Farewell friend, Sai Htee Sai

Farewell friend, Sai Htee Sai

saihteesaing.jpg

By

Sit Mone

This blogger was shocked to read the news of demise of Burmese talented singer Sai Htee Sai in Mizzima news.

Ko Htee…

We were brought up as a generation

Who loved to listen and play your songs

Yours were natural and simple

Easy to understand while leaving all of us with the message

That went straight into our heart

Your songs were like the work of a wizard

Together with perfect match of lyrics

You were a talented star

With a distinctive voice..

That we called the “power” of voice..

Which was special gift for you from heaven

That’s why

When we were happy, we have sung your songs

When we were sad, we have sung your songs

When we failed exams, we have sung your songs

When we passed exams, we have sung your songs

When our friends were left by girlfriends, we have sung your songs

When our friends get nods from their loved ones, we have sung your songs

Now we seldom sing songs as all of us are not in a mood to sing any songs

However….

Whenever we miss Burma, we are still singing your songs…

And from now on … people will continue singing your songs

As you have left your legacy..your songs are Modern Classics of Burma..

May Ko Htee’s soul rest in peace

Sit Mone

(This blogger does not forget to mention the wonderful work of great composer Dr Sai Kham Laik for creating most of Ko Htee’s songs from this insignificant blog)

Burmese Chinese

  Burmese Chinese

The Burmese Chinese or Chinese Burmese are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Burma (Myanmar).

Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population, this figure may be underestimated because of _

  1. intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar,
  2. and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to declare themselves as Bamar when applying for birth certificate or national identification card).

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. dominate the Burmese economy,
  2. have a disproportionately high percentage of the educated class.

Generally, the Burmese Chinese in Lower Burma fall into three main groups:

  1. Burmese called eingyi shay, or let shay lit. long-sleeved shirts to Hokkien and Hakkas from Fujian Province
  2.  Burmese called eingyi to, or let to lit. short-sleeved shirts to Cantonese and Hakka   from Guangdong Province
  3. So Burmese sometimes called zaka, lit. mid-length sleeve to all the Hakka  from Fujian and Guangdong provinces.
  4. But Hakkas are further subdivided into those with
  5. ancestry from Fujian Province, called ein-gyi shay ha-ka
  6. and Guangdong Province, eingyi to haka respectively.

The Hokkien and Cantonese comprise 45% of the ethnic Chinese population.

The groups have different stereotypical associations.

  1. The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese,
  2. the Hokkiens are generally wealthier,
  3. occupying high positions in the economy,
  4. and having connections to the government.

In Upper Burma and Shan Hills,

  1. the Panthay
  2. and Kokang, are speakers of a Mandarin dialect of the Southwestern Mandarin branch, most akin to Yunnanese.

Combined, they form 21% of Burmese Chinese.

Kokang are_

  1. mountain-dwellers
  2. and farmers
  3. classified as a part of the Shan national race, although they have no linguistic or genetic affinity to the Tai-Kadai-speaking Shan.

Muslim Panthay_

  1. are considered as separate local nationalities
  2. rather than a Chinese diaspora community.

The Tayoke kabya of mixed Chinese and indigenous Burmese parentage.

  1. The kabya (Burmese: mixed heritage) have a tendency to follow the customs of the Chinese more than of the Burmese.
  2. Indeed those that follow Burmese customs are absorbed into and largely indistinguishable from the mainstream Burmese society.
  3. A large portion of Burmese is thought to have some kabya blood,
  4. because immigrants could acquire Burmese citizenship through intermarriage with the indigenous Burmese peoples.

Culture

Politics

Now, we see the Muslims and Indians participating in the monks led peoples protesting. However, the Chinese seem to be curiously missing – in shape or form – within the context of the current protests.

Are they against the current protests or in support of the protests? Or simply indifferent to any of this since they already have a stronghold over Burma’s economy and anything that takes attention away from them would be positive?

Either way, the bigger question here is not a question of why aren’t the Chinese involved in these protest rather when will the Chinese get involved. The bottom line is why do the minorities, specifically the Chinese and the so called Indians or Muslims, continue to feel disenfranchised?

Language

  1. Most Burmese Chinese typically speak Burmese as their mother tongue.
  2. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin
  3. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin and/or English.
  4. Some modern educated use English.
  5. Some use, Chinese dialects/languages.
    • Hokkien is mostly used in Yangon as well as in Lower Burma,
    • while Taishan Cantonese and
    • Yunnanese Mandarin are well preserved in Upper Burma.

Conditions of Chinese-language schools_

  1. General Ne Win’s (1962-1988) banned on the Chinese-language schools caused a decline of Mandarin speakers.
  2. Chinese schools are growing again nowadays because of the increase in investors and businessmen from Mainland China and Taiwan, who uses Standard Mandarin,

Religion

Most Burmese Chinese practice_

  1. Theravada Buddhism,
  2. incorporating some Mahayana Buddhist
  3. and Taoist beliefs,
    • such as the worship of Kuan Yin.
    • Chinese New Year celebrations,
    • as well as other Chinese festivals, are subdued and held privately.
    • Clan associations are often the only places where the Chinese culture is retained.

The Panthay or Chinese Muslims practice Islam.

Education

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. place a high importance on education,
  2. a disproportionate big share with advanced (medical, engineering or doctorate) degrees. (SOA’s note: it is partly because Muslims are labeled Kala and denied the place for postgraduate educations. The Chinese not only escaped that kind of discrimination but they got the special privileges given by the Chinese blooded political, military and education authorities.)
  3. The number would be higher still had it not been for the longstanding ban on those without Burmese citizenship from pursuing advanced degrees.
  4. Nowadays, many wealthy Burmese Chinese send their children overseas for further studies especially in US, UK, Canada, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Names

The Burmese Chinese have_

  1. Burmese names
  2. and many also have Chinese names.

Names in various Chinese dialects are roughly transliterated into the Burmese.

  1. For example, a person named ‘Khin Aung’ may have the Chinese name of 慶豐 (pinyin: Qìngfēng), with ‘慶’ (pinyin: qìng) corresponding to ‘Khin’, and ‘豐’ (pinyin: fēng) corresponding to ‘Aung’.
  2. However, variations of transcription do exist (between dialects),
  3. and some Burmese Chinese do not choose to adopt similar-sounding Burmese and Chinese names.
  4. Because the Burmese lack surnames, many Burmese Chinese tend to pass on portions of their given names to future generations, for the purpose of denoting lineage.

According to publications of Longsei Tang, a clan association based in Yangon, the ten most common Chinese surnames in Yangon are:

  1. Li (李)
  2. Peng (彭)
  3. Shi (時)
  4. Dong (董)
  5. Min (閔)
  6. Niu (牛)
  7. Bian (邊)
  8. Xin (辛)
  9. Guan (關)
  10. Tsui/Hsu(徐)

Cuisine

The Burmese Chinese cuisine is based on Chinese cuisine, particularly from

  1. Fujian,
  2. Guangdong
  3. and Yunnan provinces, with local influences.
  4. Spices such as turmeric and chili are commonly used.
    • Pauk si
    • Bhè kin
    • Igyakway
    • Htamin kyaw
    • La mont
    • Mewswan
    • San-byoat
    • Panthay khaukswè
    • Sigyet khaukswè

History

  1. The earliest records of Chinese migration were in the Song and Ming dynasties.
  2. In the 1700s, Ming Dynasty princes settled in Kokang (the northern part of Burma).
  3. Chinese traders, however, traveled up to the capital city, northern towns on the Irrawaddy such as Bhamo.
  4. There was a Chinese community at Amarapura.
  5. Another wave of immigration occurred in the 1800s under the British rule.
  6. They came to Burma via Malaysia.
  7. When the Chinese Communists expelled the Kuomintang, many fled to Burma and Thailand over the borders of Yunnan Province.
  8. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan; those who managed to stay prospered.
  9. The Chinese dominate the highly lucrative rice and gem industries.
  10. Many became merchants and traders owning both wholesale and retail businesses.
  11. The northern region of Burma has seen an influx of mainland Chinese immigrant workers, black market traders and gamblers.
  12. In the Kachin State, which borders China in three directions, Mandarin Chinese is the lingua franca.

 They integrated well into Burmese society because they, like the Bamar,

  1. were of Sino-Tibetan stock
  2. and were Buddhists,

Their success_

  1. is reflected in the Burmese saying, “Earn like the Chinese, save like the Indian, and don’t waste money like the Bamar”.
  2. They got the nickname pauk hpaw (lit. sibling).
  3. During the 1950s, Burma was one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China as a nation.

However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens.

  1. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards (FRC), which declared that they were citizens of China.
  2. A similar discrimination policy was set up for Indians.

In 1962, Ne Win led a coup d’état and declared himself head of state. Although a kabya himself, he banned Chinese-language education, and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave.

  1. Ne Win’s government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China.
  2. When Ne Win implemented the “Burmese Way to Socialism”, a plan to nationalize all industries, the livelihoods of many entrepreneurial Chinese were destroyed and some 100,000 Chinese left the country.
  3. All schools were nationalized, including Chinese-language schools.

 Beginning in 1967 and continuing throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government.

  1. Many Burmese Chinese left the country during Ne Win’s rule, largely because of a failing economy and widespread discrimination.
  2. The first government-sponsored racial riots to take place in Burma was in 1967, during General Ne Win’s rule. In the riots, the general populace went on a killing spree because of sedition and instigation against the Chinese by various government departments.
  3. The massacre lasted for about five consecutive days, during which thousands of Chinese died or were left dying in the streets of Rangoon. Some of the Chinese were thrown alive from the second and third floors of buildings in downtown Rangoon. The dead and wounded Chinese were hauled up unceremoniously and dumped onto army trucks and taken to ‘htauk kyan’ incinerators and the ‘carcasses’ were sent up in smoke.
  4. That showed the true bestial and cruel side of the character of the ruling Burma Military Junta. The only “crime” the Chinese committed was the wearing of Chairman Mao’s badges on their shirts.
  5. Latha Secondary School was torched by the henchmen of General Ne Win’s government, where school girls were burnt alive.
  6. Chinese shops were looted and set on fire.
  7. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation, scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice.

Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of_

  1. Yangon,
  2. Mandalay,
  3. Taunggyi,
  4. Bago, and their surrounding areas.
  5. According to Global Witness, 30 to 40% of Mandalay’s population consists of ethnic Chinese.
  6. Although there are Chinatowns (tayoke tan) in the major cities, the Chinese are widely dispersed.

Notable Burmese Chinese

  1. Aung Gyi leading army dissident and Ne Win’s former deputy/co-conspirator in the 1962 coup
  2. Aw Boon Haw (Hakka) – Inventor of Tiger Balm
  3. Aw Boon Par (Hakka) – Brother of Aw Boon Haw
  4. Eike Htun (Kokang) – Managing director of Olympic Construction Co. and deputy chairman of Asia Wealth Bank, two large conglomerates in Burma
  5. Khun Sa (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  6. Khin Nyunt – Former Prime Minister (2003-2004) and Chief of Intelligence (1983-2004) of Myanmar
  7. Lo Hsing Han (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  8. Steven Law (also known as Tun Myint Naing; Kokang) – Managing director of Asia World Company, a major Burmese conglomerate and son of Lo Hsing Han
  9. Ne Win (Hakka) – Leader of Burma from 1960s to 1980s
  10. San Yu (Hakka) – President of Burma in the 1980s
  11. Serge Pun – Proprietor of Yoma Bank, a major banking chain in Myanmar and chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co. Ltd (FMI), one of Myanmar’s leading investment companies
  12. Taw Sein Ko (Hokkien) – eminent Director of Archaeology (1901-1915)
  13. Thakin Ba Thein Tin – Communist leader from the 1970s to the 1990s
  14. Maung Aye – Vice chairman of SPDC and Chief of Staff of Armed Forces
  15. Major General Kat Sein – former Minister of Health
  16. Dr. Kyaw Myint – Present Minister of Health
  17. Myo Thant – Former Minister of Information under SLORC
  18. Colonel Tan Yu Sai – Minister of Trade under Ne Win’s government
  19. Colonel Kyi Maung– NLD member (1989-2004) and Army Commander of Rangoon in 1960s
  20. U Thaung – Minister of Labour & Technical Science, Retired Legion and Ambassador
  21. Lun Thi – Minister of Energy
  22. Thein Sein – First Secretary of SPDC
  23. Kyaw Ba – General Formal Minister of Hotel and Tourism

Reference

Wikipedia

What’s up China?

What’s up China?

When compare to our other good neighbour, India, you are so cruel on all the countries in South East Asia, including Burma.

You had kicked out or forced out or pushed out almost all the ethnic groups of South East Asia including all the ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar and the Bama people’s ancestors. After that you shamelessly bully all of us again by following to our new home land and asked for the protection money or ransom money.

See your neighbour India, it had given the great religions, Hindu, Buddhism and Islam to all the nations of South East Asia including Burma.

India had given culture, arts, literature etc to all of us, including Burma/ Myanmar.

India had just fought two wars in the whole history on our South East Asia. ( We leave behind three wars with China and wars in South Asia.)

( What’s up is an informal question meaning, depending on situation and emphasis: “what are you doing”, “how are you?”, “what is happening” or “what gives.” It is sometimes used as an informal, casual greeting in itself.)

Now I wish to ask China to repent and pay back the the historical debts instead the present shameful stance of its hindrance in  our current struggle  for the democratization movements against SPDC Junta. China is actively supporting this pariah Junta and protecting this régime in the UNSC.

Please red my article in Burma Digest, C.C.C.C. or C4 ,Communist Chinese Colonialist’s Cruelties with MAHA BANDULA pseudonym to know about the China.

If we look at the China’s long history of aggressive behaviour on its own citizens, neighbours and the world, it is quite alarming. The world must do something to protect itself from this big bully instead of closing one eye to get the big economic opportunity by supporting its one China policy and undemocratic unruly bullying on its neighbours and on its own citizens.

If we look at the history of South East Asia, including almost all of our ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar, almost all of us had to migrate down and out of China because of the violent, aggressive Chinese new comers that pushed or forced all of us out.

Later after settling in the new home land, Chinese Kings tried to continue their bully by demanding to pay tributes regularly. Not only Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Laos but far away countries like, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bengal, Europe, Mecca and Medina are also not spared.

And during the late 60’s and 70’s, just because General Ne Win massacred the Burmese Chinese in the anti-Chinese Riots, they supported the Burmese Communist Party with 100,000 Chinese Red army troops, disguised as Wa rebels.

According to the Burmese language, Peking radio reports, 100,000 Chinese soldiers deserted with full ammunition and joined forces with them. So, the so called, Wa Ethnic Minorities, who could not even speak or understand a word in Burmese, became full citizen now. They could easily get the Myanmar National Registration Cards and many of them even managed to get the Myanmar Passports.

Just look at the various groups of Burmese Muslims’ dilemma in getting the National Registration Cards and Passports. And our cousin brothers, Rohingyas are unfairly discriminated.

Is that because our skin are darker than Chinese?

Is that because our nose are sharper than Chinese?

Is that because we are Muslims and could not assimilate thoroughly like Chinese who could assimilate easily?

Is that because the Burmese girls need not convert if they marry the Chinese?

Although PURE Chinese Nationals who disguised as ‘Myanmar Ethnic Minority’ Wa could grease the hands of Myanmar local and national authorities, just because they-are not-Indian factor and because of their Chinese features paved their way easily.

But anyway please look back the history of South East Asia, India. [We all are not Indians but anyway Burmese Muslims are called Kalas/Indian (people of the Indian sub-continent) mixed blooded people.]

Except for the South India dynasty of Chola’s attack on Indonesia’s Srivijaya and Moghul  King Aurangzeb, attacked the Arakan once only. His elder brother Shah Shuja’ was the second son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal of India. Shah Shuja’ lost to his brother and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), the Arakan King accepted and allow him to settle there but later arrested and killed. Although Aurangzeb was the enemy of the Shah Shuja’, he was upset by the massacre and attacked Arakan.

India and China shaped the present South East Asia, and the Colonial masters polished into the present finished products.

Indianized kingdoms

The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic cultural and economic influences in Southeast Asia.

Ancient and classical kingdoms

Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China.

The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories.

The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia.

Examples are the Ayutthaya Kingdom, based on the Chao Phraya River delta and the Khmer Empire on the Tonle Sap.

The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Malacca and Srivijaya were maritime states. A succession of trading systems dominated the trade between China and India.

First goods were shipped through Funan to the Isthmus of Kra, portaged across the narrow , and then transhipped for India and points west.

Around the sixth century CE merchants began sailing to Srivijaya where goods were transhipped directly. The limits of technology and contrary winds during parts of the year made it difficult for the ships of the time to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

The third system involved direct trade between the Indian and Chinese coasts. Several kingdoms developed on the mainland, initially in modern-day Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

The first dominant power to arise in the archipelago was Srivijaya in Sumatra. Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards.

• Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

• The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.

• The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago for its forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China.

• Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire’s official religions.

• Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

• The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its ruler Hayam Wuruk, (1350 to 1389) dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.

• The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and they influence the local cultures.

• Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built. Southeast Asian rulers were founders of these states_

• and then imported the Indian ritual specialists as advisers on raja dharma, or the practices of Indian kingship.

• The Indianized kingdoms developed a close affinity

• and internalised Indian religious, cultural and economic practices without significant direct input from Indian rulers themselves.

• Indianization was the work of Indian traders and merchants, although later the travels of Buddhist monks such as Atisha became important. Southeast Asian rulers enthusiastically adopted elements of raja dharma,

• (Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, codes and court practices)

• to legitimate their own rule • and constructed cities, such as Angkor,

• to affirm royal power by reproducing a map of sacred space derived from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

• Southeast Asian rulers frequently adopted lengthy Sanskrit titles

• and founded cities, such as Ayutthaya in Thailand, named after those in the Indian epics.

• Most Indianized kingdoms combined both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices in a syncretic manner.

• Kertanagara, the last king of Singhasari, described himself as Sivabuddha, a simultaneous incarnation of the Hindu god and the Buddha.

• Also a significant part of the current population in South East Asia has a trace of Indian ancestry from distant antiquity. Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures These kingdoms prospered from the Spice Route, trade among themselves and the Indian kingdoms.

• The influence of Indian culture is visible in the script, grammar, religious observances, festivities, architecture and artistic idioms even today.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures, created a new synthesis. The Southeast Asian region was previously called by the name Indochina.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures are both strongly visible in this region even today, with the majority of the region being Indianized and Vietnam Sinocized.

• The reception of Hinduism and Buddhism aided the civilization maturity of these kingdoms but also subjected them to aggression by Indian and Chinese rulers.

• Cultural practices like the performances of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana across all of Southeast Asia.

• Traces of Hindu culture are visible also in the Sanskrit etymology of words in Myanmar language, Malay language, Indonesian and other regional languages as well as personal names. The Chinese ruled Vietnam for a millennium, while the Chola dynasty of South India ruled over Srivijaya briefly.

• And though Southeast Asia is an economic powerhouse in its own right, the need to balance Chinese economic and political influence with that of India remains an important factor for the region.

• Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola kingdom of South India and the South East Asian Hindu kingdoms, led the Bay of Bengal to be called “The Chola Lake”

• and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the tenth century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.

• The subsequent arrival of Islam, by Arab traders,

• and Christianity, by Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch colonial rulers significantly weakened the connection with India.

• Chinese influence grew with the gradual migration of Chinese traders and merchants. Chinese influence dominated in Vietnam, although other states such as the Khmer empire and Malacca were drawn into Chna’s diplomatic orbit.

• While Buddhism remains the dominant religion in mainland Southeast Asia,

• Hinduism survives in Bali and

• Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.

The History of Burma (or Myanmar) is long and complex.

Several races of people have lived in the region, the oldest of which are probably the Mon or the Pyu. In the 9th century the Bamar (Burman) people migrated from the then China-Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady, and now form the governing majority.

‘Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans’.

Though there is ‘scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race’, nevertheless, Burma’s proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have ‘an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation’, resulting in some historians proclaiming that ‘Myanmars were descendants of Aryans’.

The history of the region comprises complexities not only within the country but also with its neighbouring countries, China, India, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Laos and Thailand.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.

Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival. Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

1. Early history of Burma Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum), was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC, though definitely by the 2nd century BC when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon’s written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations.

By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Myanmar. From that time, Northern Burma was a group of city-states in a loose coalition.

The ‘King’ of each city-state would change allegiance as he saw fit, so throughout history.

1. Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) another came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

(i) One came down from above like

Shan, (ii) and another from India , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Talaings originated from the Talingana village of India and arrived to lower  Burma , met and intermarried with Mons, who came down from Yunnan, spreads through Burma up to Thailand, Laos and Kambodia.

They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc.. Our  Burmese spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language.

But our Burmese writing language was from India, Brami Script we took not from our native Mon but her cousin Mons resided in Thailand.

Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma Orissa

Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

Andhra Dynasty Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

Talaings or Mons Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. Mon

Early History of Burma_

Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.

The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.

The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman’n’adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.

The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.

The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.

The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

Mon kingdoms A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states. These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.

Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai หงสาวดี Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma. Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy ) Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon. According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD.

It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries. The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056. After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence. From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma.

The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.

They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history.

It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.

PYU

The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey.

The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.

Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.

The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

India and Arakan Intercourse

Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras “The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.

In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).

This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,

• … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;

• … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal

• … Both government and people were Indian.

• It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.

• Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.

The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra. Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD.

Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.

1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,

2. “Tsit-ta-gung”

3. meaning “there shall be no war”.

4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.

Chittagong under Arakanese rule Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD

Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

Pyu

Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups;

(i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.

The famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD.

1. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D.

2. and Mon from 5th century A.D.

3. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D. Beikthano (Vishnu) Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD. (Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.

Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship.

There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as ‘Vishnu City’.

Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

Pyu Kings are Maharajas

In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul..

• There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese.

• Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

• Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.

• In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu. Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.

• On Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC. and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.

• Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left.

• And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.

• Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.

• The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so‘ far to be excavated in that area.

Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa

In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).

The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.

In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.

Thamala and Wimala.

Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.

The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan ‘was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.

Chinese trade Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan’s voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.

Han Li Po’s well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote “He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice”.

The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.

• Brunei

• o Malacca (满剌加 / 馬六甲) 拜里米苏拉

• Indonesia[citation needed]

o Java

o Lanfang Republic

• Japan

o Wa[3] (also Wae, Wei, 倭)

o Nippon (日本)

• Korea

• Philippines[10]

o Manila

o Sulu (蘇祿)

• Thailand[3]

o Siam 邏羅

• Bhutan 不丹

• Nepal 尼伯爾

o Karakum (喀喇庫木)

o Yuli (also Weili, 尉犁)

o Kushana (also Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)

o Boluo’er (博羅爾)

• Vietnam[3]

o Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)

o Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, 林邑, 占城)

• Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)

• Nippon (日本)

• Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)

• Annam (every three years since 1369) • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))

• Siam (every three years since 1371)

• Champa (every three years since 1369)

• Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)

• Pahang (1378, 1414)

• Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)

• Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)

• Samudra (on Sumatra (?)or Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)

• Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)

• Sulu (1417, 1421)

• Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)

• Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)

• Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)

• Kollam (1407)

• Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)

• Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)

• Jaunpur (1420)

• Syria (Fulin?, 1371)

• Cochin (1404, 1412)

• Melinde (1414)

• Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)

• Maldives,

• Burma (YaWa),

Lambri (NanWuLi),

• Kelatan,

• Bengal (PengJiaNa),

• Kashgar

Sairam

• SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)

• Badakhshan

• Bukhara(?)

• PaLa(?)

• Shiraz

• Nishapur

• Kashmir

• Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)

Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)

Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)

• A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest. Qing Dynasty This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875.

Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)

Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)

• Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)

• Laos (17 times)

• Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)

• Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)

• Russia (1676 and 1727)

• England (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)

• Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)

• Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)

Holy See (1725)

• Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)

Europeans

Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia while missionaries also tagged along the ships as they hoped to spread Christianity into the region.

Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.

The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region.

The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines (named after Phillip II of Spain) from 1560s.

Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory.

Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene.

Starting with Penang, the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire.

They also temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars,

In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia.

From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. This phenomenon, denoted New Imperialism, saw the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers.

The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.

Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.

  1. By 1913, the British occupied Burma, Malaya and the Borneo territories,
  2. the French controlled Indochina,
  3. the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies
  4. while Portugal managed to hold on to Portuguese Timor.
  5. In the Philippines, Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain in 1898
  6. but was handed over to the United States despite protests as a result of the Spanish-American War.

Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia.

  1. While the colonial powers profited much from the region’s vast resources and large market,
  2. colonial rule did develop the region to a varying extent.

Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period.

Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change.

The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories.

Reference

Wikipedia

 

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

of time

Procrastination

Procrastination is a type of avoidance behaviour which is characterised by deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite procrastination as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.

For the person procrastinating this may result in stress, a sense of guilt, the loss of personal productivity, the creation of crisis and the disapproval of others for not fulfilling one’s responsibilities or commitments. While it is normal for individuals to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological or physiological disorder.

The word itself comes from the Latin word procrastinatus: pro- (forward) and crastinus (of tomorrow). The term’s first known appearance was in Edward Hall’s Chronicle (The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancestre and Yorke), first published sometime before 1548.[2] The sermon reflected procrastination’s connection at the time to task avoidance or delay, volition or will, and sin.

Causes of procrastination

Psychological

The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth and a self-defeating mentality. Procrastinators are also thought to have a higher-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the “dreams and wishes” of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential.

Author David Allen brings up two major psychological causes of procrastination at work and in life which are related to anxiety, not laziness.[citation needed] The first category comprises things too small to worry about, tasks that are an annoying interruption in the flow of things, and for which there are low-impact workarounds; an example might be organizing a messy room. The second category comprises things too big to control, tasks that a person might fear, or for which the implications might have a great impact on a person’s life; an example might be the adult children of a deteriorating senior parent deciding what living arrangement would be best.

A person might unconsciously overestimate or underestimate the scale of a task if procrastination has become a habit.

From the behavioral psychology point of view, James Mazur has said that procrastination is a particular case of “impulsiveness” as opposed to self control.[citation needed] Mazur states that procrastination occurs because of a temporal discounting of a punisher, as it happens with the temporal discount for a reinforcer. Procrastination, then, as Mazur says, happens when a choice has to be made between a later larger task and a sooner small task; as the absolute value of the task gets discounted by the time, a subject tends to choose the later large task.

Physiological

Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex. This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual’s ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe’s role in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common. [3]

Procrastination and mental health

Procrastination can be a persistent and debilitating disorder in some people, causing significant psychological disability and dysfunction. These individuals may actually be suffering from an underlying mental health problem such as depression or ADHD.While procrastination is a behavioral condition, these underlying mental health disorders can be treated with medication and/or therapy. Therapy can be a useful tool in helping an individual learn new behaviors, overcome fears and anxieties, and achieve an improved quality of life. Thus it is important for people who chronically struggle with debilitating procrastination to see a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.

Severe procrastination can cross over into internet addiction or computer addiction. In this instance the individual has a compulsion to avoid reality by surfing the web or playing video games (game addiction) or looking at online pornography (pornography addiction). Although these are relatively new phenomena, they are being considered as psychiatric diagnoses by mental health professionals.

Perfectionism

Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one’s own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one’s abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and workaholism. Slaney (1996) found that adaptive perfectionists were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety).[4]

Academic procrastination

While academic procrastination is not a special type of procrastination, procrastination is thought to be particularly prevalent in the academic setting[citation needed], where students are required to meet deadlines for assignments and tests in an environment full of events and activities which compete for the students’ time and attention. More specifically, a 1992 study showed that “52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination”[5].Some students struggle with procrastination due to a lack of time management or study skills, stress, or feeling overwhelmed with their work.[

Quotations on procrastination

  1.  ”I’ll stop procrastinating, I swear… Starting on Monday.” — Frikkin Ninja

  2. “You can read this one later!” – Evrim

  3. “If it weren’t for the last minute, I wouldn’t get anything done.” — Anon

  4. “I think a lot of the basis of the open source movement comes from procrastinating students…” — Andrew Tridgell (Article)

  5. “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” — Douglas Adams

  6. “Waiting is a trap. There will always be reasons to wait – The truth is, there are only two things in life, reasons and results, and reasons simply don’t count.” — Robert Anthony

  7. “We don’t have anything as urgent as mañana in Ireland.” — Stuart Banks

  8. “A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.” — Alyce P. Cornyn-Selby

  9. “Procrastination: Hard work often pays off after time, but laziness always pays off now.” — Larry Kersten

  10. “Anyone can do any amount of work provided it isn’t the work he’s supposed to be doing at the moment.” — Robert Benchley

  11. “Procrastination is the art of waiting.” — Procrastination help

  12. “Procrastination is like masturbation, It’s fun until you realize you just screwed yourself”–Anonymous

  13. “Only Robinson Crusoe had everything done by Friday.” — Author Unknown

  14. “Procrastinate now, don’t put it off.” — Ellen DeGeneres

  15. “Procrastination is the thief of time.” — Edward Young

  16. “You can procrastinate later.” — kanzure

  17. “Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday.” — Don Marquis

  18. “Procrastination is my sin. It brings me naught but sorrow. I know that I should stop it. In fact, I will–tomorrow!” — Gloria Pitzer

  19. “Procrastination will kill us all if it ever gets around to it.” — Anon

  20. “Time you enjoy wasting isn’t wasted time.” — Bertrand Russell

  21. “Procrastination is the key to flexibility” — Anon

  22. Between saying and doing many a pair of shoes is worn out. ~ Italian Proverb

  23. One of these days is none of these days. ~ English

  24. “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.” — Mark Twain

  25. “Telling someone who procrastinates to buy a weekly planner is like telling someone with chronic depression to just cheer up.” — Joseph Ferrari

  26. “Faith in to-morrow, instead of Christ, is Satan’s nurse for man’s perdition.” Rev. Dr. Cheever

  27. “To be always intending to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it; this is as if a man should put off eating and drinking and sleeping from one day and night to another, till he is starved and destroyed.” Tillotson

  28. ‘By the streets of “By and By” one arrives at the house of “Never.”‘ Cervantes

  29. “By one delay after another they spin out their whole lives, till there’s no more future left for them.” L’Estrange

  30. “For Yesterday was once To-morrow.” Persius

  31. “Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day” Franklin

  32. “Indulge in procrastination, and in time you will come to this, that because a thing ought to be done, therefore you can’t do it.” Charles Buxton

  33. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  34. Procrastination isn’t the problem, it’s the solution. So procrastinate now, don’t put it off. Ellen DeGeneres

  35. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness; no laziness; no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Lord Chesterfield (1694 – 1773)

  36. My evil genius Procrastination has whispered me to tarry ’til a more convenient season. Mary Todd Lincoln (1818 – 1882)

  37. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  38. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  39. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  40. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he next comes to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Thomas De Quincey, Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts – 1827

  41. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness, no delay, no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Earl of Chesterfield

  42. Procrastination is the grave in which opportunity is buried. Author Unknown

Reference

  1. Wikipedia encyclopedia

  2. Wikiquote

  3. And Google search of various Quotations

  4. All Quotations search site

Person of Indian Origin outside India

Person of Indian Origin and

Non-resident Indian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.

  

A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian.[citation needed] In common usage, this often includes Indian born individuals (and also people of other nations with Indian blood) who have taken the citizenship of other countries.

A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) is usually a person of Indian origin who is not a citizen of India. For the purposes of issuing a PIO Card, the Indian government considers anyone of Indian origins up to four generations removed, to be a PIO. [1]. Spouses of people entitled to a PIO card in their own right can also carry PIO cards. This latter category includes foreign spouses of Indian nationals, regardless of ethnic origin. PIO Cards exempt holders from many restrictions applying to foreign nationals, such as visa and work permit requirements, along with certain other economic limitations.

The NRI and PIO population across the world is estimated at over 30 million (not including Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan or Roma diaspora).

The Indian government recently introduced the “Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI)” scheme in order to allow a limited form of dual citizenship to Indians, NRIs and PIOs for the first time since independence in 1947. It is expected that the PIO Card scheme will be phased out in coming years in favour of OCI.

Contents

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.

The Government of India recognizes the first week of January as the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (Hindi: Pravasi – Non-resident or diaspora, Bharatiya – Indian, Divas – day). The occasion is marked by special programs to recognize the contributions of NRI/PIO individuals of exceptional merit, felicitate NRI/PIO individuals who have made exceptional contribution in their chosen field/profession (Pravasi Bharatiya Samman (Hindi: NRI/PIO Award)) and provide a forum to discuss issues and concerns that people of the diaspora.

The event has been organized every year since 2003, and is sponsored by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs and the FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry). The 2005 edition was organized from 7th to 9th January in Mumbai.

 See also

Pravasi Bharatiya Samman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pravasi Bharatiya Samman is an award constituted by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs in conjunction with the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, to honor exceptional and meritorious contribution in their chosen field/profession. The award is given by the President of India. Please continue to read the detail in Wikipedia.

Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin

Total population
25 million
Regions with significant populations
Largest ethnic group
 United Arab Emirates 1,300,000
 Mauritius 855,000
 Trinidad and Tobago 525,000
 Guyana 327,000
 Suriname 175,000
Major ethnic group
 Nepal 4,000,000
 Malaysia 2,400,000
 Burma 2,000,000
 Saudi Arabia 1,500,000
 Kuwait 400,000
 Fiji 340,000
 Singapore 320,000
Minor ethnic group
 United States 2,200,000
 United Kingdom 1,400,000
 South Africa 1,160,000
 Canada 960,000
 Oman 450,000
 France 330,000 [1]
 Australia 235,000
 Netherlands 217,000
 New Zealand 105,000
 Philippines 80,000
 Germany 80,000
 Indonesia 60,000
 Jamaica 60,000
 Hong Kong 50,000
Language(s)
Indian languages, English
Religion(s)
Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism

Roots of Burmese Muslims

Roots of Burmese Muslims 

There is definitely direct spread of Islam to this part of the world and Burma/Myanmar directly from Arabia and Africa continent. But I hereby wish to stress on the one root or SEED OF ISLAM that came to Burma from India.

Islam began in Asia in the 7th century during the life of Muhammad. The greatest number of adherents of Islam has lived in Asia since the beginning of Islamic history.

Islam was started on the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad in the 7th century. Since then it began spreading rapidly. Till his death (in 632), Muhammad managed to unite the whole of the Arabian peninsular into one country with Islam as the official religion.  

Today most Muslims live in Asia. The majority of notable Muslim religious leaders are based in Asia. Asian countries with high Muslim population include: Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, India, Turkey, Russia, Yemen, Oman, and Qatar. One of the important 20th century figures that developed Islam was Muhammad Iqbal – a philosopher. Another important Asian Muslim was Abdullah Yusuf Ali, an Indian Muslim from Mumbai who translated the Qur’an to English. 

It is necessary for academic purpose because most of the Muslims in Myanmar are Sunni Muslims from the Hannafi sect. From the Bosnia, Kosovo, Albania, Turkey, Central Asia (break away countries from Russia), Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh most of the Muslims are from this same sect.  

Muslims from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei are from the Shafi sect of Sunni. Shafi sect is known to be spread by the sea route.  

In contrast to this, Hannafi sect is known to be spread by the land route. Arabs propagate Islam directly to the Central Asia and Turky.

The Mongols, e.g. Gin Ghist Khan, although they are Buddhists employed the Muslim Turks and Central Asians and cause the spread of Islam to this part of the world. In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

The conqueror U Tar Tars took over Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and they killed the millions of men and children and married those Muslim women left behind. Their new wives strangely converted them into Islam and they accepted the Islamic cultures. So this is the living proof of the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’.

And those Tar Tar/Turk descendents’ armies invaded Afghanistan, India subcontinent (future India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.) and established the Moghol Islamic Empire. So the Central Asia Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Yunan Chinese Muslims and Burma’s Chinese Muslims or Panthays and many of the Burmese Muslims are also their descendents. Even the Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia got Islam from those Chinese Muslims.

islam-by-country-smooth.png  Distribution of Islam per country.

Green represents a Sunni majority

and blue represents a Shia majority.  

 Today, Islam in Mongolia is mainly practiced by the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ölgii aimag in western Mongolia. The U.S. Department of State estimates that Muslims form 6% of the population, or roughly 150,000 people. 

When the Mongol Empire broke up into four khanates, three of the four khanates became Muslim. These were the Golden Horde, Hulagu’s Ulus and Chagatai’s Ulus. The Yuan Empire also embraced Muslim peoples such as the Uyghurs. Although the court of the Yuan Empire adopted Tibetan Buddhism as the official religion, the majority of the ordinary Mongols, especially those who continued living in Mongolia proper, remained Shamanists.  

In 1257, Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire’s forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu demanded surrender but the caliph refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, Baghdad was decimated. Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million. 

The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and The Grand Library of Baghdad, which contained countless, precious, historical documents. The city would never regain its status as major center of culture and influence. 

In 1401, warlord of Turco-Mongol descent Tamerlane (Timur Lenk) invaded Iraq. After the capture of Bagdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur. 

Timeline of Mongol invasions            

  1. 1205–1209 invasion of Western China            
  2. 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China            
  3. 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia (North eastern of Persia)            
  4. 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus (North and north western of Persia)            
  5. 1220–1224 of the Cumans            
  6. 1223–1236 invasion of Volga Bulgaria            
  7. 1231–1259 invasion of Korea  
  8. Mongol invasion of Europe            
  9. 1237–1242 invasion of Rus            
  10. 1241 invasion of Poland, Lithuania and Bohemia            
  11. 1241 invasion of Hungary            
  12. 1241 invasion of Austria and Northeast Italy            
  13. 1242 invasion of Serbia and Bulgaria            
  14. 1241-1244 invasion of Anatolia            
  15. 1251-1259 invasion of Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia            
  16. 1252-1472 Mongol military campaigns in Russia            
  17. 1257, 1284, 1287 invasions of Vietnam            
  18. 1258 invasion of Baghdad            
  19. 1258-1259 invasion of Galych-Volhynia            
  20. 1259 raid against Lithuania and Poland            
  21. 1264-1265 raid against Bulgaria and Thrace            
  22. 1274, 1281 invasions of Japan            
  23. 1274 raid against Bulgaria            
  24. 1275, 1277 raids against Lithuania            
  25. 1277 invasion of Myanmar            
  26. 1279 invasions of Southern China            
  27. 1281 invasion of Syria            
  28. 1285 invasion of Hungary            
  29. 1285 raid against Bulgaria            
  30. 1287 invasion of Myanmar            
  31. 1287 raid against Poland            
  32. 1293 invasion of Java            
  33. 1297, 1299 invasions of India            
  34. 1299 invasion of Syria            
  35. Mongol invasions of India(1222, 1241, 1257, 1292, 1298, 1306 and 1327)            
  36. Mongol invasion of Myanmar (1300)            
  37. 1303 Mongol invasion of Syria            
  38. 312 Mongol invasion of Syria  

Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time. At the time of Genghis Khan, virtually every religion had found converts, from Buddhism to Christianity and Manichaeanism to Islam.

To avoid strife, Genghis Khan set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, though he himself was a shamanist. Under his administration, all religious leaders were exempt from taxation, and from public service. Initially there were few formal places of worship, because of the nomadic lifestyle. However, under Ögedei, several building projects were undertaken in Karakorum. Along with palaces, Ogodei built houses of worship for the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Taoist followers. The dominant religion at that time was Shamanism and Buddhism, although Ogodei’s wife was a Christian. 

Turkic-Mongol military bands in Iran, after some years of chaos were united under the Saffavid tribe, under whom the modern Iranian nation took shape under the Shiite faith.

Meanwhile Mongol princes in Central Asia were content with Sunni orthodoxy with decentralized princedoms of the Chagatay, Timurid and Uzbek houses. 

In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal royal family of South Asia are also descended from Genghis Khan: Babur’s mother was a descendant — whereas his father was directly descended from Timur (Tamerlane).

At the time of Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the empire was divided among his four sons, with his third son as the supreme Khan, and by the 1350s, the khanates were in a state of fracture and had lost the order brought to them by Genghis Khan.

Eventually the separate khanates drifted away from each other, becoming the Il-Khans Dynasty based in Iran, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Yuan Dynasty in China, and what would become the Golden Horde in present day Russia. 

The Mughal Empire was an important imperial power in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries.

At the height of its power, around 1700, it controlled most of the subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 130 million, over a territory of over a billion acres (4 million km2) 

The classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Akbar the Great in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years. During this period, the Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period. 

Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol and was generally used to refer to the Central Asians who claimed descent from the Mongol warriors of Genghis Khan. The foundation for Mughal empire was established around 1504 by the Timurid prince Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, when he took control of Kabul and eastern regions of Khorasan controlling the fertile Sindh region and the lower valley of the Indus River. 

Babur’s son Humayun succeeded him in 1530 but suffered major reversals at the hands of the Pashtun Sher Shah Suri and effectively lost most of the fledgling empire. When the Afghans fell into disarray with the death of Sher Shah Suri, Humayun returned with a mixed army, raised more troops and managed to reconquer Delhi in 1555. Humayun conquered the central plateau around Delhi, he was killed in an accident and succeded by the son Akbar.

Akbar (1556 to 1605) succeeded his father on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah Suri for the reclamation of the Mughal throne. Thus, he was thrust onto the throne and soon recorded his first victory at the age of 13 or 14. Jahangir, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar and Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, ruled the empire from 1605–1627.

In October 1627, Shah Jahan, the son of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Rajput princess Manmati, succeeded to the throne, where he inherited a vast and rich empire in India; and at mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world. Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (1630–1653) in Agra as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth to their 14th child. By 1700 the empire reached its peak with major parts of present day India, 

After the invasion of Persia by the Mongol Empire, a regional Turko-Persio-Mongol dynasty formed. Just as eastern Mongol dynasties inter-married with locals and adopted the local religion of Buddhism and the Chinese culture, this group adopted the local religion of Islam and the Persian culture.

The first Mughal King, Babur, established the Mughal dynasty in regions spanning parts of present-day Pakistan and India. Upon invading this region, the Mughals inter-married with local royalty once again, creating a dynasty of combined Turko-Persian, and Mongol background. King Babur did this to create peace among the different religions in the region.

Despite preaching Islamic values himself, Babur focused on setting a good example for the Mughal Dynasty by emphasizing religious tolerance. The language of the court was Persian. The language spoken was Urdūn, which today has advanced into Urdu. Urdūn originated from Persio-Arabic formation, and took on various characteristics of Persian, Chagatai, and Arabic. Today, Urdu is the National Language of Pakistan and is spoken by most Indian Muslims. Religious orthodoxy would only play an important role during the reign of Aurangzeb Ālamgīr, a devout Muslim.

This last of the Great Mughals retracted some of the tolerant policies of his forbears. Under his reign the empire reached its greatest extent in terms of territorial gain and economic strength. I

slam first came into India in the province of Kerala during the lifetime of Prophet Mohammed himself. Prophet Mohammed is said to have sent messengers to the Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Heraclius, the Sassanian (Persian) Emperors Chosroes (Khushrau Parvez) and Yazdgard, and to the Kings of China and Kerala (in South India).

The Kings of China and Kerala are said to have received the messengers with great courtesy. King Cheraman of Chera dynasty of Kerala Voluntarily Converts to Islam in the 7th Century.  Tamerlane, a corruption of the name in Persian, Timur-i-Leng, meaning “Timur the Lame.”

The word Timur is Turkic for “iron”. He became the ruler of an empire that stretched from Delhi to Anatolia.  Timur was born in Kesh, fifty miles south of Samarkand) in 1336. His capture of Delhi in 1398 and became the Emperor of Hindustan. Samarkand, Timur’s royal city, celebrated its 2500th anniversary in 1970. It is an ancient site, located on the Zarafshan River, in modern-day Uzbekistan. 

BABUR, THE FIRST OF THE GREAT MOGHULS,was born on February 14, 1483 in Ferghana east of Samarkand. The name “Moghul” is a Persian variant of “Mongol”.  Emperor Babur (1483-1530), the founder of the great Mughal dynasty, was descended from both Genghis Khan and Timur. In 1504, Babur captured the Kabul, Afghan and India in 1524. Two years later, he defeated the Sultan of Delhi . Akbar (1542-1605) was the third and most famous Mughal emperor.  Babar established the Mughal dynasty which ruled from Delhi (and later from Agra) Between 1527 C.E. and 1690 C.E., the Mughals gradually expanded their hold over almost the whole of India. They ruled from 1527 up to 1857. The Mughal (and Muslim) rule was formally abolished by the British.  

The last Muslim Moghul Emperor of India, Abu Za’far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The Mongols themselves were assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and many of these descendants adopted local religions — for example, the eastern Khanates largely adopted Buddhism, and the western Khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi influence. The last Khan who was the ruler of South Asia, Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed by the British after the collapse of the 1857 uprising and exiled to Rangoon where he lies buried. His sons were killed by the British in Humayun’s tomb, the burial place of their ancestor in Delhi. He died there and was buried in Yangon (Rangoon) on 7.11.1862. Now his burial site became a minor diplomatic clash between India and Pakistan. Both of them want to control the site now famous as a shrine and even some of the Burmese Buddhists used to go and pray there because Za’far Shar, as they known, was regarded as a saint.  

The first Mughal emperor Babur wrote in the Bāburnāma:            

“Hindustan is a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful social intercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility or manliness. The arts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes, melons or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets. There are no baths and no madrasas. There are no candles, torches or candlesticks”. 

The Mughal period would see a more fruitful blending of Indian, Iranian and Central Asian artistic, intellectual and literary traditions than any other in Indian history. The Mughals had a taste for the fine things in life — for beautifully designed artifacts and the enjoyment and appreciation of cultural activities. The Mughals borrowed as much as they gave; both the Hindu and Muslim traditions of India were huge influences on their interpretation of culture and court style.  Nevertheless, they introduced many notable changes to Indian society and culture, including:

  1. Centralised government which brought together many smaller kingdoms
  2. Persian art and culture amalgamated with native Indian art and culture
  3. Started new trade routes to Arab and Turk lands, Islam was at its very high
  4. Mughlai cuisine
  5. Urdu and spoken Hindi languages were formed for common Muslims and Hindus respectively
  6. A new style of architecture
  7. Landscape gardening

300px-tajmahalbyamalmongia.jpg

A major Mughal contribution to south Asia was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built during the Mughal era including the Taj Mahal.

Acknowledgement 

Some data and photos from Wikipedia.

Myanmar Malay Muslims

 Myanmar Malay Muslims

or Pashus or Bajau or Selung, or Salone

 From the free encyclopedia

Wikipedia Talk page Adding facts about the Muslim- Moken or Pashu or Bajou after I added the following data into the main article_

In researching I have found part of the problem. Pashu is just the local name in Kawthaung for people of Malay ancestry. (My rebuttal- the whole Burma is using this name, any why was my Myanmar Malay Muslim article deleted?) It is also used to describe the mixed Malay-Burmese-Thai patois (so I am not wrong!)that many of them speak. Sometimes the word Pashu is also applied to the Moken as they are related to the Malays. (So erasing my article from Moken is also not totally right!) An example of usage is the local Kawthaung name for Pterocarpus indicus or pashu-padauk while in English it is sometimes called Malay padauk. Pashu has nothing to do with religion, (This is the outsiders hope and imigination. But almost all the Pashus are Muslims in Kawthaung) but that could be confusing since the Malay are more likely to be Muslim than the Burmese or Thai. —Bejnar (talk) 18:06, 9 January 2008 (UTC)

Many Burmese Moken, especially those staying on the mainland on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, have intermarried with local Burmese Muslims, Arabs and Indian seamen/traders. They are Muslims, and speak Burmese and a Malay dialect, with some of them holding Burma and Malaysian double citizenship.

In the southern tip of Myanmar in Myeik district of Taninthayi Division, a sizable number of Pashu (Bajou) people have lived since time immemorial. They are of the Malay race.

They speak Malay and some of their elderly members can read Jawi, Malay language written in Arabic Script. (Modern Malay is also written in Roman Script). Concentrated in Bokpyin township and villages around it and many sprawling islands in the Bay of Bengal, they learn a livelihood through fishing, pearl diving, agriculture and various trades.

They speak Myanmar with a strong Myeik ( Beik ) accent, and many can talk in Bahasa Melayu also. They have commercial links with south Thailand and north Malaysia. In Kawthaung the southernmost town of Myanmar, across Ranong in south Thailand , there are many mosques, including a large Pashu mosque. There are some Pashus who have intermarried with other Burmese Muslims and some of their youths have taken up modern Myanmar education.[7]

 

 

 

REFERENCE ^ Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He gives me this newspaper photocopy with the permission for reproduction and circulation consent duly signed. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon. He cited or referred to the, “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar.

Some of the original contributors may like to see Moken remain as primitive non Muslims and repeatedly erased my contributions without even giving the reasons. Please just look at the Bajou in Malaysia and Indonesia. They are Muslims and are same as Myanmar/Burmese Pashus (Bajou) and mostly found in Johore, Batang Island Indonesia, Sarawak (East Malaysia) and Singapore. I have given a very good reference and also got the consent to republish anywhere, as written below.

So please may you kindly do not try to erase these facts about Burmese Malay Muslims, well known as Pashu or Bajou.

If they are the separate different Ethnic Minority from MOKEN,, why do you all merged my Burmese Malay Muslims article into this article?Or if you think Burmese Malay Muslim Pashus are totally different from Moken, kindly put back my article seperating from this merged one.

Please see Bajauin Wiki. Who authorize my article to merge and later edited out or erase the Burme Malay Muslim? Even Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma. And we call the whole Peninsular as Pashu Kyun Swe meaning Pashu Peninsular. —Darz kkg (talk) —Darz kkg (talk) 14:07, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He gives me this newspaper photocopy with the permission for reproduction and circulation consent duly signed. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon. He cited or referred to the, “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar. (Written by me)

Which ethnolinguistic group are you speaking about, which you believe is not covered adequately at Wikipedia? It is a bit difficult to follow you. There is no Pashu or Bajou ethnic group listed at List of ethnic groups in Burma. Badagnani (talk) 02:33, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

My rebuttal_

Those Pashu Muslims of Burma are really there and I had given referral duly. Viz_

A. Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon.

B. “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar

C. We don’t care about the ethnic group listed at List of ethnic groups in Burma, as the

  1. Panthays or Burmese Chinese Muslims
  2. and Rohingya Muslims

are not officially recorded there but WE ALL ARE THERE IN BURMA to stay forever whether SPDC Military Junta and you all experts in Anthropology recognize us or not.

Anyway, the real issue here is, my article was merged in this article.

May be (I may be wrong) Myanmar Pashus are Moken converted into Islam. Some inter-married with local Burmese Muslims, Arab and Indian Muslim sailors and traders.

Please read the Wiki article, Bajau. Although not mentioned in Wiki Bajau, Myanmar Pashus could be related to them. May you kindly allow me to repeat my words above_

Even Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma.

But as some of the ancient Myanmar/Burmese used to call the Malays as Pashu, it may refer possibly to Malay but now we all call Malay a Malay.

  1. The Bajau, (also written as Badjao, Badjaw or Badjau) are an indigenous ethnic group the Philippines and in parts of Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak.
  2. many Bajau had migrated to neighbouring Malaysia . . .
  3. They were sometimes referred to as the Sea Gypsies,
  4. although the term has been used to encompass a number of non-related ethnic groups with similar traditional lifestyles,
  5. Bajau is a collective term, used to describe several closely related indigenous groups.
  6. The origin of the word Bajau is not clear cut.
  7. Although it is generally accepted that these groups of people can be termed Bajau, these groups never call themselves Bajau.
  8. They call themselves with the names of their tribes that are mostly the names of the places of their origins.
  9. They accept the term because they realise that they share some vocabulary and general genetic characteristic such as in having darker skin,
  10. For most of their history, the Bajau have been a nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing.
  11. They kept close to shore by erecting houses on stilts, and traveled using lepa-lepa, handmade boats which many lived in.
  12. The many Bajau sub-groups vary culturally and linguistically, but are unified through their adherence to Sunni Islam of the Shafi’i school.
  13. Commonly, many sub-groups of Bajau are named after the place or island they live-in for many years.
  14. Eventhough, they are called Bajau, each sub-groups has they own unique language, cultures and tradition.
  15. However, certain sub-groups are able to understand the languages of other sub-groups and races.
  16. Claims to religious piety and learning are an important source of individual prestige among the coastal Bajau, and the title of salip/sarip (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad) are shown special honour in the local community.
  17. The Ubian Bajau, due to their nomadic marine lifestyle, are much less adherent to orthodox Islam, and practice more of a folk hybrid, revering local sea spirits, known in Islamic terminology as Jinn.
  18. Many Bajaus of the east coast retain their seaborne lifestyle, together with remnants of traditional pre-Islamic beliefs.
  19. Among the boat-dwellers in particular, community spirit mediums are consulted at least once a year for a public séance and nightly trance dancing.
  20. In times of epidemics, the mediums are also called upon to remove illness causing spirits from the community.
  21. They do this by setting a “spirit boat” adrift in the open sea beyond the village or anchorage.

 

As I am not an expert, please kindly decide the fate of Myanmar Muslim Pashus (sorry some may hate to read as another sub-group of Myanmar Muslim).

Are they still related to Moken? Bajau? Or non existent ghosts people?

But you could not close the eyes and refuse to accept that there is no such people there in Myanmar.

Whether they are recognized as Ethnic group or not, they are there.No one could cleanse them (and all the different groups of Muslims of Myanmar) out of Myanmar. Issue of recognization as the different ethnolinguistic group is for your academic paper work but we all are in Myanmar whether you recognize or not. And Wiki must record some where, even if you wish to record us as illegal mix-blooded people, echoing the dictator General Ne Win.

There are three groups of Bajau according to the New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper published in early 90’s. I copied and recorded the facts but was quite ignorant to note down the date and author.

These three groups of Bajau are_

  1. The Moken and the related Moklen group.
  2. Orang Laut (Sea People).
  3. Bajau Laut.

Myanmar citizens of Malays are the Moken and the related Moklen group. They are found in the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar and the islands of south western part of Thailand.

One of the other two subtypes are the Orang Laut (Sea People) are seen in Riau-Lingga Archipelago, Batam, Eastern Sumatera of Indonesia and Southern Johore of Malaysia.

The last group is the Bajau Laut, largest of all groups, live in Sulu Archipelago of the Philippines, eastern Bornio, Sulawesi and islands of eastern Indonesia.

Pashu in Myanmar is likely to be the corrupted word (or a different slang) in Myanmar language from- Bajau. That Bajau tribe is the largest Muslim indigenous group in Sabah (East Malaysia). They are known as Sea Gypsies or Sea Nomads.

Malays in Myanmar or (called Pashu of Burma), are almost same as but a little bit different from the Malays in Southern Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines and Indonesia.

So the Pashu Muslims of Myanmar are likely to be from the Muslim-Moken and are related to Moklen group of Bajau.

So what should we do?

  1. Shift the whole Moken article under Bajau? Not appropriate as some Moken are non Muslims and Bajau are all Muslims. (See Wiki. Anthropologists should argue there that the religion should not create a new race. )
  2. Then is it appropriate to merge Moken into Bajau?
  3. Or need to take out Myanmar Pashu Muslims from this Moken article and put under Bajau article?
  4. Or just reinstate my original article Myanmar Malay Muslims or Pashu article merged here and ERASED?

To sumup the above, evidences of Burmese Malay Muslims or Pashu in Myanmar are_

  1. Letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007.
  2. Maung-Ko Ghaffari was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon, wrote that and given me the consent to republish.
  3. “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar.
  4. Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma.
  5. Ancient Myanmar/Burmese used to call the Malays as Pashu, it may refer possibly to Malay but now we all call Malay a Malay.
  6. In the Glass Palace Chronicle, official history of Burma, there is the story of Alaunsithu, grandson of Kyansittha (Second Burmese King in History). Reported to had arrived Pashu/Malaya. One of the spectator child fell into the sea, drowned and saved by a sailor of Alaunsithu. (I will search back the book and give the reference page later.)
  7. Kin Won Min Gyi, the Minister of our last king, Thibaw, went to Europe through Malaya and recorded the appearances, culture, dressings of PASHUS. (I will search and give the references later)
  8. The New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper published in early 90’s about Bajau, which I recorded above. It may be difficult to trace back.
  9. And another article written by Datuk Kadir Jasin, Chief Editor of The New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper, after he followed the PM Tun Dr Mahathier’s first visit to Burma/Myanmar.He wrote about the Muslims in Burma, including these Pashu Malays of Burma and even mentioned about early arrival of Islam in Burma starting from Byat Wi, Byatta, Shwe Phyin brothers etc. (Datuk Kadir Jasin later became the Malaysia Government news agency, Bernama’s chief and now retired.)–Darz kkg (talk) 16:58, 7 January 2008 (UTC)
The following is an old revision of this page, as edited by me at 17:15, April 29, 2007. It  differ significantly from the current revision because some of the editors are stubborn and edited as they like erasing all of my postings in this article. But Alhamdulillah, I was able to protect my other Islam/Myanmar articles_

Articles I have authored, started or expanded on Wikipedia.

  1. Islam in Myanmar
  2. Talk:Islam in Myanmar
  3. Burmese Indians
  4. Talk:Burmese Indians
  5. Panthay
  6. Burmese Chinese
  7. Myanmar Indian Muslims
  8. Famous Burmese Muslims renamed List of Burmese Muslims
  9. Ba Shin
  10. Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar
  11. History of arrival of Islam in Burma/Myanmar
  12. Burma Muslim Congress
  13. Burmese Malay Muslims
  14. U Shwe Yoe

Moken children near Surin Island, Thailand

 

 

 

Moken children near Surin Island, Thailand

A boat of Moken

 

 

 

A boat of Moken

The Moken (Mawken or Morgan), are an Austronesian ethnic group with about 2,000 to 3,000 members who maintain a nomadic, sea-based culture. Their Malayic, or proto-Malay language is distinct from the surrounding Malayan languages.

Nomenclature

The Moken refer to themselves as Moken. The name is used for all of the proto-Malayan speaking tribes who inhabit the coast and islands in the Andaman Sea on the west coast of Thailand, the provinces of Satun, Trang. Krabi, Phuket, Phang Nga, and Ranong, up through the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar (Burma). The group includes the Moken proper, the Moklen (Moklem), the Orang Sireh (Betel-leaf people) and the Orang Lanta. The last, the Orang Lanta are a hybridized group formed when the Malay people settled the Lanta islands where the proto-Malay Orang Sireh had been living.

The Burmese call the Moken, Selung, or Salone or Chalome.[1] In Thailand they are called Chao Ley (people of the sea) or Chao nam (people of the water). Although these terms are used loosely to include the Urak Lawoi and even the Orang Laut. Thai word is: มอแกน. In Thailand, acculturated Moken are called Thai Mai (new Thais).

The Moken are also called Sea Gypsies, a generic term that applies to a number of peoples in southeast Asia. The Urak Lawoi are sometimes classified with the Moken, but they are linguistically and ethnologically distinct, being much more closely related to the Malay people.[2][3]

Lifestyle

Their knowledge of the sea enables them to live off its organisms by using simple tools such as nets and spears to forage for food. What is not consumed is dried atop their boats, then used for trade at local markets for other necessities. During the monsoon season, they build additional boats while occupying temporary huts.

Some of the Burmese Moken are still nomadic people who roam the sea most of their lives in small hand-crafted wooden boats called Kabang, which serve not just as transportation, but also as kitchen, bedroom, living area. Unfortunately much of their traditional life, which is built on the premise of life as outsiders, is under threat and appears to be diminishing.

Some of the Burmese pure Moken are still nomadic people who roam the sea most of their lives in small hand-crafted wooden boats called Kabang, which serve not just as transportation, but also as kitchen, bedroom, living area. Unfortunately much of their traditional life, which is built on the premise of life as outsiders, is under threat and appears to be diminishing.

Because of the amount of time spent diving for food, Moken children have accommodated their visual focus to see better underwater.[4][5]

But many Burmese Moken, especially those staying on shore on the mainland, that is on the west coast of Malay Peninsula intermarried with local Burmese Muslims, Arab and Indian seamen/traders. They are Muslims and speak Burmese and a Malay dialect. And some of them are holding Myanmar and Malaysia double citizenships although that practice is not accepted by both goverments. If those Malay descendants (Muslims) want to migrate back to Malaysia, there was even a special scheme to accept them back in 70’s. Many of them had relatives in Kedah and some in other northern states of Malaysia.

The first Muslims had landed in Myanmar (Burma’s) Tanintharyi coast as seamen in ninth century. [6] The dawn of the Muslim settlements and the propagation of Islam was widely documented by the Arab, Persian, European and Chinese travelers of Ninth century.[7]

The current population of Myanmar Muslims are the descendants of Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moors, Indian-Muslims and Malays who settled and intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups. [8][9]

Muslims arrived in Burma as travelers, adventurers, pioneers, sailors, traders,[10]Military Personals (voluntary and mercenary)[11], and some were reported to have taken refuge from wars, Monsoon storms and weather, shipwreck [12]and for a number of other circumstances. but many of them are professionals and skilled personals serving at various ranks of administration whilst others are port-authorities and mayors and traditional medicine men.[13]

In the chronicles of Malaysia, during the first Melacca Empire of Parameswara in the early fifteenth century, it was recorded the Burmese (Muslims) sailors and traders were regularly arriving there. [1] Those Bago (Pegu) seamen, likely to be Muslims, were also recorded by the Arab Historians of tenth century. During fifteen to seventeen centuries, there were a lot of records of Burmese Muslim traders, sailors and settlers on the whole coast of Burma. That was from Arakan coast (Rakhine), Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast (Including all the islands along the whole coast).[14] During Peik Thaung Min (early Bagan dynasty, 652-660 AD), Arab travelers from Madagascar to China through East Indian Islands, visited Thaton and Martaban ports. It was recorded in Arab chronicles in 800 AD. [15]

In seventeenth century, those Muslims controlled the business and became so powerful because of their wealth. They were even appointed as Governor of Mergui, the Viceroy of the Province of Tenasserim, Port Authorities, Port Governors and Shah-bandars (senior port officials).[16] [17] [18]

Muslim sailors built many mosques, but those should be more appropriately called Temples as they were equally holy to Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Chinese. They were called Buddermokan,The so called Buddermokan on Sittway island is claimed by believers of different faiths. … ‘Buddermokan’ [19][20][21] in memory to Badral-Din Awliya, a saint. They are found in Akyab, Sandoway and on a small island off Mergyi. [22]

So Malays in Myanmar (called Salon or Pa Shu), are almost same as but a little bit different from the Malays in Southern Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines and Indonesia. Pa Shu in Myanmar is likely to be the corrupted word (or a different slang) in Myanmar language from- Bajau. That Bajau tribe is the largest Muslim indigenous group in Sabah (East Malaysia). From the three groups of Bajau these Myanmar citizens of Malays are the Moken and the related Moklen group. They are mostly found in the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar and the whole of the Tanintharyi coast.

Governmental control

The Burmese and Thai governments have made attempts at assimilating the people into their own culture, but these efforts have met with limited success. Thai Moken have been permanently settled in villages located in the Surin Islands (Mu Ko Surin National Park[23]), in Phuket Province, on the northwestern coast of Phuket Island, and on the nearby Phi Phi islands of Krabi province.[24]

The Andaman Sea off the Tenasserim coast was the subject of keen scrutiny from Burma’s regime during the 1990s due to offshore petroleum discoveries by multinational corporations including Unocal, Petronas and others. Reports from the late 1990s told of forced relocation by Burma’s military regime of the ‘Sea Gypsies’ to on-land sites. It was claimed most of the Salone had been relocated by 1997, which is consistent with a pervasive pattern of forced relocation of suspect ethnic, economic and political groups, conducted throughout Burma during the 1990s.

2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The islands where the Moken live received much media attention in 2005 during the Southeast Asia Tsunami recovery, where hundreds of thousands of lives were lost in the disaster. As they are keenly aware of the sea, the Moken in some areas knew the tsunami that struck on December 26, 2004 was coming,[25] and managed to preserve many lives.

However in the coastal villages of Phang Nga Province, such as Tap Tawan, the Moken suffered severe devastation to housing and fishing boats in common with other Moken communities.[26]

References

  1. ^ Anderson, John (1890) The Selungs of the Mergui Archipelago Trübner & Co., London, pp. 1-5

  2. ^ Classification of Urak Lawoi language

  3. ^ Urak Lawoi of the Adang Archipelago, Tarutao National Marine Park, Satun Province, Thailand by Dr. Supin Wongbusarakum December 2005

  4. ^ Gislén, Anna (May 13, 2003) “Superior Underwater Vision in a Human Population of Sea Gypsies” Current Biology 13(10): pp. 833-836;

  5. ^ Travis, J. (May 17, 2003) “Children of Sea See Clearly Underwater” Science News 163(20): pp. 308-309;

  6. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, first line.

  7. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, line 5,6,9

  8. ^ ibid page 6, line 25,26&27.

  9. ^ Pathi U Ko Ko Lay’s lecture 1973, Islamic Religious Library Magazine

  10. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,,page9, paraaph 4.

  11. ^ ibid, page10,line 7,8&9.

  12. ^ ibid page 2, paragraph 3, line 1,2&3.

  13. ^ ibid page 30, whole page.

  14. ^ ibid page 2, 2nd. paragraph, line 1,2 &3.

  15. ^ Various notable facts in Myanmar History, in Burmese, by U Kyi BA History Honours. Page 156, 157.

  16. ^ ibid

  17. ^ Maurice Collis, Simese White(London Faber and faber, 1936. page 40.

  18. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 5, line 22 to 27

  19. ^ Sir Richard C. Temple, Buddermokan, JBRS,XV, pt 1 (1925)1-33

  20. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 8 1st. paragraph

  21. ^ A. Journal of the Burma Research Society 15: 1-33. the coast from Assam to Malay with the curious mosques known as Buddermokan reverenced by the Buddhists and China-men as well as Mahomedans. B. Arakan Rajsabhay Bangala Sahitya(1600 – 1700 AD)Bengali Literature in the Kings’ Court of ArakanBy Dr. Muhammad Enamul Huq (M.A., Ph. D) and Sahitya-sagar Abdul Karim Sahitya Visarad Translated from Bengali by: Mating Sein Pru [www.rakhapura.com/ScholarsColumn/Bengali_Literature_in_the_Kings_Court_of_Arakan.asp]

  22. ^ ibid

  23. ^ “Mu Ko Surin National Park” National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok, Thailand;

  24. ^ Bauerlein, Monika (November 2005) “Sea change: they outsmarted the tsunami, but Thailand’s sea gypsies could be swept away by an even greater force” Mother Jones 30(6): pp. 56-61;

  25. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/18/60minutes/main681558.shtml “Sea Gypsies See Signs In The Waves” 60 Minutes CBS News, 25 December 2005];

  26. ^ Jones, Mark (6 May 2005) “Thailand’s fisherfolk rebuild after tsunami” Reuters also from Web Archive

External links

Moken

A language of Myanmar

ISO 639-3: mwt

Population 7,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone).
Region Mergui Archipelago, Dung, and other islands in south Myanmar. Also spoken in Thailand.
Alternate names   Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko’
Dialects Dung, Ja-It, L’be. Closest to Moklen. Related to Urak Lawoi.
Classification Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Moklen
Language development NT: 2002.
Comments They live primarily on boats, but occasionally settle on islands in the area. SVO. Islands. Tropical forest. Sea level. Fishermen: marine products. Traditional religion, Muslim.

Also spoken in:

Thailand

Language name   Moken
Region West coast of south Thailand, Phuket, Phangnga, Krabi, Ranong.
Alternate names   Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko’
Dialects Dung, Ja-It, L’be.
Comments They live primarily on boats, but occasionally settle on islands in the area. Fishermen. Traditional religion, Muslim.
 

Entries from the SIL Bibliography about this language:

Academic Publications

Amon Thavisak. 2001. “The effects of glottal finals on pitch in Southeast Asian languages.”

Pittayaporn, Pittayawat . 2006. “When words erode: Moken trisyllabic syncopation and PAn stress.”

Selung/Moken

ETHNONYMS: The names used by and for nomadic boat people typically refer to the people’s connections with the sea. “Moken” (Mawken, Maw khen) is the name people living around the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar (Burma) use to identify themselves. Originating from a Moken story, the name means “drowned people” or “people of the drowning,” maw or l’maw (drowning, to dip), o’en-ken abbreviated to oke’n (“salt water”), according to Bernatzik and to White. Anderson mentions people calling themselves Manoot (menut or manut, people) Ta’au (teau or t’ow, sea) or “people of the sea.” Similar terms for “people” are found in Thailand (chao) and Malaysia (orang) with words for “sea” (Thai le; Malay laut) or “water” (Thai nam); hence Thais call Moken “Chao Nam” or “Chao Le” and Malays use “Orang Laut.” The meaning and etymology of the Burmese name Salon, Selon, Selong, Selung, or Silung is not clear; it may derive from the Thai-Malay placename Salang (Thalang) Phuket, where Moken may have lived. Other names for Moken are associated with sociopolitical status, geography, and environment; these include “Orang Rayat” (Malay, “subject”) or “Rayat Laut” (“the sea subjects”), “Orang Pesukuan” (“people divided into clans”), and “Bajau” (Bugis, “subject”), a term denoting sea people of north Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago (often equated with pirates). Local groups may take the name of geographic places where they live (e.g., Orang Barok, for Baruk Bay, on the island on Singkep).

 

See also Bajau; Samal; Sea Nomads of the Andaman

BARBARA S. NOWAK