.” ~ Richard Miller

I cry a lot. My emotions are very close to my surface. I don’t want to hold anything in so it festers and turns into pus – a pustule of emotion that explodes into a festering cesspool of depression. ~ Nicolas Cage

I certainly have a very colorful nature, filled with great highs and great lows… in my early adulthood I probably was grappling with some serious depression issues. ~ Sally Field

There are days—depression is a part of it—when if all you do is get dressed, take a shower and put on your makeup, then it is a good day. Your goals have to be much lower. But if you take one tiny little step, then you can take another and another. ~Deborah Norville

At times of the severest depression, humor is what binds people together. ~ Robert Carlyle

Depression is the common cold of the deluded human being. And according to Buddha, all human beings are quite deluded. ~ Stephen Cope

The weather of Depression is unmodulated, its light a brownout. ~ William Styron, Darkness Visible

Habits of pessimism lead to depression, wither achievement, and undermine physical health. The good news is that pessimism can be unlearned, and that with its removal depression, underachievement, and poor health can be alleviated. ~ Martin Seligman

It’s official: Music lifts depression. Many studies have shown that music has a marked effect on mood and self-esteem. Music is a direct route to the emotional realm. ~ Jonathan G. Zuess, Wisdom of Depression

The lowest ebb is the turn in the tide. ~ Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

Depression and grief are hatred turned on the self. ~ William Grier

Blessing in Disguise

“When we lose one blessing, another is often, most unexpectedly, given in its place.” ~ C.S. Lewis

“We should certainly count our blessings, but we should also make our blessings count.” ~ Neil A. Maxwell

The most powerful weapon known is the weapon of blessing. Therefore, a clever person relies on it. He wins with peace, not with war. ~ Lao Tzu

The great blessings of mankind are within us and within our reach; but we shut our eyes, and, like people in the dark, we fall foul upon the very thing we search for, without finding it. ~ Seneca

Blessed is the influence of one true, loving human soul on another. ~ George Eliot

May the blessed sunlight shine upon you and warm your heart till it glows like a great fire and strangers may warm themselves as well as friends. And may the light shine out of the eyes of you, like a candle set in the window of a house, bidding the wanderer to come in out of the storm. ~ Traditional Irish Blessing

Enjoy the blessings of this day… for this day only is ours: we are dead to yesterday, and not born to tomorrow. ~ Jeremy Taylor

 Never to suffer would never to have been blessed. ~ Edgar Allen Poe”

Benedetto” means the “blessed one” and I feel that I have truly been blessed. ~ Tony Bennett, The Good Life

Our real blessings often appear to us in the shape of pain, loss, and disappointment. ~ Joseph Addison

For today and its blessings, I owe the world an attitude of gratitude. ~ Clarence E. Hodges

 It is vital that people “count their blessings:” to appreciate what they possess without having to undergo its actual loss. ~ Abraham Maslow

“Try claiming God’s blessings instead of merely longing for them.” ~ Henry Jacobsen

What I am looking for is a blessing not in disguise. ~ Kitty O’Meill Collins

When I started counting my blessings, my whole life turned around. ~ Willie Nelson

Not what we say about our blessings, but how we use them, is the true measure of our thanksgiving. ~ W. T. Purkiser

Reflect upon your present blessings, of which every man has many not on your past misfortunes, of which all men have some. ~ Charles Dickens

Count your joys instead of your woes/Count your friends instead of your foes. ~ Irish Proverb

Men understand the worth of blessings only when they have lost them. ~ Plautus

You must pay the price if you wish to secure the blessings. ~ Andrew Jackson

All blessings are mixed blessings. ~ John Updike

If this is a blessing, it is certainly very well disguised. ~ Winston Churchill

 Sometimes the greatest adversities turn out to be the greatest blessings. ~ Charles Caleb Colton

My life is a blessing every day that I get up. God saved my feet. How am I not going to use them? ~ Gail Devers, USA Today

The hardest arithmetic to master is that which enables us to count our blessings. ~ Eric Hoffer

How little do my countrymen know what precious blessings they are in possession of, and which no other people on earth enjoy. ~ Thomas Jefferson

I feel blessed. So many men and women search and search but never find their passion, their calling, their sense of mission that would ignite their hearts and fill their lives with meaning and joy. ~ Robert Mondavi, Harvests of Joy, 1998

May God’s richest blessings be upon you both today and throughout the year and may those blessings flow through you to touch the lives of everyone you meet. ~ Gary Smalley & John Treat

 Everything that happens is either a blessing, which is also a lesson, or a lesson which is also a blessing. ~ Polly Berrien Berends

  

“All the world’s a stage,

And all the men and women merely players.

They have their exits and their entrances,

And one man in his time plays many parts,

His acts being seven ages.”

………Shakespeare —

From As You Like It (II, vii, 139-143)

Shakespeare sees the world as a stage upon which people perform, and their different ages represent different acts and scenes in the play. He remarked that the roles are somewhat beyond the players’ control and that the script for this play has already been written by an eternal power. In Burmese, ‘Ba Wa Zat Saya Alo Kya_Ka Pya Ya Thee’.

But Shakespeare’s plays are too high for the common people or general population. I myself like the folk tales more because they are down to earth and come in various forms. These are verbal records of history, famous incidents in analogy or dreams, inspirations or fantasies of our ancestors trying to pass on their teachings or lessons to their descendants in the more palatable way or like sugar coated pills. But some times we need some thinking to discover the lessons hidden in-side. I am amazed that many of these story tellers could go beyond our wildest imaginations.

I hereby wish to retell one of my favourite stories although I do not know the real source.

Once upon a time, in a far away land there was a handsome warrior king. He was handsome, brave and strong because his ancestor kings are not practicing the custom of marrying only the only amongst royalties, the practice that some ancient kingdoms were following. Most of the princes and kings used to search the most beautiful girls of their country and so they got a lot of beauty genes in their bodies. And this particular king was trained since young in all the 18 royal subjects fit for the kings and princes. So he was not only handsome but healthy and his body was perfect like a body builder.

On a one fateful day, while practicing his fighting skills and techniques with weapons, his left little finger tip was accidentally amputated. The Royal Physicians’ attempts to attach back the severed tip failed but the wound healed quite fast because of his excellent health.

But the king was not happy with his less than perfect physical status and called his long-living-wise-minister for consultation. The wise man replied that it may be the blessing in disguise given by God and advised to accept the fate with the open mind and to go on his life as usual for the sake of the country God had entrusted on him. The King was not pleased with the answer, ‘the amputation of his finger was the blessing from God’ and ordered the Wiseman-cum-minister to banish from his country. Actually he even wished to give death sentence but according to their Royal custom the long-living-wise-ministers were already exempted or got immunity from death sentences.

To overcome his sadness or to divert his attention, other ministers advised the king to go for his usual hunting trip. On that trip the king was accidentally separated from his body guards and hunting friends. He also lost his way and intruded into the wild frontier of ancient tribes who were searching a person to sacrifice at their annual festival. He was arrested and prepared for sacrifice according to that tribe’s traditional pagan belief.

They scheduled to do the sacrifice ceremony on the mid-night of the full moon day. Then as a last minute checkup, the head priest examined the sacrificial human(king) and found out the amputated tip of the little finger. The head priest then angrily decided that the prisoner (king) was not a perfect person, their god would be angry if they proceed with the sacrificial ceremony of beheading.

So the king was released and later he found his way back to his kingdom. Then only he realized and accepted the word of his wise-man, that his amputated injury was a blessing in disguised from God.

Actually the above story is dedicated to all the people of Burma who are disappointed or depressed because of recent extension of detention order to our beloved Daw  Aung San Suu Kyi. This is not the end of the world. According to the unconfirmed news we could deduct that Daw Suu’s refusal to accept the unfair strict restriction on her and NLD could be one of the reason for the breakup of the possible truce ending in the extension of detention.

Not only me but most of the opposition could not trust the SPDC and all of us believed that even if SPDC released Daw Suu it would be a ‘Cat and Mouse game’ if I have to use the last week’s Burma Digest editorial. Yes they had released her few times before but ignored the meaningful dialogue or real negotiation or sincerely started a reconciliatory move for power sharing or transfer the power to the real owner.

They just try to buy time or fool around all the people of Myanmar and the outside world. Ne Win announced the transfer of power to civilians just to please or release the frustration of the disgruntled citizens but end up transferring the real power from his one pocket to another.

SPDC is trying to follow his foot steps but all of us and the whole world already knew their tactics and strategies. SPDC had played the deceit and sham diplomacy by announcing the charade road map to democracy. They had successfully deceived all of us and the whole world to believe that they were negotiating with Daw Suu through disgraced Khin Nyunt and Than Tun. They had played around successful with Mr Razali Ismail, Paulo Sergio Pinheiro and Syed Hamid Alba. We all suspected that they are going to play the buy-time-game with UN Under-Secretary-General Ibrahim Gambari. But the SPDC Generals are foolish enough to stop playing the game by ignoring the wishes of all the citizens, the whole world leaders and UN Secretary General’s request.

This is actually a blessing in disguise for all of us.

If they just try to play around with the cat and mouse game or their famous buy-time-games there are a lot of insincere leaders around the world willing to close one eye on them and open the remaining eye to seek methods or ways to exploit Myanmar. Now no leader of any countries could use any excuse and it is clear that ‘the spade is a spade’.

And another blessing in disguise is stupid SPDC is opening multiple battle fronts to:

Attack NLD

Attack SNLD

Attack Ethnic Minority Shans

Attack Ethnic Minority Karins

Attack Ethnic Minority Kachins

Attack Ethnic Minority Mons

Attack Ethnic Minority Chins etc

Attack Christians

Attack Burmese Muslims

Attack Rohingyas

Attack all mixed blooded people

Attack rebels at borders

Attack peace agreement signed rebels

Attack all the people of Myanmar/Burma in all possible ways

Attack ASEAN, UN, US, EU, ILO, ICICR, UNHCR, Amnesty International and etc.

We started our Independence struggle with ‘Ingaleik ah khet_Bama ah chet’ Now SPDC is jumping into the fire from the frying pen. This is the TIME to START our revolution with the new slogan, ‘SPDC’s ah khet_Bama ah chet’

Dr Salai Tun Than had raised our stake in the revolution by declaring to sacrifice and calling for a civil disobedience. Last week Shwe Ba had proposed to start a ‘showing-of-our-hatred-to-SPDC campaign.

If you have never experienced

the danger of battle,

the loneliness of imprisonment,

the agony of torture or

the pangs of starvation,

you are ahead of 20 million people

around the world.

If you attend a religious meeting

without fear of harassment,

arrest, torture, or death,

you are more blessed than almost

three billion people in the world.

If you have food in your refrigerator or kitchen capboard (Kyaung Ain),

clothes on your back, a roof over

your head and a place to sleep,

you are richer than 75% of this world.

If you can read this message,

you are more blessed than over

two billion people in the world

that cannot read anything at all.

(Anonymous)

So there are a lot of blessings, some obvious, some we just take for granted and some disguised as failures or set backs. Don’t give up, count all the blessings and raise our struggle efforts to topple SPDC. The time has come.

We could one day crown the democracy tiara on Daw Suu. She is the spear head of our struggle. Ah Yay Daw Pone Aung Ya Myee!

BO AUNG DIN 

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Comments

Alison Winter said _

Thank you Bo Aung Din and Burma Digest for this fantastic article!