Farewell friend, Sai Htee Sai

Farewell friend, Sai Htee Sai

saihteesaing.jpg

By

Sit Mone

This blogger was shocked to read the news of demise of Burmese talented singer Sai Htee Sai in Mizzima news.

Ko Htee…

We were brought up as a generation

Who loved to listen and play your songs

Yours were natural and simple

Easy to understand while leaving all of us with the message

That went straight into our heart

Your songs were like the work of a wizard

Together with perfect match of lyrics

You were a talented star

With a distinctive voice..

That we called the “power” of voice..

Which was special gift for you from heaven

That’s why

When we were happy, we have sung your songs

When we were sad, we have sung your songs

When we failed exams, we have sung your songs

When we passed exams, we have sung your songs

When our friends were left by girlfriends, we have sung your songs

When our friends get nods from their loved ones, we have sung your songs

Now we seldom sing songs as all of us are not in a mood to sing any songs

However….

Whenever we miss Burma, we are still singing your songs…

And from now on … people will continue singing your songs

As you have left your legacy..your songs are Modern Classics of Burma..

May Ko Htee’s soul rest in peace

Sit Mone

(This blogger does not forget to mention the wonderful work of great composer Dr Sai Kham Laik for creating most of Ko Htee’s songs from this insignificant blog)

Burmese Chinese

  Burmese Chinese

The Burmese Chinese or Chinese Burmese are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Burma (Myanmar).

Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population, this figure may be underestimated because of _

  1. intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar,
  2. and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to declare themselves as Bamar when applying for birth certificate or national identification card).

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. dominate the Burmese economy,
  2. have a disproportionately high percentage of the educated class.

Generally, the Burmese Chinese in Lower Burma fall into three main groups:

  1. Burmese called eingyi shay, or let shay lit. long-sleeved shirts to Hokkien and Hakkas from Fujian Province
  2.  Burmese called eingyi to, or let to lit. short-sleeved shirts to Cantonese and Hakka   from Guangdong Province
  3. So Burmese sometimes called zaka, lit. mid-length sleeve to all the Hakka  from Fujian and Guangdong provinces.
  4. But Hakkas are further subdivided into those with
  5. ancestry from Fujian Province, called ein-gyi shay ha-ka
  6. and Guangdong Province, eingyi to haka respectively.

The Hokkien and Cantonese comprise 45% of the ethnic Chinese population.

The groups have different stereotypical associations.

  1. The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese,
  2. the Hokkiens are generally wealthier,
  3. occupying high positions in the economy,
  4. and having connections to the government.

In Upper Burma and Shan Hills,

  1. the Panthay
  2. and Kokang, are speakers of a Mandarin dialect of the Southwestern Mandarin branch, most akin to Yunnanese.

Combined, they form 21% of Burmese Chinese.

Kokang are_

  1. mountain-dwellers
  2. and farmers
  3. classified as a part of the Shan national race, although they have no linguistic or genetic affinity to the Tai-Kadai-speaking Shan.

Muslim Panthay_

  1. are considered as separate local nationalities
  2. rather than a Chinese diaspora community.

The Tayoke kabya of mixed Chinese and indigenous Burmese parentage.

  1. The kabya (Burmese: mixed heritage) have a tendency to follow the customs of the Chinese more than of the Burmese.
  2. Indeed those that follow Burmese customs are absorbed into and largely indistinguishable from the mainstream Burmese society.
  3. A large portion of Burmese is thought to have some kabya blood,
  4. because immigrants could acquire Burmese citizenship through intermarriage with the indigenous Burmese peoples.

Culture

Politics

Now, we see the Muslims and Indians participating in the monks led peoples protesting. However, the Chinese seem to be curiously missing – in shape or form – within the context of the current protests.

Are they against the current protests or in support of the protests? Or simply indifferent to any of this since they already have a stronghold over Burma’s economy and anything that takes attention away from them would be positive?

Either way, the bigger question here is not a question of why aren’t the Chinese involved in these protest rather when will the Chinese get involved. The bottom line is why do the minorities, specifically the Chinese and the so called Indians or Muslims, continue to feel disenfranchised?

Language

  1. Most Burmese Chinese typically speak Burmese as their mother tongue.
  2. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin
  3. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin and/or English.
  4. Some modern educated use English.
  5. Some use, Chinese dialects/languages.
    • Hokkien is mostly used in Yangon as well as in Lower Burma,
    • while Taishan Cantonese and
    • Yunnanese Mandarin are well preserved in Upper Burma.

Conditions of Chinese-language schools_

  1. General Ne Win’s (1962-1988) banned on the Chinese-language schools caused a decline of Mandarin speakers.
  2. Chinese schools are growing again nowadays because of the increase in investors and businessmen from Mainland China and Taiwan, who uses Standard Mandarin,

Religion

Most Burmese Chinese practice_

  1. Theravada Buddhism,
  2. incorporating some Mahayana Buddhist
  3. and Taoist beliefs,
    • such as the worship of Kuan Yin.
    • Chinese New Year celebrations,
    • as well as other Chinese festivals, are subdued and held privately.
    • Clan associations are often the only places where the Chinese culture is retained.

The Panthay or Chinese Muslims practice Islam.

Education

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. place a high importance on education,
  2. a disproportionate big share with advanced (medical, engineering or doctorate) degrees. (SOA’s note: it is partly because Muslims are labeled Kala and denied the place for postgraduate educations. The Chinese not only escaped that kind of discrimination but they got the special privileges given by the Chinese blooded political, military and education authorities.)
  3. The number would be higher still had it not been for the longstanding ban on those without Burmese citizenship from pursuing advanced degrees.
  4. Nowadays, many wealthy Burmese Chinese send their children overseas for further studies especially in US, UK, Canada, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Names

The Burmese Chinese have_

  1. Burmese names
  2. and many also have Chinese names.

Names in various Chinese dialects are roughly transliterated into the Burmese.

  1. For example, a person named ‘Khin Aung’ may have the Chinese name of 慶豐 (pinyin: Qìngfēng), with ‘慶’ (pinyin: qìng) corresponding to ‘Khin’, and ‘豐’ (pinyin: fēng) corresponding to ‘Aung’.
  2. However, variations of transcription do exist (between dialects),
  3. and some Burmese Chinese do not choose to adopt similar-sounding Burmese and Chinese names.
  4. Because the Burmese lack surnames, many Burmese Chinese tend to pass on portions of their given names to future generations, for the purpose of denoting lineage.

According to publications of Longsei Tang, a clan association based in Yangon, the ten most common Chinese surnames in Yangon are:

  1. Li (李)
  2. Peng (彭)
  3. Shi (時)
  4. Dong (董)
  5. Min (閔)
  6. Niu (牛)
  7. Bian (邊)
  8. Xin (辛)
  9. Guan (關)
  10. Tsui/Hsu(徐)

Cuisine

The Burmese Chinese cuisine is based on Chinese cuisine, particularly from

  1. Fujian,
  2. Guangdong
  3. and Yunnan provinces, with local influences.
  4. Spices such as turmeric and chili are commonly used.
    • Pauk si
    • Bhè kin
    • Igyakway
    • Htamin kyaw
    • La mont
    • Mewswan
    • San-byoat
    • Panthay khaukswè
    • Sigyet khaukswè

History

  1. The earliest records of Chinese migration were in the Song and Ming dynasties.
  2. In the 1700s, Ming Dynasty princes settled in Kokang (the northern part of Burma).
  3. Chinese traders, however, traveled up to the capital city, northern towns on the Irrawaddy such as Bhamo.
  4. There was a Chinese community at Amarapura.
  5. Another wave of immigration occurred in the 1800s under the British rule.
  6. They came to Burma via Malaysia.
  7. When the Chinese Communists expelled the Kuomintang, many fled to Burma and Thailand over the borders of Yunnan Province.
  8. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan; those who managed to stay prospered.
  9. The Chinese dominate the highly lucrative rice and gem industries.
  10. Many became merchants and traders owning both wholesale and retail businesses.
  11. The northern region of Burma has seen an influx of mainland Chinese immigrant workers, black market traders and gamblers.
  12. In the Kachin State, which borders China in three directions, Mandarin Chinese is the lingua franca.

 They integrated well into Burmese society because they, like the Bamar,

  1. were of Sino-Tibetan stock
  2. and were Buddhists,

Their success_

  1. is reflected in the Burmese saying, “Earn like the Chinese, save like the Indian, and don’t waste money like the Bamar”.
  2. They got the nickname pauk hpaw (lit. sibling).
  3. During the 1950s, Burma was one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China as a nation.

However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens.

  1. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards (FRC), which declared that they were citizens of China.
  2. A similar discrimination policy was set up for Indians.

In 1962, Ne Win led a coup d’état and declared himself head of state. Although a kabya himself, he banned Chinese-language education, and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave.

  1. Ne Win’s government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China.
  2. When Ne Win implemented the “Burmese Way to Socialism”, a plan to nationalize all industries, the livelihoods of many entrepreneurial Chinese were destroyed and some 100,000 Chinese left the country.
  3. All schools were nationalized, including Chinese-language schools.

 Beginning in 1967 and continuing throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government.

  1. Many Burmese Chinese left the country during Ne Win’s rule, largely because of a failing economy and widespread discrimination.
  2. The first government-sponsored racial riots to take place in Burma was in 1967, during General Ne Win’s rule. In the riots, the general populace went on a killing spree because of sedition and instigation against the Chinese by various government departments.
  3. The massacre lasted for about five consecutive days, during which thousands of Chinese died or were left dying in the streets of Rangoon. Some of the Chinese were thrown alive from the second and third floors of buildings in downtown Rangoon. The dead and wounded Chinese were hauled up unceremoniously and dumped onto army trucks and taken to ‘htauk kyan’ incinerators and the ‘carcasses’ were sent up in smoke.
  4. That showed the true bestial and cruel side of the character of the ruling Burma Military Junta. The only “crime” the Chinese committed was the wearing of Chairman Mao’s badges on their shirts.
  5. Latha Secondary School was torched by the henchmen of General Ne Win’s government, where school girls were burnt alive.
  6. Chinese shops were looted and set on fire.
  7. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation, scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice.

Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of_

  1. Yangon,
  2. Mandalay,
  3. Taunggyi,
  4. Bago, and their surrounding areas.
  5. According to Global Witness, 30 to 40% of Mandalay’s population consists of ethnic Chinese.
  6. Although there are Chinatowns (tayoke tan) in the major cities, the Chinese are widely dispersed.

Notable Burmese Chinese

  1. Aung Gyi leading army dissident and Ne Win’s former deputy/co-conspirator in the 1962 coup
  2. Aw Boon Haw (Hakka) – Inventor of Tiger Balm
  3. Aw Boon Par (Hakka) – Brother of Aw Boon Haw
  4. Eike Htun (Kokang) – Managing director of Olympic Construction Co. and deputy chairman of Asia Wealth Bank, two large conglomerates in Burma
  5. Khun Sa (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  6. Khin Nyunt – Former Prime Minister (2003-2004) and Chief of Intelligence (1983-2004) of Myanmar
  7. Lo Hsing Han (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  8. Steven Law (also known as Tun Myint Naing; Kokang) – Managing director of Asia World Company, a major Burmese conglomerate and son of Lo Hsing Han
  9. Ne Win (Hakka) – Leader of Burma from 1960s to 1980s
  10. San Yu (Hakka) – President of Burma in the 1980s
  11. Serge Pun – Proprietor of Yoma Bank, a major banking chain in Myanmar and chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co. Ltd (FMI), one of Myanmar’s leading investment companies
  12. Taw Sein Ko (Hokkien) – eminent Director of Archaeology (1901-1915)
  13. Thakin Ba Thein Tin – Communist leader from the 1970s to the 1990s
  14. Maung Aye – Vice chairman of SPDC and Chief of Staff of Armed Forces
  15. Major General Kat Sein – former Minister of Health
  16. Dr. Kyaw Myint – Present Minister of Health
  17. Myo Thant – Former Minister of Information under SLORC
  18. Colonel Tan Yu Sai – Minister of Trade under Ne Win’s government
  19. Colonel Kyi Maung– NLD member (1989-2004) and Army Commander of Rangoon in 1960s
  20. U Thaung – Minister of Labour & Technical Science, Retired Legion and Ambassador
  21. Lun Thi – Minister of Energy
  22. Thein Sein – First Secretary of SPDC
  23. Kyaw Ba – General Formal Minister of Hotel and Tourism

Reference

Wikipedia

What’s up China?

What’s up China?

When compare to our other good neighbour, India, you are so cruel on all the countries in South East Asia, including Burma.

You had kicked out or forced out or pushed out almost all the ethnic groups of South East Asia including all the ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar and the Bama people’s ancestors. After that you shamelessly bully all of us again by following to our new home land and asked for the protection money or ransom money.

See your neighbour India, it had given the great religions, Hindu, Buddhism and Islam to all the nations of South East Asia including Burma.

India had given culture, arts, literature etc to all of us, including Burma/ Myanmar.

India had just fought two wars in the whole history on our South East Asia. ( We leave behind three wars with China and wars in South Asia.)

( What’s up is an informal question meaning, depending on situation and emphasis: “what are you doing”, “how are you?”, “what is happening” or “what gives.” It is sometimes used as an informal, casual greeting in itself.)

Now I wish to ask China to repent and pay back the the historical debts instead the present shameful stance of its hindrance in  our current struggle  for the democratization movements against SPDC Junta. China is actively supporting this pariah Junta and protecting this régime in the UNSC.

Please red my article in Burma Digest, C.C.C.C. or C4 ,Communist Chinese Colonialist’s Cruelties with MAHA BANDULA pseudonym to know about the China.

If we look at the China’s long history of aggressive behaviour on its own citizens, neighbours and the world, it is quite alarming. The world must do something to protect itself from this big bully instead of closing one eye to get the big economic opportunity by supporting its one China policy and undemocratic unruly bullying on its neighbours and on its own citizens.

If we look at the history of South East Asia, including almost all of our ethnic minorities of Burma/Myanmar, almost all of us had to migrate down and out of China because of the violent, aggressive Chinese new comers that pushed or forced all of us out.

Later after settling in the new home land, Chinese Kings tried to continue their bully by demanding to pay tributes regularly. Not only Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Laos but far away countries like, Philippines, Taiwan, Indonesia, Bengal, Europe, Mecca and Medina are also not spared.

And during the late 60’s and 70’s, just because General Ne Win massacred the Burmese Chinese in the anti-Chinese Riots, they supported the Burmese Communist Party with 100,000 Chinese Red army troops, disguised as Wa rebels.

According to the Burmese language, Peking radio reports, 100,000 Chinese soldiers deserted with full ammunition and joined forces with them. So, the so called, Wa Ethnic Minorities, who could not even speak or understand a word in Burmese, became full citizen now. They could easily get the Myanmar National Registration Cards and many of them even managed to get the Myanmar Passports.

Just look at the various groups of Burmese Muslims’ dilemma in getting the National Registration Cards and Passports. And our cousin brothers, Rohingyas are unfairly discriminated.

Is that because our skin are darker than Chinese?

Is that because our nose are sharper than Chinese?

Is that because we are Muslims and could not assimilate thoroughly like Chinese who could assimilate easily?

Is that because the Burmese girls need not convert if they marry the Chinese?

Although PURE Chinese Nationals who disguised as ‘Myanmar Ethnic Minority’ Wa could grease the hands of Myanmar local and national authorities, just because they-are not-Indian factor and because of their Chinese features paved their way easily.

But anyway please look back the history of South East Asia, India. [We all are not Indians but anyway Burmese Muslims are called Kalas/Indian (people of the Indian sub-continent) mixed blooded people.]

Except for the South India dynasty of Chola’s attack on Indonesia’s Srivijaya and Moghul  King Aurangzeb, attacked the Arakan once only. His elder brother Shah Shuja’ was the second son of the Mogul Emperor Shah Jahan who built the famous Taj Mahal of India. Shah Shuja’ lost to his brother and fled with his family and army in to Arakan. Sandathudama (1652-1687 AD), the Arakan King accepted and allow him to settle there but later arrested and killed. Although Aurangzeb was the enemy of the Shah Shuja’, he was upset by the massacre and attacked Arakan.

India and China shaped the present South East Asia, and the Colonial masters polished into the present finished products.

Indianized kingdoms

The concept of the Indianized kingdom, first described by George Coedès, is based upon the Hindu, Buddhist and Islamic cultural and economic influences in Southeast Asia.

Ancient and classical kingdoms

Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China.

The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories.

The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia.

Examples are the Ayutthaya Kingdom, based on the Chao Phraya River delta and the Khmer Empire on the Tonle Sap.

The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Malacca and Srivijaya were maritime states. A succession of trading systems dominated the trade between China and India.

First goods were shipped through Funan to the Isthmus of Kra, portaged across the narrow , and then transhipped for India and points west.

Around the sixth century CE merchants began sailing to Srivijaya where goods were transhipped directly. The limits of technology and contrary winds during parts of the year made it difficult for the ships of the time to proceed directly from the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea.

The third system involved direct trade between the Indian and Chinese coasts. Several kingdoms developed on the mainland, initially in modern-day Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam.

The first dominant power to arise in the archipelago was Srivijaya in Sumatra. Very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the second century BCE onwards.

• Prior to the 13th century, Buddhism and Hinduism were the main religions in Southeast Asia.

• The Jawa Dwipa Hindu kingdom in Java and Sumatra existed around 200 BCE.

• The history of the Malay-speaking world begins with the advent of Indian influence, which dates back to at least the 3rd century BC. Indian traders came to the archipelago for its forest and maritime products and to trade with merchants from China.

• Cambodia was first influenced by Hinduism during the beginning of the Funan kingdom. Hinduism was one of the Khmer Empire’s official religions.

• Cambodia is the home to one of the only two temples dedicated to Brahma in the world. Angkor Wat is also a famous Hindu temple of Cambodia.

• The Majapahit Empire was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500. Its ruler Hayam Wuruk, (1350 to 1389) dominated other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali and the Philippines.

• The Cholas excelled in maritime activity in both military and the mercantile fields. Their raids of Kedah and the Srivijaya, and they influence the local cultures.

• Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout the Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built.

• Despite being culturally akin to Hindu cultures to western historians these kingdoms were truly indigenous and independent of India.

• States such as Srivijaya and the Khmer empire developed territories and economies that rivalled those in India itself.

• Borobudur, for example, is the largest Buddhist monument ever built. Southeast Asian rulers were founders of these states_

• and then imported the Indian ritual specialists as advisers on raja dharma, or the practices of Indian kingship.

• The Indianized kingdoms developed a close affinity

• and internalised Indian religious, cultural and economic practices without significant direct input from Indian rulers themselves.

• Indianization was the work of Indian traders and merchants, although later the travels of Buddhist monks such as Atisha became important. Southeast Asian rulers enthusiastically adopted elements of raja dharma,

• (Hindu and Buddhist beliefs, codes and court practices)

• to legitimate their own rule • and constructed cities, such as Angkor,

• to affirm royal power by reproducing a map of sacred space derived from the Ramayana and Mahabharata.

• Southeast Asian rulers frequently adopted lengthy Sanskrit titles

• and founded cities, such as Ayutthaya in Thailand, named after those in the Indian epics.

• Most Indianized kingdoms combined both Hindu and Buddhist beliefs and practices in a syncretic manner.

• Kertanagara, the last king of Singhasari, described himself as Sivabuddha, a simultaneous incarnation of the Hindu god and the Buddha.

• Also a significant part of the current population in South East Asia has a trace of Indian ancestry from distant antiquity. Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures These kingdoms prospered from the Spice Route, trade among themselves and the Indian kingdoms.

• The influence of Indian culture is visible in the script, grammar, religious observances, festivities, architecture and artistic idioms even today.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures blended with native cultures, created a new synthesis. The Southeast Asian region was previously called by the name Indochina.

• The influence of Indian and Chinese cultures are both strongly visible in this region even today, with the majority of the region being Indianized and Vietnam Sinocized.

• The reception of Hinduism and Buddhism aided the civilization maturity of these kingdoms but also subjected them to aggression by Indian and Chinese rulers.

• Cultural practices like the performances of the Hindu epic, the Ramayana across all of Southeast Asia.

• Traces of Hindu culture are visible also in the Sanskrit etymology of words in Myanmar language, Malay language, Indonesian and other regional languages as well as personal names. The Chinese ruled Vietnam for a millennium, while the Chola dynasty of South India ruled over Srivijaya briefly.

• And though Southeast Asia is an economic powerhouse in its own right, the need to balance Chinese economic and political influence with that of India remains an important factor for the region.

• Cultural and trading relations between the powerful Chola kingdom of South India and the South East Asian Hindu kingdoms, led the Bay of Bengal to be called “The Chola Lake”

• and the Chola attacks on Srivijaya in the tenth century CE are the sole example of military attacks by Indian rulers against Southeast Asia. The Pala dynasty of Bengal, which controlled the heartland of Buddhist India maintained close economic, cultural and religious ties, particularly with Srivijaya.

• The subsequent arrival of Islam, by Arab traders,

• and Christianity, by Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch colonial rulers significantly weakened the connection with India.

• Chinese influence grew with the gradual migration of Chinese traders and merchants. Chinese influence dominated in Vietnam, although other states such as the Khmer empire and Malacca were drawn into Chna’s diplomatic orbit.

• While Buddhism remains the dominant religion in mainland Southeast Asia,

• Hinduism survives in Bali and

• Christianity is the dominant religion in the Philippines and eastern Indonesia.

The History of Burma (or Myanmar) is long and complex.

Several races of people have lived in the region, the oldest of which are probably the Mon or the Pyu. In the 9th century the Bamar (Burman) people migrated from the then China-Tibet border region into the valley of the Ayeyarwady, and now form the governing majority.

‘Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans’.

Though there is ‘scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race’, nevertheless, Burma’s proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have ‘an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation’, resulting in some historians proclaiming that ‘Myanmars were descendants of Aryans’.

The history of the region comprises complexities not only within the country but also with its neighbouring countries, China, India, Bangladesh, Viet Nam, Laos and Thailand.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.

Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as_

1. weddings

2. and ear-piercings

3. but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival. Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.

1. Early history of Burma Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. The Mon probably began migrating into the area in about 3000 BC, and their first kingdom Suwarnabhumi (pronounced Suvanna Bhoum), was founded around the port of Thaton in about 300 BC.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC, though definitely by the 2nd century BC when they received an envoy of monks from Ashoka. Much of the Mon’s written records have been destroyed through wars. The Mons blended Indian and Mon cultures together in a hybrid of the two civilisations.

By the mid-9th century, they had come to dominate all of southern Myanmar. From that time, Northern Burma was a group of city-states in a loose coalition.

The ‘King’ of each city-state would change allegiance as he saw fit, so throughout history.

1. Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) another came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

(i) One came down from above like

Shan, (ii) and another from India , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Talaings originated from the Talingana village of India and arrived to lower  Burma , met and intermarried with Mons, who came down from Yunnan, spreads through Burma up to Thailand, Laos and Kambodia.

They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc.. Our  Burmese spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language.

But our Burmese writing language was from India, Brami Script we took not from our native Mon but her cousin Mons resided in Thailand.

Settlements of Indian Migrants in Ancient Burma Orissa

Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

Andhra Dynasty Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

Talaings or Mons Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. Mon

Early History of Burma_

Humans lived in the region that is now Burma as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Pyu although both Burman and Mon tradition claim that the fabled Suvarnabhumi mentioned in ancient Pali and Sanskrit texts was a Mon kingdom centred on Thaton in present day Mon state.

The 6th century Mon kingdom of Dvaravati in the lower Chao Phraya valley in present day Thailand extended its frontiers to the Tenasserim Yoma (mountains). With subjugation by the Khmer Empire from Angkor in the 11th century the Mon shifted further west deeper into present day Burma.

Oral tradition suggests that they had contact with Buddhism via seafaring as early as the 3rd century BC and had received an envoy of monks from Ashoka in the 2nd century BC.

The Mons adopted Indian culture together with Theravada Buddhism and are thought to have founded kingdoms in Lower Burma including Thaton in the 6th or 7th century and Bago (Pegu) in 825 with the kingdom of Raman’n’adesa (or Ramanna which is believed to be Thaton) referenced by Arab geographers in 844–8.

The lack of archaeological evidence for this may in part be due to the focus of excavation work predominantly being in Upper Burma.

The first recorded kingdom that can undisputedly be attributed to the Mon people was Dvaravati, which prospered until around 1000 AD when their capital was sacked by the Khmer Empire and most of the inhabitants fled west to present-day Burma and eventually founded new kingdoms. These, too, eventually came under pressure from new ethnic groups arriving from the north.

Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. About the same period, southward-migrating Burmans took over lands in central Myanmar once dominated by Pyu city-states and the Tai started trickling into South-East Asia.

The Burman ( Bamar ) established the kingdom of Bagan. In 1057, Bagan defeated the Mon kingdom, capturing the Mon capital of Thaton and carrying off 30,000 Mon captives to Bagan.

After the fall of Bagan to the invading Mongols in 1287, the Mon, under Wareru an ethnic Tai, regained their independence and captured Martaban and Bago, thus virtually controlling their previously held territory.

Mon kingdoms A main body of ethnic Shan / Tai migration came in the 13th century after the fall of the Kingdom of Dali to the Mongol Empire and filled the void left by the fall of the Bagan kingdom in northern Burma forming a loose coalition of city-states. These successive waves of Bamar and Tai groups slowly eroded the Mon kingdoms, and the next 200 years witnessed incessant warfare between the Mon and the Burmese, but the Mon managed to retain their independence until 1539. The last independent Mon kingdom fell to the Burmese when Alaungpaya razed Bago in 1757. Many of the Mon were killed, while others fled to Thailand.

Hanthawaddy (or Hanthawady; in Thai หงสาวดี Hongsawadi) is a place in Burma. Hongsawatoi ( Bago/Pegu/ Handawaddy ) Hongsawatoi, Capital city of old Mon kingdom. It was destroyed by Burman King, U Aungzeya or Aloungpaya in 1757. Hongsawatoi ( Mon language pronounce) (Pali Hamsavati) Bago is about 50 miles from Rangoon. According to legend, two Mon princess from Thaton founded Bago in 573 AD.

It was written in the chronicles that eight years after enlightenment, Lord Buddha along with his disciples went air-borne around Southeast Asian countries. The earliest mention of this city in history is by the Arab geographer Ibn Khudadhbin around 850 AD. At the time, the Mon capital had shifted to Thaton. The area came under rule of the Burmese from Bagan in 1056. After the collapse of Bagan to the Mongols in 1287, the Mon regained their independence. From 1369-1539, Hanthawaddy was the capital of the Mon Kingdom of Ramanadesa, which covered all of what is now lower Burma.

The area came under Burman control again in 1539, when it was annexed by King Tabinshweti to his Kingdom of Taungoo. The kings of Taungoo made Bago their royal capital from 1539-1599 and again in 1613-1634, and used it as a base for repeated invasions of Siam.

They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues). The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history.

It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani.

PYU

The Pyu arrived in Burma in the 1st century BC and established city kingdoms at Binnaka, Mongamo, Sri Ksetra, Peikthanomyo, Halingyi (Hanlin), Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west. During this period, Burma was part of an overland trade route from China to India.

In 97 and 121, Roman ambassadors to China chose the overland route through Burma for their journey.

The Pyu, however, provided an alternative route down the Irrawaddy to Shri Ksetra and then by sea westward to India and eastward to insular Southeast Asia.

Pyu (also Pyuu or Pyus; in Chinese records Pyao) refers to a collection of city-states and their language found in the central and northern regions of modern-day Burma (Myanmar) from about 100 BCE to 840 CE.

The history of the Pyu is known from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some Chinese travellers and traders, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.

India and Arakan Intercourse

Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras “The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties.

In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali (Indian name of Vaisali).

This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism,

• … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;

• … Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal

• … Both government and people were Indian.

• It seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D.

• Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years.

The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra. Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD.

Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD.

1. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word,

2. “Tsit-ta-gung”

3. meaning “there shall be no war”.

4. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.

Chittagong under Arakanese rule Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD

Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

Pyu

Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups;

(i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group. Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine.

The famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD.

1. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D.

2. and Mon from 5th century A.D.

3. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D. Beikthano (Vishnu) Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD. (Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura.

Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship.

There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as ‘Vishnu City’.

Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

Pyu Kings are Maharajas

In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul..

• There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese.

• Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

• Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD.

• In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu. Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.

• On Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC. and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia.

• Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left.

• And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found.

• Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.

• The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so‘ far to be excavated in that area.

Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa

In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).

The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers.

In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events.

Thamala and Wimala.

Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.

The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan ‘was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.

Chinese trade Chinese merchants have traded with the region for a long time as evidence of Magellan’s voyage records that Brunei possessed more cannon than the European ships so it appears that the Chinese fortified them.

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Han Li Po to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan.

Han Li Po’s well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote “He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice”.

The following is a list of tributaries of Imperial China.

• Brunei

• o Malacca (满剌加 / 馬六甲) 拜里米苏拉

• Indonesia[citation needed]

o Java

o Lanfang Republic

• Japan

o Wa[3] (also Wae, Wei, 倭)

o Nippon (日本)

• Korea

• Philippines[10]

o Manila

o Sulu (蘇祿)

• Thailand[3]

o Siam 邏羅

• Bhutan 不丹

• Nepal 尼伯爾

o Karakum (喀喇庫木)

o Yuli (also Weili, 尉犁)

o Kushana (also Kuşāņa, Guishuang, 貴霜)

o Boluo’er (博羅爾)

• Vietnam[3]

o Âu Lạc (甌雒, 甌貉)

o Champa (also Chiêm Thành, Lin-yi, 林邑, 占城)

• Korea (since 1369, first every year or every three years, after 1403 every year)

• Nippon (日本)

• Liuqiu (Ryukyu Islands, every two years since 1368)

• Annam (every three years since 1369) • Cambodia (Chenla, since 1371 (?))

• Siam (every three years since 1371)

• Champa (every three years since 1369)

• Java (1372, 1381, 1404, 1407, every three years for some time after 1443)

• Pahang (1378, 1414)

• Palembang (1368, 1371, 1373, 1375, 1377)

• Brunei (1371, 1405, 1408, 1414, 1425)

• Samudra (on Sumatra (?)or Dvarasamudra in Southern India, 1383, 1405, 1407, 1431, 1435)

• Chola (1370, 1372, 1403)

• Sulu (1417, 1421)

• Calicut (1405, 1407, 1409)

• Malacca (1405, 1411, 1412, 1414, 1424, 1434, 1445ff, 1459)

• Borneo (SoLo?) (1406)

• Kollam (1407)

• Bengal (1408, 1414, 1438)

• Ceylon (1411, 1412, 1445, 1459)

• Jaunpur (1420)

• Syria (Fulin?, 1371)

• Cochin (1404, 1412)

• Melinde (1414)

• Philippines (1372, 1405, 1576)

• Maldives,

• Burma (YaWa),

Lambri (NanWuLi),

• Kelatan,

• Bengal (PengJiaNa),

• Kashgar

Sairam

• SaoLan (identical to Sairam?)

• Badakhshan

• Bukhara(?)

• PaLa(?)

• Shiraz

• Nishapur

• Kashmir

• Samarkand (1387, 1389, 1391 etc, after 1523 every five years)

Arabia (TienFang, Mecca?) (somewhere between 1426 and 1435, 1517, sometimes between 1522 and 1566)

Medina (somewhere between 1426 and 1435)

• A number of Tibetan temples and tribes from the Tibetan border or the southwest. Qing Dynasty This list covers states that sent tribute between 1662 and 1875.

Korea (annually, with very few exceptions)

Siam (48 times, most of them after 1780)

• Burma (17 times, most of them in the 19th century)

• Laos (17 times)

• Sulu (1726, 1733, 1743, 1747, 1752, 1753, and 1754)

• Nepal (1732(?), 1792, 1794, 1795, 1823, 1842, and 1865)

• Russia (1676 and 1727)

• England (1793, 1795 (no tribute presented), and 1816)

• Holland (1663(?), 1667, and 1686)

• Portugal (1670, 1678, 1752, and 1753)

Holy See (1725)

• Kirgiz (1757 and 1758)

Europeans

Europeans first came to Southeast Asia in the sixteenth century. It was the lure of trade that brought Europeans to Southeast Asia while missionaries also tagged along the ships as they hoped to spread Christianity into the region.

Portugal was the first European power to establish a bridgehead into the lucrative Southeast Asia trade route with the conquest of the Sultanate of Malacca in 1511.

The Netherlands and Spain followed and soon superseded Portugal as the main European powers in the region.

The Dutch took over Malacca from the Portuguese in 1641 while Spain began to colonize the Philippines (named after Phillip II of Spain) from 1560s.

Acting through the Dutch East India Company, the Dutch established the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) as a base for trading and expansion into the other parts of Java and the surrounding territory.

Britain, in the form of the British East India Company, came relatively late onto the scene.

Starting with Penang, the British began to expand their Southeast Asian empire.

They also temporarily possessed Dutch territories during the Napoleonic Wars,

In 1819 Stamford Raffles established Singapore as a key trading post for Britain in their rivalry with the Dutch. However, their rivalry cooled in 1824 when an Anglo-Dutch treaty demarcated their respective interests in Southeast Asia.

From the 1850s onwards, the pace of colonization shifted to a significantly higher gear. This phenomenon, denoted New Imperialism, saw the conquest of nearly all Southeast Asian territories by the colonial powers.

The Dutch East India Company and British East India Company were dissolved by their respective governments, who took over the direct administration of the colonies.

Only Thailand was spared the experience of foreign rule, although, Thailand itself was also greatly affected by the power politics of the Western powers.

  1. By 1913, the British occupied Burma, Malaya and the Borneo territories,
  2. the French controlled Indochina,
  3. the Dutch ruled the Netherlands East Indies
  4. while Portugal managed to hold on to Portuguese Timor.
  5. In the Philippines, Filipino revolutionaries declared independence from Spain in 1898
  6. but was handed over to the United States despite protests as a result of the Spanish-American War.

Colonial rule had a profound effect on Southeast Asia.

  1. While the colonial powers profited much from the region’s vast resources and large market,
  2. colonial rule did develop the region to a varying extent.

Commercial agriculture, mining and an export based economy developed rapidly during this period.

Increased labor demand resulted in mass immigration, especially from British India and China, which brought about massive demographic change.

The institutions for a modern nation state like a state bureaucracy, courts of law, print media and to a smaller extent, modern education, sowed the seeds of the fledgling nationalist movements in the colonial territories.

Reference

Wikipedia

 

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

of time

Procrastination

Procrastination is a type of avoidance behaviour which is characterised by deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite procrastination as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.

For the person procrastinating this may result in stress, a sense of guilt, the loss of personal productivity, the creation of crisis and the disapproval of others for not fulfilling one’s responsibilities or commitments. While it is normal for individuals to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological or physiological disorder.

The word itself comes from the Latin word procrastinatus: pro- (forward) and crastinus (of tomorrow). The term’s first known appearance was in Edward Hall’s Chronicle (The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancestre and Yorke), first published sometime before 1548.[2] The sermon reflected procrastination’s connection at the time to task avoidance or delay, volition or will, and sin.

Causes of procrastination

Psychological

The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth and a self-defeating mentality. Procrastinators are also thought to have a higher-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the “dreams and wishes” of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential.

Author David Allen brings up two major psychological causes of procrastination at work and in life which are related to anxiety, not laziness.[citation needed] The first category comprises things too small to worry about, tasks that are an annoying interruption in the flow of things, and for which there are low-impact workarounds; an example might be organizing a messy room. The second category comprises things too big to control, tasks that a person might fear, or for which the implications might have a great impact on a person’s life; an example might be the adult children of a deteriorating senior parent deciding what living arrangement would be best.

A person might unconsciously overestimate or underestimate the scale of a task if procrastination has become a habit.

From the behavioral psychology point of view, James Mazur has said that procrastination is a particular case of “impulsiveness” as opposed to self control.[citation needed] Mazur states that procrastination occurs because of a temporal discounting of a punisher, as it happens with the temporal discount for a reinforcer. Procrastination, then, as Mazur says, happens when a choice has to be made between a later larger task and a sooner small task; as the absolute value of the task gets discounted by the time, a subject tends to choose the later large task.

Physiological

Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex. This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual’s ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe’s role in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common. [3]

Procrastination and mental health

Procrastination can be a persistent and debilitating disorder in some people, causing significant psychological disability and dysfunction. These individuals may actually be suffering from an underlying mental health problem such as depression or ADHD.While procrastination is a behavioral condition, these underlying mental health disorders can be treated with medication and/or therapy. Therapy can be a useful tool in helping an individual learn new behaviors, overcome fears and anxieties, and achieve an improved quality of life. Thus it is important for people who chronically struggle with debilitating procrastination to see a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.

Severe procrastination can cross over into internet addiction or computer addiction. In this instance the individual has a compulsion to avoid reality by surfing the web or playing video games (game addiction) or looking at online pornography (pornography addiction). Although these are relatively new phenomena, they are being considered as psychiatric diagnoses by mental health professionals.

Perfectionism

Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one’s own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one’s abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and workaholism. Slaney (1996) found that adaptive perfectionists were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety).[4]

Academic procrastination

While academic procrastination is not a special type of procrastination, procrastination is thought to be particularly prevalent in the academic setting[citation needed], where students are required to meet deadlines for assignments and tests in an environment full of events and activities which compete for the students’ time and attention. More specifically, a 1992 study showed that “52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination”[5].Some students struggle with procrastination due to a lack of time management or study skills, stress, or feeling overwhelmed with their work.[

Quotations on procrastination

  1.  ”I’ll stop procrastinating, I swear… Starting on Monday.” — Frikkin Ninja

  2. “You can read this one later!” – Evrim

  3. “If it weren’t for the last minute, I wouldn’t get anything done.” — Anon

  4. “I think a lot of the basis of the open source movement comes from procrastinating students…” — Andrew Tridgell (Article)

  5. “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” — Douglas Adams

  6. “Waiting is a trap. There will always be reasons to wait – The truth is, there are only two things in life, reasons and results, and reasons simply don’t count.” — Robert Anthony

  7. “We don’t have anything as urgent as mañana in Ireland.” — Stuart Banks

  8. “A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.” — Alyce P. Cornyn-Selby

  9. “Procrastination: Hard work often pays off after time, but laziness always pays off now.” — Larry Kersten

  10. “Anyone can do any amount of work provided it isn’t the work he’s supposed to be doing at the moment.” — Robert Benchley

  11. “Procrastination is the art of waiting.” — Procrastination help

  12. “Procrastination is like masturbation, It’s fun until you realize you just screwed yourself”–Anonymous

  13. “Only Robinson Crusoe had everything done by Friday.” — Author Unknown

  14. “Procrastinate now, don’t put it off.” — Ellen DeGeneres

  15. “Procrastination is the thief of time.” — Edward Young

  16. “You can procrastinate later.” — kanzure

  17. “Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday.” — Don Marquis

  18. “Procrastination is my sin. It brings me naught but sorrow. I know that I should stop it. In fact, I will–tomorrow!” — Gloria Pitzer

  19. “Procrastination will kill us all if it ever gets around to it.” — Anon

  20. “Time you enjoy wasting isn’t wasted time.” — Bertrand Russell

  21. “Procrastination is the key to flexibility” — Anon

  22. Between saying and doing many a pair of shoes is worn out. ~ Italian Proverb

  23. One of these days is none of these days. ~ English

  24. “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.” — Mark Twain

  25. “Telling someone who procrastinates to buy a weekly planner is like telling someone with chronic depression to just cheer up.” — Joseph Ferrari

  26. “Faith in to-morrow, instead of Christ, is Satan’s nurse for man’s perdition.” Rev. Dr. Cheever

  27. “To be always intending to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it; this is as if a man should put off eating and drinking and sleeping from one day and night to another, till he is starved and destroyed.” Tillotson

  28. ‘By the streets of “By and By” one arrives at the house of “Never.”‘ Cervantes

  29. “By one delay after another they spin out their whole lives, till there’s no more future left for them.” L’Estrange

  30. “For Yesterday was once To-morrow.” Persius

  31. “Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day” Franklin

  32. “Indulge in procrastination, and in time you will come to this, that because a thing ought to be done, therefore you can’t do it.” Charles Buxton

  33. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  34. Procrastination isn’t the problem, it’s the solution. So procrastinate now, don’t put it off. Ellen DeGeneres

  35. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness; no laziness; no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Lord Chesterfield (1694 – 1773)

  36. My evil genius Procrastination has whispered me to tarry ’til a more convenient season. Mary Todd Lincoln (1818 – 1882)

  37. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  38. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  39. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  40. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he next comes to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Thomas De Quincey, Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts – 1827

  41. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness, no delay, no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Earl of Chesterfield

  42. Procrastination is the grave in which opportunity is buried. Author Unknown

Reference

  1. Wikipedia encyclopedia

  2. Wikiquote

  3. And Google search of various Quotations

  4. All Quotations search site

Person of Indian Origin outside India

Person of Indian Origin and

Non-resident Indian

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.

  

A non-resident Indian (NRI) is an Indian citizen who has migrated to another country, a person of Indian origin who is born outside India, or a person of Indian origin who resides outside India. Other terms with the same meaning are overseas Indian and expatriate Indian.[citation needed] In common usage, this often includes Indian born individuals (and also people of other nations with Indian blood) who have taken the citizenship of other countries.

A Person of Indian Origin (PIO) is usually a person of Indian origin who is not a citizen of India. For the purposes of issuing a PIO Card, the Indian government considers anyone of Indian origins up to four generations removed, to be a PIO. [1]. Spouses of people entitled to a PIO card in their own right can also carry PIO cards. This latter category includes foreign spouses of Indian nationals, regardless of ethnic origin. PIO Cards exempt holders from many restrictions applying to foreign nationals, such as visa and work permit requirements, along with certain other economic limitations.

The NRI and PIO population across the world is estimated at over 30 million (not including Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Sri Lankan or Roma diaspora).

The Indian government recently introduced the “Overseas Citizenship of India (OCI)” scheme in order to allow a limited form of dual citizenship to Indians, NRIs and PIOs for the first time since independence in 1947. It is expected that the PIO Card scheme will be phased out in coming years in favour of OCI.

Contents

Pravasi Bharatiya Divas

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Please continue to read the full detail in Wikipedia.

The Government of India recognizes the first week of January as the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas (Hindi: Pravasi – Non-resident or diaspora, Bharatiya – Indian, Divas – day). The occasion is marked by special programs to recognize the contributions of NRI/PIO individuals of exceptional merit, felicitate NRI/PIO individuals who have made exceptional contribution in their chosen field/profession (Pravasi Bharatiya Samman (Hindi: NRI/PIO Award)) and provide a forum to discuss issues and concerns that people of the diaspora.

The event has been organized every year since 2003, and is sponsored by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs and the FICCI (Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry). The 2005 edition was organized from 7th to 9th January in Mumbai.

 See also

Pravasi Bharatiya Samman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Pravasi Bharatiya Samman is an award constituted by the Ministry of Overseas Indian Affairs in conjunction with the Pravasi Bharatiya Divas, to honor exceptional and meritorious contribution in their chosen field/profession. The award is given by the President of India. Please continue to read the detail in Wikipedia.

Non-resident Indian and Person of Indian Origin

Total population
25 million
Regions with significant populations
Largest ethnic group
 United Arab Emirates 1,300,000
 Mauritius 855,000
 Trinidad and Tobago 525,000
 Guyana 327,000
 Suriname 175,000
Major ethnic group
 Nepal 4,000,000
 Malaysia 2,400,000
 Burma 2,000,000
 Saudi Arabia 1,500,000
 Kuwait 400,000
 Fiji 340,000
 Singapore 320,000
Minor ethnic group
 United States 2,200,000
 United Kingdom 1,400,000
 South Africa 1,160,000
 Canada 960,000
 Oman 450,000
 France 330,000 [1]
 Australia 235,000
 Netherlands 217,000
 New Zealand 105,000
 Philippines 80,000
 Germany 80,000
 Indonesia 60,000
 Jamaica 60,000
 Hong Kong 50,000
Language(s)
Indian languages, English
Religion(s)
Hinduism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism

Roots of Burmese Muslims

Roots of Burmese Muslims 

There is definitely direct spread of Islam to this part of the world and Burma/Myanmar directly from Arabia and Africa continent. But I hereby wish to stress on the one root or SEED OF ISLAM that came to Burma from India.

Islam began in Asia in the 7th century during the life of Muhammad. The greatest number of adherents of Islam has lived in Asia since the beginning of Islamic history.

Islam was started on the Arabian Peninsula by Muhammad in the 7th century. Since then it began spreading rapidly. Till his death (in 632), Muhammad managed to unite the whole of the Arabian peninsular into one country with Islam as the official religion.  

Today most Muslims live in Asia. The majority of notable Muslim religious leaders are based in Asia. Asian countries with high Muslim population include: Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Kuwait, India, Turkey, Russia, Yemen, Oman, and Qatar. One of the important 20th century figures that developed Islam was Muhammad Iqbal – a philosopher. Another important Asian Muslim was Abdullah Yusuf Ali, an Indian Muslim from Mumbai who translated the Qur’an to English. 

It is necessary for academic purpose because most of the Muslims in Myanmar are Sunni Muslims from the Hannafi sect. From the Bosnia, Kosovo, Albania, Turkey, Central Asia (break away countries from Russia), Afghanistan, China, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh most of the Muslims are from this same sect.  

Muslims from Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore and Brunei are from the Shafi sect of Sunni. Shafi sect is known to be spread by the sea route.  

In contrast to this, Hannafi sect is known to be spread by the land route. Arabs propagate Islam directly to the Central Asia and Turky.

The Mongols, e.g. Gin Ghist Khan, although they are Buddhists employed the Muslim Turks and Central Asians and cause the spread of Islam to this part of the world. In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

The conqueror U Tar Tars took over Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and they killed the millions of men and children and married those Muslim women left behind. Their new wives strangely converted them into Islam and they accepted the Islamic cultures. So this is the living proof of the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’.

And those Tar Tar/Turk descendents’ armies invaded Afghanistan, India subcontinent (future India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.) and established the Moghol Islamic Empire. So the Central Asia Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Yunan Chinese Muslims and Burma’s Chinese Muslims or Panthays and many of the Burmese Muslims are also their descendents. Even the Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia got Islam from those Chinese Muslims.

islam-by-country-smooth.png  Distribution of Islam per country.

Green represents a Sunni majority

and blue represents a Shia majority.  

 Today, Islam in Mongolia is mainly practiced by the Kazakhs of Bayan-Ölgii aimag in western Mongolia. The U.S. Department of State estimates that Muslims form 6% of the population, or roughly 150,000 people. 

When the Mongol Empire broke up into four khanates, three of the four khanates became Muslim. These were the Golden Horde, Hulagu’s Ulus and Chagatai’s Ulus. The Yuan Empire also embraced Muslim peoples such as the Uyghurs. Although the court of the Yuan Empire adopted Tibetan Buddhism as the official religion, the majority of the ordinary Mongols, especially those who continued living in Mongolia proper, remained Shamanists.  

In 1257, Hulagu Khan amassed an unusually large army, a significant portion of the Mongol Empire’s forces, for the purpose of conquering Baghdad. When they arrived at the Islamic capital, Hulagu demanded surrender but the caliph refused. This angered Hulagu, and, consistent with Mongol strategy of discouraging resistance, Baghdad was decimated. Estimates of the number of dead range from 200,000 to a million. 

The Mongols destroyed the Abbasid Caliphate and The Grand Library of Baghdad, which contained countless, precious, historical documents. The city would never regain its status as major center of culture and influence. 

In 1401, warlord of Turco-Mongol descent Tamerlane (Timur Lenk) invaded Iraq. After the capture of Bagdad, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him (many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur. 

Timeline of Mongol invasions            

  1. 1205–1209 invasion of Western China            
  2. 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China            
  3. 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia (North eastern of Persia)            
  4. 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus (North and north western of Persia)            
  5. 1220–1224 of the Cumans            
  6. 1223–1236 invasion of Volga Bulgaria            
  7. 1231–1259 invasion of Korea  
  8. Mongol invasion of Europe            
  9. 1237–1242 invasion of Rus            
  10. 1241 invasion of Poland, Lithuania and Bohemia            
  11. 1241 invasion of Hungary            
  12. 1241 invasion of Austria and Northeast Italy            
  13. 1242 invasion of Serbia and Bulgaria            
  14. 1241-1244 invasion of Anatolia            
  15. 1251-1259 invasion of Persia, Syria and Mesopotamia            
  16. 1252-1472 Mongol military campaigns in Russia            
  17. 1257, 1284, 1287 invasions of Vietnam            
  18. 1258 invasion of Baghdad            
  19. 1258-1259 invasion of Galych-Volhynia            
  20. 1259 raid against Lithuania and Poland            
  21. 1264-1265 raid against Bulgaria and Thrace            
  22. 1274, 1281 invasions of Japan            
  23. 1274 raid against Bulgaria            
  24. 1275, 1277 raids against Lithuania            
  25. 1277 invasion of Myanmar            
  26. 1279 invasions of Southern China            
  27. 1281 invasion of Syria            
  28. 1285 invasion of Hungary            
  29. 1285 raid against Bulgaria            
  30. 1287 invasion of Myanmar            
  31. 1287 raid against Poland            
  32. 1293 invasion of Java            
  33. 1297, 1299 invasions of India            
  34. 1299 invasion of Syria            
  35. Mongol invasions of India(1222, 1241, 1257, 1292, 1298, 1306 and 1327)            
  36. Mongol invasion of Myanmar (1300)            
  37. 1303 Mongol invasion of Syria            
  38. 312 Mongol invasion of Syria  

Mongols were highly tolerant of most religions, and typically sponsored several at the same time. At the time of Genghis Khan, virtually every religion had found converts, from Buddhism to Christianity and Manichaeanism to Islam.

To avoid strife, Genghis Khan set up an institution that ensured complete religious freedom, though he himself was a shamanist. Under his administration, all religious leaders were exempt from taxation, and from public service. Initially there were few formal places of worship, because of the nomadic lifestyle. However, under Ögedei, several building projects were undertaken in Karakorum. Along with palaces, Ogodei built houses of worship for the Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, and Taoist followers. The dominant religion at that time was Shamanism and Buddhism, although Ogodei’s wife was a Christian. 

Turkic-Mongol military bands in Iran, after some years of chaos were united under the Saffavid tribe, under whom the modern Iranian nation took shape under the Shiite faith.

Meanwhile Mongol princes in Central Asia were content with Sunni orthodoxy with decentralized princedoms of the Chagatay, Timurid and Uzbek houses. 

In addition to the Khanates and other descendants, the Mughal royal family of South Asia are also descended from Genghis Khan: Babur’s mother was a descendant — whereas his father was directly descended from Timur (Tamerlane).

At the time of Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the empire was divided among his four sons, with his third son as the supreme Khan, and by the 1350s, the khanates were in a state of fracture and had lost the order brought to them by Genghis Khan.

Eventually the separate khanates drifted away from each other, becoming the Il-Khans Dynasty based in Iran, the Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia, the Yuan Dynasty in China, and what would become the Golden Horde in present day Russia. 

The Mughal Empire was an important imperial power in the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th to the mid-19th centuries.

At the height of its power, around 1700, it controlled most of the subcontinent and parts of what is now Afghanistan. Its population at that time has been estimated as between 110 and 130 million, over a territory of over a billion acres (4 million km2) 

The classic period of the Empire starts with the accession of Akbar the Great in 1556 and ends with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707, although the Empire continued for another 150 years. During this period, the Empire was marked by a highly centralized administration connecting the different regions of India. All the significant monuments of the Mughals, their most visible legacy, date to this period. 

Mughal is the Persian word for Mongol and was generally used to refer to the Central Asians who claimed descent from the Mongol warriors of Genghis Khan. The foundation for Mughal empire was established around 1504 by the Timurid prince Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan and Timur, when he took control of Kabul and eastern regions of Khorasan controlling the fertile Sindh region and the lower valley of the Indus River. 

Babur’s son Humayun succeeded him in 1530 but suffered major reversals at the hands of the Pashtun Sher Shah Suri and effectively lost most of the fledgling empire. When the Afghans fell into disarray with the death of Sher Shah Suri, Humayun returned with a mixed army, raised more troops and managed to reconquer Delhi in 1555. Humayun conquered the central plateau around Delhi, he was killed in an accident and succeded by the son Akbar.

Akbar (1556 to 1605) succeeded his father on 14 February 1556, while in the midst of a war against Sikandar Shah Suri for the reclamation of the Mughal throne. Thus, he was thrust onto the throne and soon recorded his first victory at the age of 13 or 14. Jahangir, the son of Mughal Emperor Akbar and Rajput princess Mariam-uz-Zamani, ruled the empire from 1605–1627.

In October 1627, Shah Jahan, the son of Mughal Emperor Jahangir and Rajput princess Manmati, succeeded to the throne, where he inherited a vast and rich empire in India; and at mid-century this was perhaps the greatest empire in the world. Shah Jahan commissioned the famous Taj Mahal (1630–1653) in Agra as a tomb for his wife Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth to their 14th child. By 1700 the empire reached its peak with major parts of present day India, 

After the invasion of Persia by the Mongol Empire, a regional Turko-Persio-Mongol dynasty formed. Just as eastern Mongol dynasties inter-married with locals and adopted the local religion of Buddhism and the Chinese culture, this group adopted the local religion of Islam and the Persian culture.

The first Mughal King, Babur, established the Mughal dynasty in regions spanning parts of present-day Pakistan and India. Upon invading this region, the Mughals inter-married with local royalty once again, creating a dynasty of combined Turko-Persian, and Mongol background. King Babur did this to create peace among the different religions in the region.

Despite preaching Islamic values himself, Babur focused on setting a good example for the Mughal Dynasty by emphasizing religious tolerance. The language of the court was Persian. The language spoken was Urdūn, which today has advanced into Urdu. Urdūn originated from Persio-Arabic formation, and took on various characteristics of Persian, Chagatai, and Arabic. Today, Urdu is the National Language of Pakistan and is spoken by most Indian Muslims. Religious orthodoxy would only play an important role during the reign of Aurangzeb Ālamgīr, a devout Muslim.

This last of the Great Mughals retracted some of the tolerant policies of his forbears. Under his reign the empire reached its greatest extent in terms of territorial gain and economic strength. I

slam first came into India in the province of Kerala during the lifetime of Prophet Mohammed himself. Prophet Mohammed is said to have sent messengers to the Roman (Byzantine) Emperor Heraclius, the Sassanian (Persian) Emperors Chosroes (Khushrau Parvez) and Yazdgard, and to the Kings of China and Kerala (in South India).

The Kings of China and Kerala are said to have received the messengers with great courtesy. King Cheraman of Chera dynasty of Kerala Voluntarily Converts to Islam in the 7th Century.  Tamerlane, a corruption of the name in Persian, Timur-i-Leng, meaning “Timur the Lame.”

The word Timur is Turkic for “iron”. He became the ruler of an empire that stretched from Delhi to Anatolia.  Timur was born in Kesh, fifty miles south of Samarkand) in 1336. His capture of Delhi in 1398 and became the Emperor of Hindustan. Samarkand, Timur’s royal city, celebrated its 2500th anniversary in 1970. It is an ancient site, located on the Zarafshan River, in modern-day Uzbekistan. 

BABUR, THE FIRST OF THE GREAT MOGHULS,was born on February 14, 1483 in Ferghana east of Samarkand. The name “Moghul” is a Persian variant of “Mongol”.  Emperor Babur (1483-1530), the founder of the great Mughal dynasty, was descended from both Genghis Khan and Timur. In 1504, Babur captured the Kabul, Afghan and India in 1524. Two years later, he defeated the Sultan of Delhi . Akbar (1542-1605) was the third and most famous Mughal emperor.  Babar established the Mughal dynasty which ruled from Delhi (and later from Agra) Between 1527 C.E. and 1690 C.E., the Mughals gradually expanded their hold over almost the whole of India. They ruled from 1527 up to 1857. The Mughal (and Muslim) rule was formally abolished by the British.  

The last Muslim Moghul Emperor of India, Abu Za’far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Burma). The Mongols themselves were assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and many of these descendants adopted local religions — for example, the eastern Khanates largely adopted Buddhism, and the western Khanates adopted Islam, largely under Sufi influence. The last Khan who was the ruler of South Asia, Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed by the British after the collapse of the 1857 uprising and exiled to Rangoon where he lies buried. His sons were killed by the British in Humayun’s tomb, the burial place of their ancestor in Delhi. He died there and was buried in Yangon (Rangoon) on 7.11.1862. Now his burial site became a minor diplomatic clash between India and Pakistan. Both of them want to control the site now famous as a shrine and even some of the Burmese Buddhists used to go and pray there because Za’far Shar, as they known, was regarded as a saint.  

The first Mughal emperor Babur wrote in the Bāburnāma:            

“Hindustan is a place of little charm. There is no beauty in its people, no graceful social intercourse, no poetic talent or understanding, no etiquette, nobility or manliness. The arts and crafts have no harmony or symmetry. There are no good horses, meat, grapes, melons or other fruit. There is no ice, cold water, good food or bread in the markets. There are no baths and no madrasas. There are no candles, torches or candlesticks”. 

The Mughal period would see a more fruitful blending of Indian, Iranian and Central Asian artistic, intellectual and literary traditions than any other in Indian history. The Mughals had a taste for the fine things in life — for beautifully designed artifacts and the enjoyment and appreciation of cultural activities. The Mughals borrowed as much as they gave; both the Hindu and Muslim traditions of India were huge influences on their interpretation of culture and court style.  Nevertheless, they introduced many notable changes to Indian society and culture, including:

  1. Centralised government which brought together many smaller kingdoms
  2. Persian art and culture amalgamated with native Indian art and culture
  3. Started new trade routes to Arab and Turk lands, Islam was at its very high
  4. Mughlai cuisine
  5. Urdu and spoken Hindi languages were formed for common Muslims and Hindus respectively
  6. A new style of architecture
  7. Landscape gardening

300px-tajmahalbyamalmongia.jpg

A major Mughal contribution to south Asia was their unique architecture. Many monuments were built during the Mughal era including the Taj Mahal.

Acknowledgement 

Some data and photos from Wikipedia.

Myanmar Malay Muslims

 Myanmar Malay Muslims

or Pashus or Bajau or Selung, or Salone

 From the free encyclopedia

Wikipedia Talk page Adding facts about the Muslim- Moken or Pashu or Bajou after I added the following data into the main article_

In researching I have found part of the problem. Pashu is just the local name in Kawthaung for people of Malay ancestry. (My rebuttal- the whole Burma is using this name, any why was my Myanmar Malay Muslim article deleted?) It is also used to describe the mixed Malay-Burmese-Thai patois (so I am not wrong!)that many of them speak. Sometimes the word Pashu is also applied to the Moken as they are related to the Malays. (So erasing my article from Moken is also not totally right!) An example of usage is the local Kawthaung name for Pterocarpus indicus or pashu-padauk while in English it is sometimes called Malay padauk. Pashu has nothing to do with religion, (This is the outsiders hope and imigination. But almost all the Pashus are Muslims in Kawthaung) but that could be confusing since the Malay are more likely to be Muslim than the Burmese or Thai. —Bejnar (talk) 18:06, 9 January 2008 (UTC)

Many Burmese Moken, especially those staying on the mainland on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, have intermarried with local Burmese Muslims, Arabs and Indian seamen/traders. They are Muslims, and speak Burmese and a Malay dialect, with some of them holding Burma and Malaysian double citizenship.

In the southern tip of Myanmar in Myeik district of Taninthayi Division, a sizable number of Pashu (Bajou) people have lived since time immemorial. They are of the Malay race.

They speak Malay and some of their elderly members can read Jawi, Malay language written in Arabic Script. (Modern Malay is also written in Roman Script). Concentrated in Bokpyin township and villages around it and many sprawling islands in the Bay of Bengal, they learn a livelihood through fishing, pearl diving, agriculture and various trades.

They speak Myanmar with a strong Myeik ( Beik ) accent, and many can talk in Bahasa Melayu also. They have commercial links with south Thailand and north Malaysia. In Kawthaung the southernmost town of Myanmar, across Ranong in south Thailand , there are many mosques, including a large Pashu mosque. There are some Pashus who have intermarried with other Burmese Muslims and some of their youths have taken up modern Myanmar education.[7]

 

 

 

REFERENCE ^ Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He gives me this newspaper photocopy with the permission for reproduction and circulation consent duly signed. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon. He cited or referred to the, “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar.

Some of the original contributors may like to see Moken remain as primitive non Muslims and repeatedly erased my contributions without even giving the reasons. Please just look at the Bajou in Malaysia and Indonesia. They are Muslims and are same as Myanmar/Burmese Pashus (Bajou) and mostly found in Johore, Batang Island Indonesia, Sarawak (East Malaysia) and Singapore. I have given a very good reference and also got the consent to republish anywhere, as written below.

So please may you kindly do not try to erase these facts about Burmese Malay Muslims, well known as Pashu or Bajou.

If they are the separate different Ethnic Minority from MOKEN,, why do you all merged my Burmese Malay Muslims article into this article?Or if you think Burmese Malay Muslim Pashus are totally different from Moken, kindly put back my article seperating from this merged one.

Please see Bajauin Wiki. Who authorize my article to merge and later edited out or erase the Burme Malay Muslim? Even Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma. And we call the whole Peninsular as Pashu Kyun Swe meaning Pashu Peninsular. —Darz kkg (talk) —Darz kkg (talk) 14:07, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He gives me this newspaper photocopy with the permission for reproduction and circulation consent duly signed. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon. He cited or referred to the, “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar. (Written by me)

Which ethnolinguistic group are you speaking about, which you believe is not covered adequately at Wikipedia? It is a bit difficult to follow you. There is no Pashu or Bajou ethnic group listed at List of ethnic groups in Burma. Badagnani (talk) 02:33, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

My rebuttal_

Those Pashu Muslims of Burma are really there and I had given referral duly. Viz_

A. Maung-Ko Ghaffari, Yangon, Myanmar’s letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007. He was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon.

B. “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar

C. We don’t care about the ethnic group listed at List of ethnic groups in Burma, as the

  1. Panthays or Burmese Chinese Muslims
  2. and Rohingya Muslims

are not officially recorded there but WE ALL ARE THERE IN BURMA to stay forever whether SPDC Military Junta and you all experts in Anthropology recognize us or not.

Anyway, the real issue here is, my article was merged in this article.

May be (I may be wrong) Myanmar Pashus are Moken converted into Islam. Some inter-married with local Burmese Muslims, Arab and Indian Muslim sailors and traders.

Please read the Wiki article, Bajau. Although not mentioned in Wiki Bajau, Myanmar Pashus could be related to them. May you kindly allow me to repeat my words above_

Even Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma.

But as some of the ancient Myanmar/Burmese used to call the Malays as Pashu, it may refer possibly to Malay but now we all call Malay a Malay.

  1. The Bajau, (also written as Badjao, Badjaw or Badjau) are an indigenous ethnic group the Philippines and in parts of Sabah, Brunei and Sarawak.
  2. many Bajau had migrated to neighbouring Malaysia . . .
  3. They were sometimes referred to as the Sea Gypsies,
  4. although the term has been used to encompass a number of non-related ethnic groups with similar traditional lifestyles,
  5. Bajau is a collective term, used to describe several closely related indigenous groups.
  6. The origin of the word Bajau is not clear cut.
  7. Although it is generally accepted that these groups of people can be termed Bajau, these groups never call themselves Bajau.
  8. They call themselves with the names of their tribes that are mostly the names of the places of their origins.
  9. They accept the term because they realise that they share some vocabulary and general genetic characteristic such as in having darker skin,
  10. For most of their history, the Bajau have been a nomadic, seafaring people, living off the sea by trading and subsistence fishing.
  11. They kept close to shore by erecting houses on stilts, and traveled using lepa-lepa, handmade boats which many lived in.
  12. The many Bajau sub-groups vary culturally and linguistically, but are unified through their adherence to Sunni Islam of the Shafi’i school.
  13. Commonly, many sub-groups of Bajau are named after the place or island they live-in for many years.
  14. Eventhough, they are called Bajau, each sub-groups has they own unique language, cultures and tradition.
  15. However, certain sub-groups are able to understand the languages of other sub-groups and races.
  16. Claims to religious piety and learning are an important source of individual prestige among the coastal Bajau, and the title of salip/sarip (descendants of the Prophet Muhammad) are shown special honour in the local community.
  17. The Ubian Bajau, due to their nomadic marine lifestyle, are much less adherent to orthodox Islam, and practice more of a folk hybrid, revering local sea spirits, known in Islamic terminology as Jinn.
  18. Many Bajaus of the east coast retain their seaborne lifestyle, together with remnants of traditional pre-Islamic beliefs.
  19. Among the boat-dwellers in particular, community spirit mediums are consulted at least once a year for a public séance and nightly trance dancing.
  20. In times of epidemics, the mediums are also called upon to remove illness causing spirits from the community.
  21. They do this by setting a “spirit boat” adrift in the open sea beyond the village or anchorage.

 

As I am not an expert, please kindly decide the fate of Myanmar Muslim Pashus (sorry some may hate to read as another sub-group of Myanmar Muslim).

Are they still related to Moken? Bajau? Or non existent ghosts people?

But you could not close the eyes and refuse to accept that there is no such people there in Myanmar.

Whether they are recognized as Ethnic group or not, they are there.No one could cleanse them (and all the different groups of Muslims of Myanmar) out of Myanmar. Issue of recognization as the different ethnolinguistic group is for your academic paper work but we all are in Myanmar whether you recognize or not. And Wiki must record some where, even if you wish to record us as illegal mix-blooded people, echoing the dictator General Ne Win.

There are three groups of Bajau according to the New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper published in early 90’s. I copied and recorded the facts but was quite ignorant to note down the date and author.

These three groups of Bajau are_

  1. The Moken and the related Moklen group.
  2. Orang Laut (Sea People).
  3. Bajau Laut.

Myanmar citizens of Malays are the Moken and the related Moklen group. They are found in the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar and the islands of south western part of Thailand.

One of the other two subtypes are the Orang Laut (Sea People) are seen in Riau-Lingga Archipelago, Batam, Eastern Sumatera of Indonesia and Southern Johore of Malaysia.

The last group is the Bajau Laut, largest of all groups, live in Sulu Archipelago of the Philippines, eastern Bornio, Sulawesi and islands of eastern Indonesia.

Pashu in Myanmar is likely to be the corrupted word (or a different slang) in Myanmar language from- Bajau. That Bajau tribe is the largest Muslim indigenous group in Sabah (East Malaysia). They are known as Sea Gypsies or Sea Nomads.

Malays in Myanmar or (called Pashu of Burma), are almost same as but a little bit different from the Malays in Southern Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines and Indonesia.

So the Pashu Muslims of Myanmar are likely to be from the Muslim-Moken and are related to Moklen group of Bajau.

So what should we do?

  1. Shift the whole Moken article under Bajau? Not appropriate as some Moken are non Muslims and Bajau are all Muslims. (See Wiki. Anthropologists should argue there that the religion should not create a new race. )
  2. Then is it appropriate to merge Moken into Bajau?
  3. Or need to take out Myanmar Pashu Muslims from this Moken article and put under Bajau article?
  4. Or just reinstate my original article Myanmar Malay Muslims or Pashu article merged here and ERASED?

To sumup the above, evidences of Burmese Malay Muslims or Pashu in Myanmar are_

  1. Letter/article, published in the Sun newspaper, Malaysia on May 28, 2007.
  2. Maung-Ko Ghaffari was the Chief Editor of The Islam Alin (Light of Islam) magazine published in Yangon, wrote that and given me the consent to republish.
  3. “Our Pashu People”, published by Colonel Ba Shin, Chairman of the Burma Historical Commission and Secretary General of the Islamic Religious Affairs Council. Burma/Myanmar.
  4. Pashu Khaung Phyat bogyman meaning Bajau headhunter is well known in Burma.
  5. Ancient Myanmar/Burmese used to call the Malays as Pashu, it may refer possibly to Malay but now we all call Malay a Malay.
  6. In the Glass Palace Chronicle, official history of Burma, there is the story of Alaunsithu, grandson of Kyansittha (Second Burmese King in History). Reported to had arrived Pashu/Malaya. One of the spectator child fell into the sea, drowned and saved by a sailor of Alaunsithu. (I will search back the book and give the reference page later.)
  7. Kin Won Min Gyi, the Minister of our last king, Thibaw, went to Europe through Malaya and recorded the appearances, culture, dressings of PASHUS. (I will search and give the references later)
  8. The New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper published in early 90’s about Bajau, which I recorded above. It may be difficult to trace back.
  9. And another article written by Datuk Kadir Jasin, Chief Editor of The New Straits Time, Malaysia’s English newspaper, after he followed the PM Tun Dr Mahathier’s first visit to Burma/Myanmar.He wrote about the Muslims in Burma, including these Pashu Malays of Burma and even mentioned about early arrival of Islam in Burma starting from Byat Wi, Byatta, Shwe Phyin brothers etc. (Datuk Kadir Jasin later became the Malaysia Government news agency, Bernama’s chief and now retired.)–Darz kkg (talk) 16:58, 7 January 2008 (UTC)
The following is an old revision of this page, as edited by me at 17:15, April 29, 2007. It  differ significantly from the current revision because some of the editors are stubborn and edited as they like erasing all of my postings in this article. But Alhamdulillah, I was able to protect my other Islam/Myanmar articles_

Articles I have authored, started or expanded on Wikipedia.

  1. Islam in Myanmar
  2. Talk:Islam in Myanmar
  3. Burmese Indians
  4. Talk:Burmese Indians
  5. Panthay
  6. Burmese Chinese
  7. Myanmar Indian Muslims
  8. Famous Burmese Muslims renamed List of Burmese Muslims
  9. Ba Shin
  10. Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar
  11. History of arrival of Islam in Burma/Myanmar
  12. Burma Muslim Congress
  13. Burmese Malay Muslims
  14. U Shwe Yoe

Moken children near Surin Island, Thailand

 

 

 

Moken children near Surin Island, Thailand

A boat of Moken

 

 

 

A boat of Moken

The Moken (Mawken or Morgan), are an Austronesian ethnic group with about 2,000 to 3,000 members who maintain a nomadic, sea-based culture. Their Malayic, or proto-Malay language is distinct from the surrounding Malayan languages.

Nomenclature

The Moken refer to themselves as Moken. The name is used for all of the proto-Malayan speaking tribes who inhabit the coast and islands in the Andaman Sea on the west coast of Thailand, the provinces of Satun, Trang. Krabi, Phuket, Phang Nga, and Ranong, up through the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar (Burma). The group includes the Moken proper, the Moklen (Moklem), the Orang Sireh (Betel-leaf people) and the Orang Lanta. The last, the Orang Lanta are a hybridized group formed when the Malay people settled the Lanta islands where the proto-Malay Orang Sireh had been living.

The Burmese call the Moken, Selung, or Salone or Chalome.[1] In Thailand they are called Chao Ley (people of the sea) or Chao nam (people of the water). Although these terms are used loosely to include the Urak Lawoi and even the Orang Laut. Thai word is: มอแกน. In Thailand, acculturated Moken are called Thai Mai (new Thais).

The Moken are also called Sea Gypsies, a generic term that applies to a number of peoples in southeast Asia. The Urak Lawoi are sometimes classified with the Moken, but they are linguistically and ethnologically distinct, being much more closely related to the Malay people.[2][3]

Lifestyle

Their knowledge of the sea enables them to live off its organisms by using simple tools such as nets and spears to forage for food. What is not consumed is dried atop their boats, then used for trade at local markets for other necessities. During the monsoon season, they build additional boats while occupying temporary huts.

Some of the Burmese Moken are still nomadic people who roam the sea most of their lives in small hand-crafted wooden boats called Kabang, which serve not just as transportation, but also as kitchen, bedroom, living area. Unfortunately much of their traditional life, which is built on the premise of life as outsiders, is under threat and appears to be diminishing.

Some of the Burmese pure Moken are still nomadic people who roam the sea most of their lives in small hand-crafted wooden boats called Kabang, which serve not just as transportation, but also as kitchen, bedroom, living area. Unfortunately much of their traditional life, which is built on the premise of life as outsiders, is under threat and appears to be diminishing.

Because of the amount of time spent diving for food, Moken children have accommodated their visual focus to see better underwater.[4][5]

But many Burmese Moken, especially those staying on shore on the mainland, that is on the west coast of Malay Peninsula intermarried with local Burmese Muslims, Arab and Indian seamen/traders. They are Muslims and speak Burmese and a Malay dialect. And some of them are holding Myanmar and Malaysia double citizenships although that practice is not accepted by both goverments. If those Malay descendants (Muslims) want to migrate back to Malaysia, there was even a special scheme to accept them back in 70’s. Many of them had relatives in Kedah and some in other northern states of Malaysia.

The first Muslims had landed in Myanmar (Burma’s) Tanintharyi coast as seamen in ninth century. [6] The dawn of the Muslim settlements and the propagation of Islam was widely documented by the Arab, Persian, European and Chinese travelers of Ninth century.[7]

The current population of Myanmar Muslims are the descendants of Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moors, Indian-Muslims and Malays who settled and intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups. [8][9]

Muslims arrived in Burma as travelers, adventurers, pioneers, sailors, traders,[10]Military Personals (voluntary and mercenary)[11], and some were reported to have taken refuge from wars, Monsoon storms and weather, shipwreck [12]and for a number of other circumstances. but many of them are professionals and skilled personals serving at various ranks of administration whilst others are port-authorities and mayors and traditional medicine men.[13]

In the chronicles of Malaysia, during the first Melacca Empire of Parameswara in the early fifteenth century, it was recorded the Burmese (Muslims) sailors and traders were regularly arriving there. [1] Those Bago (Pegu) seamen, likely to be Muslims, were also recorded by the Arab Historians of tenth century. During fifteen to seventeen centuries, there were a lot of records of Burmese Muslim traders, sailors and settlers on the whole coast of Burma. That was from Arakan coast (Rakhine), Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast (Including all the islands along the whole coast).[14] During Peik Thaung Min (early Bagan dynasty, 652-660 AD), Arab travelers from Madagascar to China through East Indian Islands, visited Thaton and Martaban ports. It was recorded in Arab chronicles in 800 AD. [15]

In seventeenth century, those Muslims controlled the business and became so powerful because of their wealth. They were even appointed as Governor of Mergui, the Viceroy of the Province of Tenasserim, Port Authorities, Port Governors and Shah-bandars (senior port officials).[16] [17] [18]

Muslim sailors built many mosques, but those should be more appropriately called Temples as they were equally holy to Muslims, Buddhists, Hindus and Chinese. They were called Buddermokan,The so called Buddermokan on Sittway island is claimed by believers of different faiths. … ‘Buddermokan’ [19][20][21] in memory to Badral-Din Awliya, a saint. They are found in Akyab, Sandoway and on a small island off Mergyi. [22]

So Malays in Myanmar (called Salon or Pa Shu), are almost same as but a little bit different from the Malays in Southern Thailand, East and West Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, Philippines and Indonesia. Pa Shu in Myanmar is likely to be the corrupted word (or a different slang) in Myanmar language from- Bajau. That Bajau tribe is the largest Muslim indigenous group in Sabah (East Malaysia). From the three groups of Bajau these Myanmar citizens of Malays are the Moken and the related Moklen group. They are mostly found in the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar and the whole of the Tanintharyi coast.

Governmental control

The Burmese and Thai governments have made attempts at assimilating the people into their own culture, but these efforts have met with limited success. Thai Moken have been permanently settled in villages located in the Surin Islands (Mu Ko Surin National Park[23]), in Phuket Province, on the northwestern coast of Phuket Island, and on the nearby Phi Phi islands of Krabi province.[24]

The Andaman Sea off the Tenasserim coast was the subject of keen scrutiny from Burma’s regime during the 1990s due to offshore petroleum discoveries by multinational corporations including Unocal, Petronas and others. Reports from the late 1990s told of forced relocation by Burma’s military regime of the ‘Sea Gypsies’ to on-land sites. It was claimed most of the Salone had been relocated by 1997, which is consistent with a pervasive pattern of forced relocation of suspect ethnic, economic and political groups, conducted throughout Burma during the 1990s.

2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami

The islands where the Moken live received much media attention in 2005 during the Southeast Asia Tsunami recovery, where hundreds of thousands of lives were lost in the disaster. As they are keenly aware of the sea, the Moken in some areas knew the tsunami that struck on December 26, 2004 was coming,[25] and managed to preserve many lives.

However in the coastal villages of Phang Nga Province, such as Tap Tawan, the Moken suffered severe devastation to housing and fishing boats in common with other Moken communities.[26]

References

  1. ^ Anderson, John (1890) The Selungs of the Mergui Archipelago Trübner & Co., London, pp. 1-5

  2. ^ Classification of Urak Lawoi language

  3. ^ Urak Lawoi of the Adang Archipelago, Tarutao National Marine Park, Satun Province, Thailand by Dr. Supin Wongbusarakum December 2005

  4. ^ Gislén, Anna (May 13, 2003) “Superior Underwater Vision in a Human Population of Sea Gypsies” Current Biology 13(10): pp. 833-836;

  5. ^ Travis, J. (May 17, 2003) “Children of Sea See Clearly Underwater” Science News 163(20): pp. 308-309;

  6. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, first line.

  7. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, line 5,6,9

  8. ^ ibid page 6, line 25,26&27.

  9. ^ Pathi U Ko Ko Lay’s lecture 1973, Islamic Religious Library Magazine

  10. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,,page9, paraaph 4.

  11. ^ ibid, page10,line 7,8&9.

  12. ^ ibid page 2, paragraph 3, line 1,2&3.

  13. ^ ibid page 30, whole page.

  14. ^ ibid page 2, 2nd. paragraph, line 1,2 &3.

  15. ^ Various notable facts in Myanmar History, in Burmese, by U Kyi BA History Honours. Page 156, 157.

  16. ^ ibid

  17. ^ Maurice Collis, Simese White(London Faber and faber, 1936. page 40.

  18. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 5, line 22 to 27

  19. ^ Sir Richard C. Temple, Buddermokan, JBRS,XV, pt 1 (1925)1-33

  20. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 8 1st. paragraph

  21. ^ A. Journal of the Burma Research Society 15: 1-33. the coast from Assam to Malay with the curious mosques known as Buddermokan reverenced by the Buddhists and China-men as well as Mahomedans. B. Arakan Rajsabhay Bangala Sahitya(1600 – 1700 AD)Bengali Literature in the Kings’ Court of ArakanBy Dr. Muhammad Enamul Huq (M.A., Ph. D) and Sahitya-sagar Abdul Karim Sahitya Visarad Translated from Bengali by: Mating Sein Pru [www.rakhapura.com/ScholarsColumn/Bengali_Literature_in_the_Kings_Court_of_Arakan.asp]

  22. ^ ibid

  23. ^ “Mu Ko Surin National Park” National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok, Thailand;

  24. ^ Bauerlein, Monika (November 2005) “Sea change: they outsmarted the tsunami, but Thailand’s sea gypsies could be swept away by an even greater force” Mother Jones 30(6): pp. 56-61;

  25. ^ http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/18/60minutes/main681558.shtml “Sea Gypsies See Signs In The Waves” 60 Minutes CBS News, 25 December 2005];

  26. ^ Jones, Mark (6 May 2005) “Thailand’s fisherfolk rebuild after tsunami” Reuters also from Web Archive

External links

Moken

A language of Myanmar

ISO 639-3: mwt

Population 7,000 in Myanmar (1993 Johnstone).
Region Mergui Archipelago, Dung, and other islands in south Myanmar. Also spoken in Thailand.
Alternate names   Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko’
Dialects Dung, Ja-It, L’be. Closest to Moklen. Related to Urak Lawoi.
Classification Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayic, Moklen
Language development NT: 2002.
Comments They live primarily on boats, but occasionally settle on islands in the area. SVO. Islands. Tropical forest. Sea level. Fishermen: marine products. Traditional religion, Muslim.

Also spoken in:

Thailand

Language name   Moken
Region West coast of south Thailand, Phuket, Phangnga, Krabi, Ranong.
Alternate names   Mawken, Basing, Selung, Selong, Salong, Salon, Chau Ko’
Dialects Dung, Ja-It, L’be.
Comments They live primarily on boats, but occasionally settle on islands in the area. Fishermen. Traditional religion, Muslim.
 

Entries from the SIL Bibliography about this language:

Academic Publications

Amon Thavisak. 2001. “The effects of glottal finals on pitch in Southeast Asian languages.”

Pittayaporn, Pittayawat . 2006. “When words erode: Moken trisyllabic syncopation and PAn stress.”

Selung/Moken

ETHNONYMS: The names used by and for nomadic boat people typically refer to the people’s connections with the sea. “Moken” (Mawken, Maw khen) is the name people living around the Mergui Archipelago of Myanmar (Burma) use to identify themselves. Originating from a Moken story, the name means “drowned people” or “people of the drowning,” maw or l’maw (drowning, to dip), o’en-ken abbreviated to oke’n (“salt water”), according to Bernatzik and to White. Anderson mentions people calling themselves Manoot (menut or manut, people) Ta’au (teau or t’ow, sea) or “people of the sea.” Similar terms for “people” are found in Thailand (chao) and Malaysia (orang) with words for “sea” (Thai le; Malay laut) or “water” (Thai nam); hence Thais call Moken “Chao Nam” or “Chao Le” and Malays use “Orang Laut.” The meaning and etymology of the Burmese name Salon, Selon, Selong, Selung, or Silung is not clear; it may derive from the Thai-Malay placename Salang (Thalang) Phuket, where Moken may have lived. Other names for Moken are associated with sociopolitical status, geography, and environment; these include “Orang Rayat” (Malay, “subject”) or “Rayat Laut” (“the sea subjects”), “Orang Pesukuan” (“people divided into clans”), and “Bajau” (Bugis, “subject”), a term denoting sea people of north Borneo and the Sulu Archipelago (often equated with pirates). Local groups may take the name of geographic places where they live (e.g., Orang Barok, for Baruk Bay, on the island on Singkep).

 

See also Bajau; Samal; Sea Nomads of the Andaman

BARBARA S. NOWAK

Migration and settlement of Shans in Burma

Long march of Shans

to Shwe Bamar Pavilion

Dear Nan,

                  I still remember the bed time stories you used to tell our children so that they would not forget their roots. Once upon a time, long long ago (round about 650 B.C. ) there lived our great great grand mother named Daw Daw Shan (also known as Daw Tai). She lived independently up north in a far far away land at present day U Ta Yoke’s village place at the lower part of the Yangtze River.

1. Daw Daw Shan’s (also known as Daw Tai) brothers, sisters, cousins and her family traveled down through the present day Ko Yu Nan’s village and migrated further down into our Shwe Bama village and settled in the Shan quarters at the eastern part.

2. A large group of her sisters made a detour U turn and went up north and climbed the Tibet hills and stayed there forming the Tibeto-Burman ancestors of the whole region.

3. One brother continued his journey west, up to the present day Ko Ya Khine’s village.

4. Another brother even decided to continue his long march up into the present day north eastern part of U Ka Lar’s village.

5. One of her brother continued south in our Shwe Bama village and settled in lower Shwe Bama closely with Daw Daw Mon and U Ka Yin.

6. Few sisters refused to follow them in a long journey, decided to continue to just settle in present day Ko Yu Nan’s village.

7. One cousin sister broke away from all others who headed to the south west, and decided to go straight southwards and settled in present U Tai’s village.

8. One distant cousin sister also broke away from all and moved to the east, settling in present day U Lao’s village and U Kam Bo Dia’s village. Actually they are a little bit different, some had more of U Ta Yoke’s blood and some even have mixed blood with U Kha Mars and some even went further and said to be settled in Daw Viet Nam’s village.

9. One of her sister, known as Daw Daw Thet married to U Pyu and their decedents are part of my ancestors, U U Bamars.

10. Some of the children of the sister who made a detour U turn and went up north and climbs the Tibet hills later, came down and they were known as U Kan Yan’s family and formed one of the great grand parents of Shwe Bama villagers.

11. At last intermarriage of distant cousins who were the descendents of U Pyu, U Kan Yan and U Thet give rise to my Shwe Bama ancestors.

Note: the long march travelers of Daw Daw Shan’s relatives came down in different times in batches. Because it happened in the prehistoric times, I have searched and collected data, and made it simple and easy from: the folk tales of our Ethnic Minorities, the old records of Chinese and Indian travelers’ chronicles, Thailand and Khmer chronicles, from Hman Nan Yar Za Won, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma (Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.), Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) “Chin, Myu and Khumi, Notthern Rakhine” in Myanmar Magazine Kalya 1994 August and other publications, and HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia and Burma’s old history text books published by Burmese Education Ministry.

I hereby wish to go into some details of what I had given as a gist above: Daw Daw Shan’s other cousins descended from the same ancestors, now inhabit northeast Assam or Asom at Ko Ah Than’s village in U Ka Lar’s village tract at the north west of our village.

Note: they established the Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed indescribable cruelties and barbarities  as to decimate something like 2/3 of the population and certainly 1/3 of the men and boysdisemboweling them, eating their flesh and burning them alive in cages to intimidate and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam,India.

<ref>  Edward Albert Gait’s “A history of Assam” book, published by Thacker, Spink in1963 at Calcutta</ref> 

This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British. Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao  568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese). Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.

<ref>“DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA” . Tiger Yawnghwe or His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Pha; he is the eldest son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the former Saopha[Prince] of Yawnghwe[Nyaung-Shwe] and the first President of Burma after Burma’s Independence from British colonial rule. Interview with Dr Tayza, Chief Editor of Burma Digest.</ref>
http://www.tayzathuria.org.uk/bd/2006/2/12/dialouge.htm

Some cousins of Daw Daw Shan settled along the way, at Ko Yu Nan’s village in the north east of our village. Some distant cousins, mixed blood with U Ta Yoke and U Kha Mar, went to the east and founded the U Laos’ village and Daw Kam Bodia’s village. Others went down to the southeast and settled in U Thai’s Land or village. No wonder U Thai’s Land was known as Siam or we could even call Shan.

Daw Daw Shan’s relatives had been gradually pushed south, at about the beginning of the Christian era by the advancement of the U Tar Tar. About 650 A.D. the Daw Daw Shan’s cousins formed a powerful village in Nan Chao, now that village is known as Ko Yu Nan’s village.

Daw Nan Chao, your great grand aunty was quite powerful and could resist U Ta Yoke’s attempts at conquest until 1253. During the years 754 to 763 A.D. the Daw Nan Chao, cousin of Daw Daw Shan extended her rule even up to the upper basin of the Irrawaddy River and came into contact with the U Pyu.

Dear Nan, I hope you could immediately recognize that he was my great grand uncle U Pyu. He was one of three brothers who founded our Shwe Shwe Bama village: viz, U Pyu, U Kan Yan and U Thet. U Pyu was then the ruler of the Upper Shwe Bama Village Plains.

Some of Daw Daw Shan’s descendents ventured beyond Upper Shwe Bama village into Lower Shwe Bama village to mingle and live together with the Daw Daw Mons.

During the heydays of the Daw Shan’s cousin Daw Nan Chao Village, her children had even crossed Upper Shwe Bama to reach far west and established the once powerful Ahom Village, in the northeastern part of Ko Ka Lar’s village tract, now known as Assam or Assom village, as I had stated above.

Daw Daw Shan herself had moved into the area now known as the Shan Pyae or Shan quarters of our Shwe Bama Village in large numbers and settled down and were well established by the time our first ‘Shwe Bama village head’ King Anawrahta ascended his throne in 1st century.

Daw Daw Shan’s relatives tried desperately to defend their Daw Nan Chao village kingdom from the U Ta Yoke attackers, but in 1253 the Daw Nan Chao village Kingdom fell. Some of the cousins of Daw Daw Shan, unwilling to live under foreign domination there; move towards the south in strength, to seek freedom in present day U Tai’s Land or village area.

They joined forces with the Daw Daw Shan’s other cousin sisters, who had already settled in the area, and in 1262 took over Mr Chiang Rai’s village, in 1296 Miss Chiang Mai village and in 1315 took Ms Ayu Dhya village, and established their own village tract kingdoms.

In Upper Shwe Bama the Daw Daw Shan established the village kingdoms of Mo Gaung village (Mong Kawng), and Mo Hnyin village (Mong Yang), and in the Shweli basin, the Mao village Kingdom.

My great great grand father Anawrahta ruled the Pagan village for 43 year. He was able to unify the whole Shwe Bama Village tract under his rule for the first time in history.

During this time he sent his armed villagers into the Daw Daw Shan’s part of the village to help ensure the security of his village Kingdom. However, he had no intention of annexing or taking over of the Daw Daw Shan’s village. He merely wished to defend the low lying plains of his Shwe Bama village from raids by the Daw Daw Shan’s disgruntled village militias. For this purpose he established a string of fortified villages along the length of the foothills.

Relations between Daw Daw Shan and Shwe Bama village tract became friendlier under Anawrahta’s successors , but the Shwe Bama Village Kingdom of Pagan fell to the attackers from U Ta Yoke village in 1287 A. D. and was destroyed.

Then in1312 A. D. one of Daw Daw Shan’s son took the kingly Title of “Thihathu” and ascended the Shwe Bama village head or throne in the village of Pinya.

Daw Daw Shan’s cousins, the (Mao) Shans, who had established villages in Mo Hnyin, Mo Gaung and the Shweli areas then overran the villages of Pinya and Sagaing in 1364 A.D.

After they had withdrawn, a Daw Daw Shan’s younger son from Ava village, whose title was Thadominbya, combined Pinya village and Sagaing village and established a new Village Kingdom, over which he ruled. So your great great grandmother Daw Daw Shan’s children effectively became village heads in our Upper Shwe Bama village tract from 1282 A.D. to 1531 A.D.

In 1527 A.D. due to the attacks of the Mo Hnyin village’s Saw Bwa on Ava village, the Daw Daw Shan’s children and U Bama’s children of the area left their homes and descended southwards towards Toungoo village, where they established a new village.

Thohanbwa, the son of the Moehnyin village Saw Bwa, who became Head of Ava village, was soon assassinated due to his lack of skill in statecraft and administration, and in 1543 A.D. Onbaung Khun Maing succeeded him as the village head.

Meanwhile from Toungoo village, in the year 1555 A.D. King Bayinnaung succeeded in unifying the whole of Shwe Bama Village for the second time in our history.

He was able to “persuade’ the Daw Daw Shan’s grandchild, Shan Saw Bwa to submit his suzerainty. In accordance with the traditions of the earlier Burmese Village Heads, the administrative setup was that the Daw Daw Shan’s descendents, Saw Bwas who submitted to the suzerainty of the Burmese King retained full powers to rule over their own village. This relationship was based on mutual respect. The military forces of Burma village include contingents of Shan soldiers who proved their valour on the foreign battlefields.

That is how Daw Daw Shan and U Bama’s descendents had lived closely together, like brethren, till the fall of Upper Burma in 1886.

Then the Daw Daw Shan’s grandchildren Saw Bwas, with the intention of restoring freedom to Burma and to the Shan State, chose the U Bama Princes Limbin and U Saw Yan Naing to head their alliance, and started waging war against the colonialism.

Dear Nan, while you were away, I used to spend most of the time with your old history books, which we bought for your Ph.D. thesis. As your thesis is related to Diaspora, migration and immigration, we had a lot of books related to this subject. Now only, because of your questions, I learned and began to understand the basis of our village’s cultures, our dialects, literature, religions, and the history of migrations.

But dear darling, my answers about Daw Daw Shan were adapted from your uncle U Shan’s website. I am using your own method of appeasing the examiners, now you all have no choice but to accept my answers and also have to give high marks to me: may be perfect 100. Do you now understand or realize my idea or style of answering your questions based on your own concepts and ideas?

Dear Nan, I have to admit that I had learned this secret technique from you.

Once, I could not understand why although we learned together in the university, you could score better marks than me, and lecturers and even some professors were pleased with your answers.

You told me your secret weapon against the lecturers, to try to find out which text book the lecturers are using; sometimes it may be different from the prescribed text book. Different chapters from various subjects were taught by different lecturers and they used to teach from the book they like best. You taught me to read from the lecturer’s book of choice. Then only we would get the best marks and praises from the examiners.

Now I am practicing as you preached me. Although I could quote from various history books I had chosen my answers from your Uncle Shan’s favourite web site.

(I hereby acknowledged that I have adapted the above facts from the Shan Herald Agency News’ Shan State Affairs section, Shan History.)

We could see in the above mentioned era how Daw Daw Shan’s children migrated and grew mightier. We should study how political, economical, social and philosophical patterns changed according to their coming.

To sum up again, after the fall of Bagan village, Ava village kingdom was built in 1364 M.E. Subsequently, until Pinya village, Sagaing village and Myinsaing village eras, the power of Bagan village collapsed and rebellious small village kingdoms spread. When the invading conqueror Daw Daw Shan’s children came across Shwe Bama’s children, they accepted the Buddhist cultures and Shwe Bama cultures.

In this case, the saying, ‘conquerors are conquered’ need to be explained thoroughly.

Sorry dear darling, I adapted this last paragraph from the “Story of Myanmar told in pictures” by Dr Than Tun and translated by Maung Win War.

Anyway no one is sure the source of your ancestors’ conversion to Buddhism. We should consider the fact that your relatives had very good relations with Daw Mon and U Kha Mar. You could even get the Buddhism directly from them. I am neither an expert nor a historian but I could see with my own eyes that your Shan Pagodas look more like Thai and Cambodia Pagodas than our Burmese. Never mind dear, it is not important or became a big issue for us as both of us are essentially the same Buddhists.

from (http://www.mchronicle.com.mm/pages/v2n5/thantun.shtml)

When I adapted the whole story from the Shan Herald, you looked down on me as a cheap plagiarist. So now I am just showing off a little bit to you and just as usual trying to tease you.

I purposely chose the episode of the history, your Daw Daw Shansconquering over the Shwe Bama, which our successive Bama governments’ history text books just used to mention one line only and skipped forward to the glorious Shwe Bama warrior Toungoo village head or King Baying Naung who successfully established our 2nd Shwe Bama Empire.

Dear Nan, I need to show some of my general knowledge to earn some more extra marks or points from you.

The same thing happened to the conqueror U Tar Tars. They took over Turkey, Iran and Iraq, and they killed millions of the men and children but married those Muslim women.

Their new wives strangely converted them into Islam and they accepted the Islamic cultures. In this case also, as the saying goes, ‘conquerors are conquered’. And those

Tar Tar/Turk descendents’ armies invaded Afghanistan, India subcontinent (future India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.) and established the Moghol Islamic Empire.

So the Central Asia Muslims, Chinese Muslims, Yunan Chinese Muslims and Burma’s Chinese Muslims or Panthays and many of the Burmese Muslims are also their descendents. You would not believe me but it is the truth that even the Muslims in Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia got Islam from those Chinese Muslims.

I know that I frequently have an overdose of humour which you don’t like and used to sway from the main topic often.

I am so happy that you could not fail me in front of Dr Tayza and Burma Digest readers. If I just answer on the phone, you would just simply cut off the line. Now you get what you want, on paper in front of all. You cannot stop me now. I am sure that you would not be able to bribe Dr Tay Za and Burma Digest editors as they are not like the greedy SPDC generals. I hope I could impress you with my general knowledge in history, migration and may be even some radical views.

Dear Nan, now I have answered part of your questions and hope to pass with flying colours.

You could not accuse me of loving to eat the fruits without knowing the roots!

I hope I have successfully proved that I love you; I know and respect not only you but also your ancestors .

Your loving hubby

(Ko Tin Nwe)

BO AUNG DIN

Famous Burmese Muslims

Famous Burmese Muslims  or

List of Burmese Muslims

 

  1. U Razak. U Razak (20 January 1898 – 19 July 1947; Arabic: Abdul Razak) was a Burmese politician who was a respected educationalist. He was a minister and was assassinated, along with his cabinet, on 19 July 1947. July 19 is celebrated in Myanmar today as Martyrs’ Day. U Razak was Minister of Education and National Planning, and was chairman of the Burma Muslim Congress. [1]

  2. Saya Gyi U Nu . Mayor of Yammar Watti, Shwe Taung Thargathu @ Mohamed Kassim @ Saya Gyi U Nu (Great Teacher or Guru) was a very famous Burmese Muslim writer during King Bodawpaya.He had written and translated a lot of Islamic religious books. He used Pali and other words and terms from the Burmese religious literature to Burmanise the Islamic literature. Combined with his flowery, poetic Burmese writing, his books are regarded as Myanmar Muslims’ classics. [2] Bodawpaya appointed him as the head of the mission to India to collect and bring back books and Scriptures in Sanskrit, Hindi Urdu and Farsi. [3] Saya Gyi U Nu was appointed as the Mayor of Yammar Wati with the Shwe Taung Tharga title. [4] But recent military rulers prohibited the Muslims from using these Pali words and terms in Islamic religious books.

  3. U Shwe Yoe aka U Ba Ga Lay. U Shwe Yoe was a Burmese Muslim named, U Ba Ga Lay. He was the pioneer famous Cartoonist, Actor, Comedian and dancer. U Shwe Yoe dance was U Ba Ga Lay’s jolly joker dance sequence in, “Ah Ba Yae” (Oh Ah Ba. Ah Ba means old man or father in Burmese) which was one of the pioneer films of Myanmar movie history about rural life. The dance is full of fun and joy and it appealed so much to the Myanmar audience and is adopted as a dance for all festive occasions..[5][6]

  4. Colonel Ba Shin. Colonel Ba Shin a noted historian was later a member of The Myanmar History Commission, [7]UTC and Islamic Religious Affairs Council.

  5. U Raschid. U Raschid, an Indian Myanmar Muslim, was active in Thakin Movement (The Burmese National movement against ruling British). He was the secretary general of Rangoon University Students’ Association in 1931 together with prominent Myanmar political leaders: Aung San, U Nu, U Kyaw Nyein, U Ba Swe etc. U Raschid was the first president of the All Burma Students’ Union. In 1952 U Nu appointed him as Minister for Housing and Labour, later in 1954, Minister for Trade and Development, in 1956, Minister of Mines, in 1960 Minister of Commerce and Industry. In 1958 he was the Vice President of the Trade Union Council of Burma. U Nu requested him to change his name to U Yanshin to make him more acceptable to other Buddhist but he declined. General Ne Win arrested him in 1962, during the coup. [8]

  6. U Khin Maung Latt. U Khin Maung Latt was one of the Myanmar-Muslim Cabinet Ministers in U Nu’s Government held the Social Services and Health portfolio. He was the secretary of U Razak before his (U Razak) assassination. He had been active in the Students’ organizations of Yangon University and had took part in the very famous students’ strike of 1936. He successfully organized the Muslims in whole Burma to stand united under the AFPFL flag during the struggle for the independence. He worked together assisting U Razak. When AFPFL split in to two, U Khin Maung Lat was with the Stable Fiction. U Raschid remained with U Nu. [9]

  7. Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein and family members. Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein was also a very prominent Myanmar Muslim. He was known to be a great boxer, and had even represented Burma in the Olympics. He had successfully trained a lot of boxers. And he had rejuvenated the Myanmar traditional boxing. He was a famous writer also. His son U Win Nyein is also a prominent Journalist. U Chit Nyo, brother of Kyar Ba Nyein is also a famous writer. Myo Myint Nyein was the editor of Payphuhlwar, a former monthly magazine in Burma. Awarded the International Press Freedom Award in abstentia by the Toronto-based Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE). He is the brother of Win Nyein.

  8. Daw Win Mya Mya.  NLD Mandalay Division Organizing Committee member, Daw Win Mya Mya is a Panthay Muslim. She was assaulted by the SPDC affiliated thugs and arrested at Depayin together with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other NLD members. She is a brave and active NLD leader. [2] She was arrested during the fuel price rise demonstration led by revered Buddhist Monks in Mandalay, in September 2007, during the fasting month of Muslims.

  9. Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw . Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw from Navy was a very prominent writer and pioneer NLD leader died in SPDC jail. He was buried at Kandaw Gale Sunni cemetery. [10]

  10. Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint. Martyred after failed attempt of coup d’état during General Ne Win’s rule. [11]

  11. Saya Chair also had a very good relation with the Military Government and was appointed the Chairman of the Election Commission. [12]

  12. Hajima Pyinmanar (Sein) Daw Pu. Hajima Daw Pu was also a famous Myanmar-Muslim philanthropist. Because of her donation of a new Kidney Hospital and good social relations with General Ne Win, Military Government even awarded her with a medal for her outstanding social deeds. [13]

  13. Sultan Mahmood (Health Minister) Wealthy and influential Myanmar Arakan Muslim from Akyab, Arakan, a Rohingya, Sultan Mahmood was the political secretary in U Nu’s government and later was appointed as Health Minister. [14]

  14. Other Rohingya MPs (Member of Parliament) Other Rohingya Myanmar/Burmese (Arakan) Muslims in U Nu’s Parliament as parliamentary secretaries were Mr Sultan Ahmed and Mr Abdul Gaffar. Mr Abdul Bashar, Mrs. Zohora Begum @ Daw Aye Nyunt,Mr Abdul Khair, Mr Abdus Sobhan, Mr Abdul Bashar, Mr Rashid Ahmed, Mr Nasiruddin (U Pho Khine), were members of Parliament in different terms in U Nu’s Government. [15]

  15. Colonel (Tat Hmu Gyi) U Pho Kar He started to enlist in Mindon’s Cannon regiment since young. During King Thibaw’s reign, he was the Captain on the Sekyar Ngwezin Thulu ship which went to Bamaw to attack the Burmese Rebels and the Chinese invaders. During the third Anglo-Burmese war, he was at Min Hla Fort leading 200 Cannoners. U Pho Kar was together there with his uncles Captain Bo Kyae, Captain Bo U Maung, Sergeant (Thwe Thaut) U Kyar Yone. At the battle, one Captain and 50 soldiers killed. Burmese had to retreat and U Pho Kar retreated with the gun-shot wound on the abdomen. After the war he settled in Maymyo. Parliamentarian Haji U Than Nyunt was his son. U Pho Kar died on 10th. May 1956 at the age of 95. [16]

  16. Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors. There were also Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors like U Pe Khin and U Hla Maung.

  17. Ambassador U Pe Khin was the most important negotiator and architect of the historical Panglon treaty. When General Aung San was disappointed, given up and decided to take the flight back to Rangoon that evening, U Pe Khin persuaded General Aung San to stay for one night and to allow him to negotiate with the Ethnic Minority leaders. U Pe Khin successfully negotiated with those Ethnic leaders to get an agreement for this most important treaty in Burma, which was the foundation for the Union of Burma and its Independence. [17]

  18. Than Phae Lay was a popular comedian and famous singer. Khin Maung Htoo and Chit Kaung are also famous Burmese Muslim singers.

  19. Psychiatrist Prof Dr U Ne Win, Medical Superintendent (Head of Hospital) Yangon Psychiatric Hospital. *

  20. Faridah Meer, the Head of the Department in Surgery in the National University Malaysia (UKM)(General Hospital Kuala Lumpur).

  21. Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt. Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt was also one of the pioneer pilots after independence. Later he became the General Manager of Burma Airways and was the personal pilot of General Ne Win.

  22. U Kyaw Kyaw. U Kyaw Kyaw was also one of the very few Myanmar-Muslims promoted to the high position in the Military Government. He was the Managing Director of the Myanmar Economic Bank. He was born on 15th October 1937 in Ye Nan Chaung, and died on 2nd of April 2003, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A graduate of Rangoon University, later he joined the State Commercial Bank of Burma as a junior officer. He was trained in Westminster Bank of England in early sixties. He is well respected among his friends and banking society for his vision, discipline, and hard work. During his tenure as Managing Director, he initiated computerization of Banking System in Burma. His concern is always been the dual exchange rate of Burmese currency, and inconsistent monetary policy of Military Government. He also tried to start Myanmar Stock and Exchange in cooperation with a Japanese Bank.

  23. Myanmar Muslim activists. Some Myanmar Muslim activists such as Pathi Ko Lay and Dr Kyaw Nyein were also promoters of total assimilation of Burmese Muslims in to Burmese. Especially Dr Kyaw Nyein had a very good relation with the very powerful and famous Mandalay Young Buddhist Monks and to some extent successful in countering the agent provocateurs from inciting the anti Muslim sentiments. Because of his request, real monks influential in Mandalay searched and confiscated and destroyed nearly hundred thousand anti-Muslim pamphlets allegedly distributed the Myanmar Military secret agents. Although reported to the authorities, no one was arrested for that crime in a country where many people were arrested, tortured and jailed for printing or photocopying or distributing any anti-government papers or even for distribution of Human right Declaration from UN office. Lu Du Daw Amar, highly respected journalist wrote in one of the monthly magazine recently about Myanmar Muslims from Mandalay. She praised them for their understanding and respect of the Burmese Culture. While trying to stress the deterioration of religious knowledge among Myanmar Buddhist youths, she pointed out that some of them even did not know how to talk with the monks. She mentioned the skills and politeness of Myanmar Muslims in dealing and talking with the Buddhist monks.

  24. U Shaw Phi. U Shaw Phi, Myanmar Muslim rich man, contractor and investor, was also very famous and well connected person among the local and central Military leaders. He was arrested few times because of his extraordinary efficiency and excellent contacts. Once, old and damaged vehicles, which were beyond repairable condition, from the army and State Transport Department were bought from the government. U Shaw Phi ‘shamed’ the Military government by the speedy successful repair within one month. His refurbished buses and trucks hit the roads and he was ‘invited’ into the jail for questioning for few months for his efficiency to repair the damaged vehicles so quickly. He was arrested once because of that kind of efficiency, for the crime of finishing his own house in front of the prolonged project of building the new parliament building. Because he built his house with three shifts of workers day and night, General Ne Win became jealous and ordered to arrest him to inquire how he managed to get the required raw material for the construction. And he was arrested few times without any trial when the number twos in the governments or any other high ranking officials were required to remove from their positions. They were unofficially alleged to have connection with that wealthy man and were said to be not fit to hold high posts. But strangely, the probes or investigations always had to stop before other VIPs were implicated. Obviously, the almost bankrupt authorities needed U Shaw Phi’s skills and wealth.

  25. Pali Professor, RASU, Ahmad Kasim

  26. MASU, English Professor Ali.

  27. Senior Research Officer, History, Dr Daw Yi Yi

  28. Associate Professor, History, MASU U Maung Maung Lay

  29. RASU Chemistry Professor U Aung Khin @ Md Ali

  30. Professor U Ko Lay, Maths, MASU.

  31. (Sugar) U Ba Sein. Pilot factory and Nylon Factory.

  32. EC Madar Umbrella Factory and Soap Factory.

  33. U Shwe Thar Aung. Chairman Arakanese Muslim association.

  34. Major (Dr) Htun Nyo. ENT Surgeon. Mingladon, Maymyo, UKM (Malaysia), Saudi Arabia.

  35. Dr U Hla Khaine. Ph.D. Anatomy UK. Professor, Head of Department. UKM. UIA. (Malaysia)

  36. Prof. Dr U Khant @ Habib Khan, Psychologist.UM, UIA. (Malaysia) Pased away at 2.00 AM, on August 02, 2007 in Yangon, Myanmar.

  37. Ye Soe was one of the famous Myanmar Muslim novelists. He wrote detective stories based on foreign books but he Burmanized them and was accepted by many youths. He wrote more than hundred books.

  38. U Kar, was the Rector of Rangoon Arts and Science University in 1962. He was the Education Minister of the 1958 Caretaker Government.

  39. U Ali. He was famous for the Classic Burmese old songs. Even most famous singer Mar Mar Aye learned from him. Piano Ko Mar Mut was also famous. [18]

  40. Movie stars. Shwe Ba and Maung Maung Ta were very popular movie stars in Burma. After retirement Maung Maung Ta got the Ph.D. with the thesis with the Shia Muslims in Burma. I hereby hope and request to Dr Mg Mg Ta or his friends to kindly contribute his thesis in the Wikipedia and allow me to copy in my web blog.

  41. Lt. Col. Khalid Maung Maung. Southern Shan State BRC Supervision Committee Chairman Lt. Col. Khalid Maung Maung.

  42. Prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army. There were few prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army earlier. Brig. General Maung Maung Gyi was from Burma Navy and Colonel Tin Soe was with the Revolution Council of General Ne Win. Various forms of Military Governments continue to rule Burma (Myanmar) since that council overthrown the democratically elected U Nu’s Government.

  43. Daw Saw Shwe. Famous Myanmar Muslim woman. Chairperson of Burma Muslim Organization.

  44. U Aung Thin represented the Myanmar Muslims at the Round Table Committee on whether Burma should be separated from India or not. That was held at London, in 1930.[19]

  45. U Ba Oh was a very rich Burmese Muslim philanthropist. He funded BMS Burma Moslem Society’s activities and was voted president for life. He was not only active in social and welfare, but he had also stood bravely in demanding the rights of Myanmar Muslims. [20]

  46. Haji Thein ( President-Islamic Religious Affairs Council )(Pulae, Pearl)

  47. Dr. Tin Maung (Son of U Kar), he was the Rector of Institute of Computer Science & Technology (ICST).

  48. Notable Burmese Muslims under Burmese Kings                                                          All the list of persons below ae taken from the “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111[21]

  49. Naymyo Gonnayap Khan Sab Bo @ Abdul Karim Khan. Ambassador to Indochina.

  50. Minister Mingyi Maha Min Htin Yar Zar @ U Chone, Akhbad Myin Wun, calvary Captain, Mayor of Pin Lae town.

  51. Maha Min Kyaw Thiha Min Htin @ U Pho Yit, Mayor of Tapae town.

  52. Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Nae Htun,Kala Won.

  53. Maha Bawga Dana Thiri Yarzar Mullah Ismail, Custom Chief. Royal Ship Captain, Mayor of Kyauk Yae town. He donated the Mandalay Soorti Mosque.

  54. Maha Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Naw Khan, Kalay Tain Nyin Yargazo Mayor.

  55. Maha Min Khaung Kyaw Htin @ U Pyar, Mayor of Sinku.

  56. Malar Mon @ U Pwint, Explosive expert. (Yan Chet won)

  57. Min Hla Min Htin Thu Rain, Western Jail Superintendent.

  58. Min Htin Yarzar, Chief Clerk.

  59. Nay Myo Thiha Kyaw Htin @ U Tar, Advocate.

  60. Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhayar @ Marmet Ebrahim, Advocate.

  61. Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhaya @ Abdul Rahman, Advocate.

  62. Nay Myo Min hla Yazar Thu @ U Kyin Oo, Special squad Captain. (Ywe Let Yar Bo)

  63. Min Htin Thithi Yarzar @ U Khaung, Special squad Captain.

  64. Maha Thu wunna Thaetha @ U Yan Aung. (Rich man)

  65. Maha Thiri Thukha Thaetha @ Maung Sein. (Rich man)

  66. Mantaka Maha Thala @ U San Pyaw (Richman)

  67. Maha Bawga Punnya @ U Yit (Rich-man)

  68. Abit Shah Husaini, Chief Islamic Judge (Bodaw).

  69. Malauvi Kabul, Chief Islamic Judge (Mindon)

  70. Naymyo Gonnayat @ Khalifa U Pho Mya

  71. Khalifa U Hwe Lone.

  72. Royal ship Captain U Pho Mya.

  73. Bo Min Setkyar Amyoke Tat U Hashim.

  74. Bo Min Bone Oh Bengla Amyoke Tat, U Yauk.

  75. Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major of 275 soldiers, Head of 5 Thwe Thauks who had 55 soldiers each under them) Thwe Thauk Gyi of Cannon brigade U Bo. (I could not mention the few dozens of Thwe Thauk Gyis because of imited space)

  76. Setkyar (Amyoke Tat) Cannon brigade Chief Officer, U Pho Kar.

  77. Custom Chief, Ar Gar Sherazi (Shia Muslim)

  78. Price Controller, U Maw.

  79. Merchant U Shwe Thi.

  80. Horse Calvery Chief Captain, Wali Khan.

  81. Horse Calvery Captain U Tu Wa , Wali Khan Horse Calvery.

  82. Thibaw’s personal secretary, U Hashim.

  83. Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major) U Danaing (Kindar Kala Pyo Army) Grandfather of Pathi U Ko Ko Lay.

  84. There are many Thwe Thauk Gyis, Captains and Palace Ladies closed to the queen.

[edit] See also

 References

  1. ^ Burmese Encyclopedia Vol 11, P 73 printed in 1970

  2. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  3. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 157.

  4. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 166.

  5. ^ U Shwe Yoe’s alias U Ba Ga Lay by Tin Soe. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001. page 80,91&82 1

  6. ^ Ludu Daw Ah Mar, Shwe Yoe, Ba Galay – Artists of the same names in 2 volumes 1969

  7. ^ ibid

  8. ^ ibid

  9. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  10. ^ This poem in Burmese, “Sayar Maung Thaw Ka” by Kyaw Zwa in Burma Digest published on 23. 06.2007 mentioned this fact.[1]

  11. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.

  12. ^ ibid

  13. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  14. ^ Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  15. ^ Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  16. ^ “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. page 90-112.

  17. ^ General Ne win’s personal assistant Thetkatho Ne Win’s records.

  18. ^ Mar Mar Aye’s radio interview

  19. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  20. ^ ibid

  21. ^ The “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111.

Panthay; Burmese Chinese Muslims

Continue reading

Panthay; Latest diaspora Part 2

Panthay; Latest diaspora

Latest diaspora

The demise of the Sultanate had shattered the hopes of all the Panthays for a bright future in their own Islamic kingdom in Yunnan. The blood-bath that occurred in its wake had made the decision for many Panthays: to flee the country for those who could make it, and not to return to Yunnan for those who were already outside. In the first category were the refugees in the Wa State, and in the second were those who were in Mandalay at the time the Sultanate fell. As has been said earlier, the Panthays in Mandalay had left their families behind when they set out for Burma. These Panthay businessmen now realized that it would be at least some years before they would see their families in China again. Thus, many of them started raising second families in Mandalay by taking Burmese Muslim wives. This explains why most of the first-generation Panthays of Mandalay had non-Chinese wives and why their descendants today are Burmanized. In later years, when things became more favorable, these early Panthays of Mandalay alternated their stay between their Chinese and Burmese wives.

[edit] Colonel Mah Too-tu settled in Mandalay for good

Colonel Mah Too-tu found himself in the same situation. When he came to Mandalay with the mission to build the Panthay Mosque, he left his family behind in Yunnan. When the mission had been accomplished, he was assigned by the Sultan to take charge of the Panthay business enterprise at Taryedan.[27] When the Sultanate fell, Mah Too-tu was stranded at Mandalay. For a man of his rank and stature, going back to Tali-fu meant sure execution by the Manchu authorities. Mah Too-tu had no other alternative but to settle down in Mandalay. Since November 1868 he had bought a plot of land with a house on it for 80 pieces of one-kyat coins from Khunit Ywa-sa Princess.[28] The plot happened to be at the southwest corner of the land granted by King Mindon to the Panthays (corner of’ 36th and 80th Street). The addition of Mah Too-tu’s plot made the Panthay compound into a full square. On 7 June, 1873, Mah Too- tu married Shwe Gwe, a lady from Sagyin-wa village near Amarapura, who happened to be the daughter of a princess of Manipur brought to Mandalay as a captive by the Burmese king.[29] Mah Too-tu spent the last years of his life at the Panthay Compound with his Burmese wife.

[edit] Panthays established in Mandalay

After the mass exodus from Yunnan, the number of Panthays residing in Mandalay gradually increased. The new arrivals, usually families, came by way of Bhamo or via the Wa State. When the land for the Panthays was granted by King Mindon, there were a few houses on it, in addition to several old graves.[30] This shows that the place had been an abandoned graveyard. In the years immediately following the completion of the mosque, the number of houses in the Panthay Compound was less than twenty. There were also between ten and twenty Panthay households living in other parts of Mandalay. But a trickle of new arrivals added to their number.

The establishment of the Panthay Mosque in 1868 marked the emergence of the Chinese Muslims as a distinct community at Mandalay. Although the number of this first generation of Panthays remained small, the Mosque, which is still standing, constitutes a historic landmark. It signifies the beginning of the first Panthay Jama’at (Congregation) in Mandalay Ratanabon Naypyidaw.

[edit] Early 20th century

Over the next thirty or so years the Panthays of Panglong continues to prosper, though by the early 1920s a feud had begun to develop between them and the Was of neighbouring Pankawn. In 1926 this erupted into the local “Wa Panthay War”, in which the latter were victorious and as a result of which Panglong threw off its vassalage to Pangkawn and reinforced its dominance over the trade routes of the region31. In addition to legitimate trading, by this time the Panthays, of Panglong were securely established as ‘the aristocrats of the opium business’ in the region now commonly designated the Golden Triangle, leaving the Petty and risky business of peddlings this highly profitable commodity locally to Shan and Han Chinese dealers, and instead running large, well-armed caravans in long-distance convoys far into Siam, Laos, Tonking and Yunnan. When Harvey visited Panglong in 1931 he found that Panthay numbers had risen to 5,000 (‘including local recruits’), that they were financed by Singaporean Chinese, had 130 mauser rifles with 1,500 mules, and exported opium by the hundredweight into French, Siamese and British territory, each muleload escorted by two riflemen.

Meanwhile, despite the relative importance of Panglong and the profits to be made from the long-distance caravan, other Panthays moved further into Burma, initially as miners anxious to exploit the ruby mines of Mogok; the Badwin silver mines of Namtu in the Northern Shan State, the jade mines of Mogaung in Kachin State. Numbers of Panthay restaurateurs and innkeepers, merchants and traders settled in the urban centres of upland Burma – chiefly at Lashio, Kengtung, Bhamo and Taunggyi – to service the needs of theses miners, passing caravaneers and the local inhabitants, whilst other settlements largely devoted to trade with the indigenous Shan and Karen populations sprang up along the Salween River. Finally, other Panthay elements moved to the major urban centres of the Burmese lowlands, most notably to Mandalay and Rangoon, where they flourished as merchants and representatives of their up – country fellows, as well as middle-men between Panglong and the other “Overland Chinese” settlements of Upper Burma and the “Overseas Chinese” community of the lowland port-cities. Bassein and Moulmein must also have attracted some Panthay settlement, the latter port being a terminus of the overland caravan trade from Yunnan in its own right, via the northern Thai trade route through Kengtung, Chiang Mai and Mae Sariang.

During the greater part of the period of British rule in Burma these Panthay settlers flourished, specialising in all levels of commerce from the international gem (and opium) markets to shop – and inn-keeping, mule-breeding and peddling or hawking – indeed Yunnanese peddlars (who may or may not have been Muslim) even penetrated into the unadministered and inaccessible hill tracts of “The Triangle” between Mali Hka and Nmai Hka, to the north of Myitkyina]]. Chiefly, however, beyond the urban centres of the Burmese lowlands, the Panthays continued their involvement in the caravan trade with Yunnan, transporting silk, opium, tea, metal goods and foodstuffs (eggs, fruit, nut and even the renowned Yunnanese hams (doubtless for consumption by their Han fellow countrymen) from China to Burma, and carrying back European manufactured goods, broadcloths, specialised foodstuffs (edible birds nests, sea slugs) and above all raw cotton, to Yunnan.

Because of the essentially itinerant nature of this caravan traffic and the semi-licit or illegal nature of some aspects of the trans-frontier trade, it has always been difficult to provide accurate statistics for the distribution and numbers of “Panthay” Chinese settled in Burma, Indeed, rejection of the term “Panthay” by the Chinese Muslims, relatively easy confusion between Hui and Han Chinese by uninformed or overworked census officials, and an inherent suspicion of government bureaucracy (which may seek to control movement or to levy taxes) has made accurate census-taking amongst the Panthay of Burma all but impossible. Thus, in 1931 Harvey estimated the population of Panglong (which was predominantly Panthay) at 5,000 persons. Yet official estimates put the Panthay population of Burma at 2,202 for 1911 (1,427 males and 775 females), whilst by the 1921 Census of India this had declined to 1,517 (1,076 males and 441 females), and by 1931 to 1,106 (685 males and 421 females).

[edit] World War II and independence

A Census for 1941 was never taken, being interrupted by World War II and the Japanese invasion; indeed, it was as a result of the Japanese invasion the main Panthay settlement at Panglong was destroyed, and many Panthay fled to Yunnan, or crossed the largely unpoliced jungle frontiers into Thailand and Laos to escape Japanese persecution. The traditional dominance of Panthay in the trade of the Burma-Yunnan frontier region was also set back by the construction of the Burma Road between Lashio and Kunming in 1937-38, and by the exodus of thousands of Yunnanese refugees and Kuomintang troops following the seizure of power by the Chinese Communists in 1949. As a result of these developments, which brought a flood of predominantly Han, and not Hui, “Overland Chinese” to the Burmese Shan States, many Panthay seem to have chosen to migrate to northern Thailand, where their communities continue to flourish.

No comprehensive census of the remaining Panthay population within Burma has been taken since 1931, and restrictions on travel for foreigners, combined with the inherent weakness of central government control over those outlying areas of the Shan and Kachin Hills where many Panthays live, makes any attempt to calculate Burma’s present (1986) Panthay population almost impossible (though an exaggerated estimate of 100,000 Panthays resident within Burma appeared in the Burmese daily Hanthawaddi in 1960. Certainly readily identifiable Panthay communities continue to exist in several areas which are open to foreign travel (Rangoon, Mandalay, Taunggyi), as well as, by report, in Kengtung, Bhamo, Mogok, Lashio and at Tanyan, near Lashio. Wherever they have settled in sufficient numbers, the Panthays have established their own mosques and madrasas (for example the Panthay Balee at Mandalay Short Lane, Rangoon, at Mandalay and in Myitkyina). Some of these mosques are in “pseudo-Moghul” style, clearly having been influenced by Indian Muslim tastes and styles, whilst others (notably at Mandalay) have Chinese architectural features. As with the Hui in China, the Burmese Panthay are exclusively Hanafi; few are conversant with more than the most elementary phrases of Arabic, and quite often when a Panthay imam is not available to care for the spiritual welfare of a community, a South Asian or Zerbadi Muslim is engaged instead.

[edit] Present Panthays in Myanmar

Panthays are spread over many parts of Myanmar with their mosques in Yangon, Taungyi, Lashio, Tangyang, Kyaington, Pyin-Oo-Lwin, Myitkyina and Mogok.[31]

[edit] References

  1. ^ (Scott, 1900, 607)

  2. ^ (Yule & Burnell, 1968, 669)

  3. ^ (Forbes, 1987, 292)

  4. ^ (Forbes, 1987, 290)

  5. ^ (Forbes, 1987,193)

  6. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 2)

  7. ^ (The Sladen Report, 1871, 7)

  8. ^ (The Sladen Report, 1871, 4)

  9. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 4)

  10. ^ (Forbes 1987, 293)

  11. ^ (Ba Shin, 1962, 2)

  12. ^ (Ba Shin, 1961, 2)

  13. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 233)

  14. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 233)

  15. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 343)

  16. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 242)

  17. ^ (Interview with U Aung Myint)

  18. ^ (Interview with Haji U Ba Thi alias Haji Adam (born 11 October, 1908) a Panthay elder who had served for many years as chairman of the Trust of ‘the Panthay Mosque, on 15 October, 1997.)

  19. ^ (Interview with Haji U Ba Thi)

  20. ^ (Sladen Report, 1876,5)

  21. ^ (Thaung, 1961, 481)

  22. ^ (Thaung, 1961, 481)

  23. ^ (Thaung, 1961, 481)

  24. ^ (Anderson, 1876, 243)

  25. ^ (Thaung, 1961, 482)

  26. ^ (Scott, 1901, 740)

  27. ^ (Interview with Haji U Ba Thi)

  28. ^ (Family Parabaik)

  29. ^ (Than Tun, 1968, 19)

  30. ^ (Interview with Haji U Ba Thi)

  31. ^ Message from Maung Ko Ghaffari, Chief Editor, Light of Islam Magazine, Myanmar in Feb. 2007

[edit] Bibliography

1. Anderson, John, Mandalay to Momien: A Narrative of the Two Expeditions to Western China of 1868 and 1875 (London: Macmillan, 1876).
2. Ba Shin, Lt. Colonel, “Coming of Islam to Burma Down to l700 AD.,” Asian History Congress (New Delhi: Azad Bhavan, 1961).
3. Forbes, D.W., “The Role of Hui Muslims in the Traditional Caravan Trade between Yunnan and Thailand,” Asian Merchants and Businessmen in the Indian Ocean and the China sea: 13-20 Centuries(French Journal published under the direction of Denys Lombard & Jean Aubin), (Paris: School of Higher Studies in Social Sciences, 1987).
4. Kaye, J.W., Major Sladen’s Report on the Bhamo Route, (In Continuation of’ Parliamentary Paper No. 251, of Session 1868-9), (London: India Office, 1871), Microfilm copy.
5. Scott, J. George, GUBSS, 1, i ( Rangoon Government Printing, 1900).
6. ibid GUBSS, ii, ii (Rangoon- Government Printing, 1901).
7. Thaung, Dr., “Panthay Interlude in Yunnan: A Study in Vicissitudes Through the Burmese Kaleidoscope,” JBRS Fifth Anniversary Publications No. 1 (Rangoon Sarpy Beikman, 1961).
8. Yule, Col. Henry & Burnell, A. C., Hobson-Jobson- A Glossary of Colloquial Anglo-Indian Words and Phrases, and of Kindred Terms, Etymological, Historical, Geographical And Discursive (Delhi-.Munshiran Manoharlal, 1968), Reprint.
9. Than Tun, Dr. (Professor of History), History on Tour, 111, (In Myanmar) (Yangon Nantha House, August 1968).
10. Parabaik dated 13 November, 1868 containing a short account of’ Mah Too-tu’s purchase of land and house from Khunit Ywa-sa Princess (a family parabaik of the writer).
11. Interview with U Aung Myint (aged 75), a higher grade pleader, before the war, and buildingcontractor after the war, on 11 December, 1987. Although a Myanmar Buddhist, U Aung Myint wasvery friendly with Khala Kyawt, a Myanmar Muslim who had lived in the Panthay Compound formany years in the pre-war days and who had in her possession a parabaik manuscript on the Tayoktan quarrel between the Chinese and the Panthays, and the circumstances leading to the granting of land by King Mindon for the residence of Panthays and the construction of the Parithay Mosque. U Aung Myint had personally read this parabaik, which, unfortunately was destroyed by fire during the war. U Aung Myint had lived close to the Panthay Compound before the war and the house in which he had lived is said to be inside the Panthay Compound at one time.

[edit] See also

[edit] External links

  • Myanmar Muslim Information Centre (MMIC)-[2]

  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 11- About Myanmar Muslims. and Myanmar Indian Muslims. [3]

  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 10- Myanmar Muslims, Myanmar Chinese Muslims and Migrants. [4]

  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Letter 9- Myanmar Muslims.[5]

  • Myanmar Muslim news- [6]

  • Burmese Muslims Network- [7]

  • Islamic Unity Brotherhood [8]

  • Myanmar Muslim political Awareness Organization- [9]

  • Panthay on line community- [10]

  • Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights [11]

  • US Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2005 on Burma [12]

  • US Department of State, Burma, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2005

  • Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor [13]

  • Amnesty International’s report on Burma [14]

  • UK Conservatives’ Human Rights [15]

  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims [16][17]

  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims [18]

  • Racial Discriminations on Burmese Muslims [19][20]

  • Human Rights issues in Burma [21]

  • PRAYERS FOR BURMA [22]

  • Priestly, Harry. “The Outsiders“, The Irrawaddy, 2006-01. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • Butkaew, Samart. “Burmese Indians: The Forgotten Lives“, Burma Issues, 2005-02. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • The Persecution of Muslims in Burma, by Karen Human Rights Group

Continue reading

Burmese Indians

  Burmese Indians

Shri Kali Temple in Yangon

The Burmese Indians (Burmese: MLCTS: ku. la: lu myui:) are a group of overseas Indians from Myanmar (formerly Burma). They form approximately 2% (about 950,000) [1] on the CIA World Factbook 2006. of the population, although exact figures do not exist due to intermarriage between Indians and other ethnic groups.

Contents

[hide]

//

History

The term “Burmese Indian” refers to a broad range of ethnic groups from South Asia, most notably from present-day Bangladesh and India. The widely-accepted term ka-la, however, is considered derogatory. Its root is believed to be ku la meaning either “to cross over (the Bay of Bengal)” or “person” depending on the way it is pronounced.[2] According to the History Professor U Than Tun, the ‘Kala’ is derived from “Ku lar” meaning the people who adhere to a caste system.[3] Their association with foreign rule and repression in the form of colonial courts, police [4] and Sepoys under the command of the British has been mainly responsible for a lasting animosity compounded by the more obvious difference in their physical appearance, unlike the Chinese who also happen to be Buddhists and historically regarded by the Bamar as their cousins. White Europeans were also called kala hpyu (white kala) before British rule became established.[5]The Indian was seen to be subservient and loyal to the white man giving rise to the expression, Myin oungun, kyun kala, maya tawthu – “a chestnut for a horse, a kala for a slave and a village girl for a wife”. [citation needed]

The majority of Indians arrived in Burma whilst it was part of British India as indentured labourers, civil servants, engineers, river pilots and traders. [6] It was perhaps the Tamil-speaking Chettiars (moneylenders) who did the most damage to the Indians’ standing in Burmese eyes.[5][7] They came in when the rice trade boomed after the opening of the Suez Canal [8], but when depression hit in 1930 and the price of rice plummeted, they foreclosed on the peasants confiscating land and livestock. [9] This led to a peasant uprising that became known as The Galon Rebellion led by a former monk called Saya San and eventually subdued by bringing in more Indian Sepoys. Widespread riots also broke out in Rangoon when the port authorities tried to break an Indian dockers strike by bringing in Burmese workers.[7] [10] Many Indians in Myanmar live in large cities such as Yangon (Rangoon), and in post-British hill towns such as Pyin U Lwin (formerly Maymyo). In Pyin U Lwin, we could still find many Burmese-Indians.

British colony Burma

During the British colonial administration of Burma, Indian Immigrants were brought in to run the almost all of the Government Services and to run the British companies. They also formed the military and civilian staff of the British Army and Burma Police Force. Some of them were clerks, almost in all the fields of manpower (skilled and unskilled). Others were doctors, engineers, hospital and medical workers, teachers, Burma Railway staff, river shipping staff, Post office staff and rice mill staff. Some were staff and workers for; mines, oil fields, banks, shops, treasury and Public Administration office. As private civilians, they also came in as; traders, various type of shop owners, servants, launders (dhobi), hotel and restaurant owners, dispatch boys, watchmen etc.[11]

Origin of Burmese Indians

[edit] Tamils

Tens of thousands of Tamil people from Tamil Nadu came to work in Burma during the British colonial rule. Telugu and Hindi speaking workers also migrated at that time. Burmese Tamils (Myanmar Tamils) had their own Tamil language magazines for local and Tamil Nadu news, schools for teaching Tamil, and movie theaters for screening Tamil movies imported from India. Telugu and Hindi speakers also had similar institutions and facilities. The “immigrant population”, although many had been living there for generations and have integrated with the Burmese society, became a target for discrimination and oppression by the new government formed after the military coup in 1962. The Myanmar Military Government closed down the Tamil, Telugu and Hindi magazines, schools, except for schools that were operated from temples and houses.[12]

“A report dated March 1966 from Burma states:

  • Tamil population 200,000

  • Telegu population 50,000

  • Malayalee population 5,000

About 50 primary schools are conducted by Tamils. The Rasika Ranjani and Thondan, two Tamil dailies have been banned since January 1966. There are over 40 Hindu temples founded and administered by Tamils in Burma, and two Tamil Catholic parishes. The Nattukkotai Chettiars administer Thendayuthapani temples in 32 towns.” ” Our Tamilians along with other Indians are leaving Burma for good.”[13][14] There are many South Indian Temples all over Rangoon or Yangoon, but like all buildings, they are not well maintained. Even today South Indian restaurants in Burma are called Chetty Restaurants because Chettiar are also Tamils . Food is plentiful and very cheap. Burma is the only place in the world where Tamil writings and language is a kind of banned! The remaining Tamils, around 500,000 have adapted themselves, embraced Buddhist ways in addition to Hinduism, speak Burmese and dress in Burmese style. Indians are also needed to adopt Burmese names to avoid blatant outright discriminations.[15] Tamil muslims are called Chulias. Some of them come from Madaras and called Madarasi. They are metal-tool merchants.[16]

[edit] Chettiars

Chettiars are also known as Chetti, Chetty, Chety, Shetty or Setti. The first Chettiars arrived Burma during the British rule – in 1826 accompanying Indian troops and labourers during the British campaign in Tenasserim in the first Aglo-Burmese war.[17] Their activities, however, were petty and remained so even after the first formal Chettiar ‘office’ was established in Moulmein in 1850.[18] It was, however, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the passing of the Burma Land Act brought about the mass entry of Chettiars into Burma. By 1880 the Chettiars had fanned out throughout Burma and by the end of the century they had become by far the ‘the most important factor in the agricultural credit structure of Lower Burma’.[19] By 1905 there were about 30 Chettiar offices in Burma. According to the Burma Provincial Banking Enquiry Report (BPBE), the most dependable source on the extent of Chettiar operations, this number had increased to 1,650 by 1930.[20] Conveying more graphically the ubiquity of Chettiar offices, the BPBE concluded (1930a:203) that in ‘nearly every well-populated part of Lower Burma there is a Chettiar within a day’s journey of every cultivator’.

A community of moneylenders indigenous to Chettinad, Tamil Nadu,the Chettiars operated throughout the Southeast Asian territories of the British Empire. They played a particularly prominent role in Burma where, they were typically demonised as rapacious usurers, responsible for all manner of vices concomitant with the colonial economy. Not least of these was the chronic land alienation of the Burmese cultivator. Their role was crucial in the dramatic growth in Burma’s agricultural output during the colonial era. Success of the Chettiars in Burma lay less in the high interest rates they charged, than it did to patterns of internal organisation that provided solutions to the inherent problems faced by financial intermediaries. A proper functioning financial system could have provided better solutions perhaps for Burma’s long-term development, but Burma did not have such a system, then. Tersely and pointedly speaking, Chettiar banks are fiery dragons that parch every land that has the misfortune of coming under their wicked creeping..[21]

Without the assistance of the Chettiar banking system Burma would never have achieved the wonderful advance of the last 25 to 30 years…The Burman today is a much wealthier man than he was 25 years ago; and for this state of affairs the Chettiar deserves his thanks.[22]

The Chettiars were the crucial providers of the capital that turned Burma into the ‘rice-bowl’ of the British Empire. But they were seen as the moneylenders, vilified as predatory usurors whose purpose was to seize the land of the Burmese cultivator. The truth was that the Chettiars were the primary providers of capital to Burmese cultivators through much of the colonial period, but the combination of the collapse of paddy prices in the Great Depression, the Chettiar insistence of land as collateral, and the imposition of British land-title laws, did bring about a substantial transfer of Burma’s cultivatable land into their hands. The Chettiars did not charge especially high interest rates and, indeed, their rates were much lower than indigenous moneylenders. In the end the Chettiars were expelled from Burma, in the process losing the land they had acquired and much of their capital.

Chettiars had the role in the reclamation of the Irrawaddy Delta for rice growing. Burma’s emergence as the ‘rice-bowl’ of the British Empire came as a result of what J S Furnivall (1956:116) memorably lauded as the ‘epic bravery and endurance’ of the country’s cultivators in reclaiming the swamps and jungles of the Irrawaddy Delta. An epic motivated by Burma’s entry into the commercial imperatives of the British Empire, the conversion of the Delta into rich paddy-producing land initially required little capital. Britain’s great ‘exchange banks’ took care of shipping, milling and other export-finance needs, and up until the middle of the nineteenth century the amount of capital required ‘on the ground’ in land preparation was slight. As Adas (1974b:389)noted,[23]in the early years of British rule in ‘Lower Burma’ the growth in rice exports was founded on cheap and surplus labour within cultivator families, and upon abundant land that required little more than clearing.[24]

[edit] Brahmans

Brahmans are known as Ponnas in Burmese. They are priests and scholars of the highest ranking group or most purified among the cast system in India. Ancient Burmese Kings up to the present Military Rulers and most of the Myanmar Citizens used to rely them for advise as they are famous in Astrology and Palmistry. Burmese Kings used the service of the “White Ponna” and “Dark Ponna” as consultants for any advise in daily events up to the administration of the country e.g. for the Royal customs, rules and regulations. Sometimes they were given the post of the Royal Ministers. In Burmese folk tales and religious stories, they were usually portrayed as villains.

The Buddhist kings of Indo-China had borrowed from Hinduism much of their court ceremonial. In Burma, Siam, Cambodia and Champa, and in a host of smaller states, Brahman astrologers and soothsayers were masters of the ceremonies. As interpreters of the omens and repositories of ancient tradition their influence was great.[25]

[edit] Hindi

The “Hindi” are the people who speak Hindi language which is an Indo-Aryan language. There are conflicts between the Urdu speakers (mostly Muslims) and the Hindi speakers (mostly Hindus). The Hindi speakers are divided into a number of ethnic and social groups. The Hindus, who constitute the largest group, are divided into four main social groups called “castes”, a hierarchical order based on the principles of “purity and pollution”,as below_

  • Brahmans, the priests and scholars

  • Kshatriyas, the rulers and warriors

  • Vaisyas, the merchants and professionals

  • Sudras, the laborers and servants

These four castes have many sub-castes, which are further divided into circles. Castes are culture groups, based not only on occupations, but also on customs, manners, and habits. The majority of the Hindi speakers are Hindus, which is considered more a lifestyle than a religion. Hindus worship a pantheon of gods. They believe that sacrifices and offerings must be made to the gods regularly to appease them and avoid calamity. Hinduism teaches that the soul never dies. When the body dies, the soul is reborn or “reincarnated.” The soul may be reborn as an animal or as a human. They worship some gods in the form of animals. Cows are considered sacred, but other animals are also revered. The law of “karma” states that every action influences how the soul will be born in the next reincarnation. If a person lives a good life, the soul will be born into a higher state. If a person leads an evil life, the soul will be born into a lower state.

The Muslim Hindi-speaking women still follow the tradition of purdah, which is the covering of their entire bodies, especially their eyes, as a sense of seclusion. However, purdah is practiced to varying degrees depending on the extent of westernization and urbanization.

[edit] Bengali

The Bengali came from Bengal region, that is Bangladesh and West Bengal, a state in India. Their native language is Bengali. Their culture remains diversified e.g. from various castes, such as the Brahman, Kayastha, Vaidya, Namasudra, Gandha Banik, Saadgop, Napit, Mahisya, Kanaani, and Subarnabanik. Their occupations and religions had created other cultural distinctions as well. The majority of Bengalis are Muslims (60%), while the rest are Hindu or Hinduized animists. The Bengali of Bangladesh are the largest group and are 99.9% Mulsims.

Bengali Hindu worship many gods. Cows, monkeys, snakes, and many other animals are sacred. They teach and practice yoga and believed in reincarnation (a continual cycle of death and rebirth). The law of karma states that every action influences how the soul will be born in the next life. The cycle continues until spiritual perfection is achieved. Then the soul enters moksha, a new level of existence, from which it never returns.

Some of them are staying near the Myanmar- Bangladesh border and Mawlamyaing City, Mon State.

Bengalis from Chittagong are famous as sailors and took over river shipping in Burma. [26]

[edit] Gujarati and Soorti

The Gujarati came from the state of Gujarat, western India. Their language is Gujarati. They are a complex group, speaking various dialects and having many cultural distinctions. Some of these differences are based on region, while others are based on their “caste”. They are often involved in trade or in operating small businesses.

The Hindus, who make up the largest group, are divided into a number of castes or jatis. They practice purdah i.e. the women are required to wear veils and remain isolated.

Approximately 30% of them are Muslims and those Gujarati Muslims are called Soorti. There are a lot of Soorti in Burma/Myanmar. Most of them are well to do merchants [27] and entrepreneurs and industrialists.

[edit] Orisi or Oriya

While there are 25 million Orisi in India, some of them migrated to Bangladesh and Burma. The Orisi speak an Indo-Aryan language called Oriya and also known as Oriya. United Nations ex-Secretary General U Thant’s father is an Oriya.

Almost all the Oriya are Hindu. They used to pray to the deities, the “disease spirits,” and the village gods. Gunias (magicians) practice witchcraft and sorcery. Extensive rituals and festivals are celebrated throughout the land. The Orisi believe that sickness is placed on people by evil spirits and witches. They also sustain the belief that planets and stars in the zodiac are responsible for an individual’s physical and mental condition. They look to herbal folk medicines, exorcisms, and the gunias for cures from these and other illnesses. The Orisi believe that death is simply a passing from one life into the next. They believe that this cycle of death and rebirth will continue until the spirit merges with the person’s “absolute soul.” They believe that Yama, the god of justice, sends the soul to heaven or hell.

[edit] Gurkhas

Gurkha, also spelt as Gorkha, are people from Nepal who take their name from the eighth century Hindu warrior-saint Guru Gorakhnath. His disciple Bappa Rawal later moved further east to found the house of Gorkha, which in turn founded the Kingdom of Nepal.Many Gurkhas or Nepalese migrated out of Nepal and settled in various parts of northern India, Myanmar, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. They speak Khas Kura language. Like other Hindu, the Nepalese belong to a “caste” structure which has only two categories: upper class landowners and lower class servants. Most of the Nepalese in Myanmar are farmers and most of them own the lands. They grew wet rice, dry rice, maize, millet, wheat and vegetable. Most of the farmers raise buffalo and goats for meat and cows for milk. Nepalese villages consist of loosely grouped homes surrounded by farm land. Some of them are staying in larger towns where the temples or monasteries are located.

Almost all of the Nepalese in Myanmar are Hindus, worshipping many gods. They believe in ghosts and demons. Many Gurkha or Nepalese arrived Burma with the British India Army. Gurkhas are best known for their history of bravery and strength in the British Army Brigade of Gurkhas and the Indian Army. They were designated by the British as a Martial Race. Martial Race is a designation created by officials of British India to describe “races” (peoples) that were thought to be naturally warlike and aggressive in battle, and to possess qualities like courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, hard working, fighting tenacity and military strategy. The British recruited heavily from these Martial Races for service in the colonial army.

Gurkhas Regiments served in the Second World War, most notably in Malaya and Burma where the Allies suffered the intense attacks from the Japanese. They had a heavy fighting in 1944 in the Arakan and during the Japanese offensive from March to June 1944 against north-east India at Kohima and Imphal. Imphal was besieged by the Japanese until the Allies achieved a decisive victory at Kohima in June and the Japanese fled back into Burma. The Regiment continued with the successful Allied offensive into Burma and on the 3 May the Burmese capital Rangoon was liberated. Gurkha soldiers have won 13 Victoria Crosses. Ethnically, Gurkhas who are presently serving in the British armed forces are Indo-Tibeto-Mongolians. Gurkhas serving in the Indian Armed Forces are of both groups, Indo-Tibeto-Mongolian and ethnic Rajput. Gurkhas of Indo-Tibeto-Mongolian origin mostly belong to the Gurung, Magar, Tamang, Khasa and Kiranti origin, many of whom are adherents of Tibetan Buddhism and Shamanism. [28]

All Gurkhas, regardless of ethnic origin, speak Nepali, an Indo-Aryan language. They are also famous for their large knife called the khukuri.

[edit] Punjabis

The majority of the Punjabi live in India and Pakistan; but they can also be found in nearly thirty other countries. Punjabi is an Indo-European language that is divided into six main dialects. It is primarily spoken in the major regions of India and Pakistan. Those who speak Punjabi language or those who inhabit the Punjab region are called Punjabi.

It is commonly said among the Punjabi that “land, women, and water are the sources of all conflicts.” This simply means that they deem it necessary to control the means by which one perpetuates his family and property. The Diaspora Punjabi reflect the three major religions of their homeland: Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism. Most of the Diaspora Punjabi speakers are Sikhs, except for those in Myanmar, who are mostly atheists. Sikhism is a monotheistic religion that was founded in northern India during the sixteenth century. Its teachings have combined the elements of both Hinduism and Islam in an attempt to find one god who transcends all religious distinctions.[29]

In March 1944, the Japanese 31st Division moved northwestward in Burma’s Naga hills and invaded Imphal and Kohima in India. Finally, after 64 days, amid terrible losses on both sides, the Japanese were beaten back. The determination and gallantry shown by allied troops in the Kohima siege was quick to become the subject of poem, song, and legend.Today in the Kohima cemetery, among the 1,378 grave markers, is the famous Kohima Memorial with its historic inscription:

“When you go home
Tell them of us, and say,
For your tomorrow
We gave our today”

The Burma Star Association was founded in 1951 by Admiral the Lord Louis Mountbatten, Field Marshal the Viscount Slim and other British Veterans of the Burma Campaigns. Admiral Mountbatten had been CinC of the Allied Southeast Asia Command (SEAC) with the late General Joseph C. “Vinegar Joe” Stillwell as Deputy CinC. Stillwell was also the Commander of the U.S. China-Burma-India Theater of Operations and Chief of Staff to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-sheck for all Chinese forces in the CBI. Then General William Slim Commanded the British XIV Army in India and Burma. Following the total defeat of Japanese Imperial forces in Southeast Asia General Slim is said to have told his troops: “When you go home don’t worry about what to tell your loved ones and friends about service in Asia. No one will know where you were, or where it is if you do. You are, and will remain ‘The Forgotten Army.’”

Reunions were held by various units (UK) in England and the China-Burma-India Veterans Association was formed in the U.S. In 1950 only, Admiral Montbatten started the Burma Star Organization. Admiral Mountbatten became the first patron, an honor held until his death by assassination in 1979. Current Royal Patron is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The first president was Field Marshal the Viscount Slim upon whose death was succeeded by his son, Colonel the Viscount Slim.

“I have never met a despondent Sikh in the front line. In a hospital in the rear he will moan dreadfully over a small wound, but in a fight he will go on to his last breath, and die laughing at the thought of Paradise, with the battle-cry of Khalsa ji ki jai as he falls.

“This very cry, a friend told me, came over a field telephone in the Arakan when a Sikh signal-havildar had been cut off beyond hope of rescue. The line remained alive. The havildar described to my friend how the Japanese were creeping up. A pause, then he came back to say that he had killed a skirmisher, but that now his ammunition was exhausted. “There’s not much time, Sahib. I’ll break the telephone before they get me. Victory to the Holy Brotherhood!” They found him dead beside an enemy he had brained with the butt of his Sten.

“A remarkable people, the Sikhs, with their Ten Prophets, five distinguishing marks, and their baptismal rite of water stirred with steel; a people who have made history, and will make it again.”

“Every man in this magnificent battalion of the Indian State Forces [1st Patiala Regiment] stands 5 foot 11 inches, or over: they are the finest lot of Sikhs I have ever seen, and that is saying much. Every officer in the Lieutenant-Colonel Balwant Singh’s battalion is a Sikh. In discipline, turn-out, and fighting efficiency the 1st Patialas have earned the unstinting admiration of all their comrades in the division.”[30][31]

“Finally, we that live on can never forget those comrades who in giving their lives gave so much that is good to the story of the Sikh Regiment. No living glory can transcend that of their supreme sacrifice, may they rest in peace. In the last two world wars 83,005 turban wearing Sikh soldiers were killed and 109,045 were wounded. They all died or were wounded for the freedom of Britain and the world and during shell fire, with no other protection but the turban, the symbol of their faith.”

[edit] Pathans

Pathans or Pashtuns[32] (also Pathans[33] or ethnic Afghans[34][35]) are an ethno-linguistic group with populations primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan and in the North-West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. The Pashtuns are typically characterized by their Pashto language, adherence to Pashtunwali (a pre-Islamic indigenous religious code of honor and culture)[36] and Islam. Pashtun martial prowess has been renowned since Alexander the Great‘s invasion in the third century BCE.[37] Their modern past began with the rise of the Durrani Empire in 1747. The Pashtuns were also one of the few groups that managed to impede British imperialism during the 19th century.[38] The Pashtuns are the world’s largest (patriarchal) segmentary lineage tribal group.[39] The total population of the group is estimated to be at least 40 million. Pashtun regions have seen invasions and migrations including Aryan tribes (Iranian peoples, Indo-Aryans, Medes, and Persians), Scythians, Kushans, Hephthalites, Greeks, Arabs, Turks, and Mongols.

The patrilineal definition is based on an important orthodox law of Pashtunwali. Its main requirement is that anyone claiming to be a Pashtun must have a Pashtun father. Under this definition, in order to be an ethnic Pashtun, there is less regard as to what language one speaks (Pashto, Persian, Urdu, English, etc.), while more emphasis is placed upon one’s father. Thus, the Pathans in Myanmar, for example, who have lost both the language and presumably many of the ways of their putative ancestors, can, by being able to trace their fathers’ ethnic heritage back to the Pashtun tribes. Recently some research persons found out that about three thousand Afghanis were settled around Mandalay, during the Burmese kings. They served in various places in Burmese kings’ army and were brought back to the capital from Arakan. And some of the Afghanis helped the Kamans in Arakan State of Burma to rebel against Arakan Myauk U and cause the end of that era.[40]

[edit] Indians in Burmese History

The highway between India and China [41][42]

India and China are the world’s biggest and ancient cradle of civilizations. High, snow peaked, rough and steep Himalaya mountain ranges block the direct interaction or travelling between the two of them except for the virtual highway through Myanmar/Burma. So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc moving along this Burma Highway and some of them settled in Burma.

In the official Thailand History books, they even claim that all of the Tibeto-Burman groups including Tibet came down from Yunnan stressing that Tibet had made an almost U turn and climbed beck onto the Tibet Highlands.[43]

There was the Burma Road which linked Burma and China. Its terminals are Kunming in China and Lashio in Burma. The road is about 1,130 kilometres long and runs through rough mountain country. General Merrill and General Stillwell built during the colonial times under British. When the Japanese overran sections of the Burma Road the Allies built the Ledo Road, also later known as the Stillwell Road. Ledo Road was built from Ledo in Assam into the Hukawng Valley as an alternative to the Burma Road. It was completed in January 1945 and was renamed Stilwell Road by Chiang Kai-shek. Now China and India are negotiating with Myanmar to build a modern high way liking their countries through Burma including to lay natural gas pipe line from Rakhine to India, Yunnan, China.

Since it was the colonialists who invented the idea of the Mongolian origins of the Burmese peoples in the first place, contradicting the Burmese belief of having originated from Northern India and Nepal, this merely confirms the strength of colonialist discourse in penetrating Burmese self-perception fifty years later. In spite of asserting commonality Minye Kaungbon[44]cannot resist the temptation to provide the Bamars with a special historical mention that lifts them high above the Mongoloid race and raises their pride as a superior race, namely that ‘Bamars are descendants of Sakyans who are of the Aryan Race or of some other descendants of Aryans’. Though there is ‘scarcely any race that can claim descent from exclusively one original race’, nevertheless, Burma’s proximity to India permits the claim that the Burmans have ‘an ornamental Aryan superstructure on the existing Mongoloid foundation’, resulting in some historians proclaiming that ‘Myanmars were descendants of Aryans’.[45]

[edit] Pyu and India

[46] Pyu, one of the three founding father of Bamar or Myanmar race was believed to be the mixture of three groups; (i) Few insignificant local inhabitants since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age, (ii) many migrants came from India bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively (iii) and the last group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group.[47]

Pyu settlement

Pyu arrived in future Burma area in the 1st century BC or earlier and established village kingdoms at: Hanlin, Kutkhaing in the north, Thanlwin coastal line in the east, Gulf of Mataban and its coast in the south, Thandwe in the southern west and Yoma in the west.[48]

Pyu had built towns in: Sri Ksetra (Pyeh) 4-8AD, Maingmaw, Beikthano. (Actually VISHNU from Hindi god) (Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD), Taung Dwin Gyi 1-4 AD,, Hanlin (Wet Let) 2-9AD, (Halingyi), Tagaung (Thabeikkyin), Waddi (Nga Htwoe Gyi), Maingmaw (Pinlay)(Myittha), Beinnaka (Pyaw Bwe), and Bilin township (Mon state)[49]

Pyu variant of the Gupta script

Pyu established ancient kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Burma. The history of the Pyu is known to us from two main historical sources: the remnants of their civilization found in stone inscriptions (some in Pali, but rendered in the Pyu script, or a Pyu variant of the Gupta script) and the brief accounts of some travellers and traders from China, preserved in the Chinese imperial history.[50]

Pyu chronicles speak of a dynastic change in A.D. 94. Sri Ksetra village was apparently abandoned around A.D. 656 it was sacked by the Nan Cho Chinese Shan in the mid-9th century, ending the Pyu’s period of dominance.

Pyu language started in 5AD in Southern Rakhine. At famous Mya Zedi Pagoda stone inscriptions were written in Pyu, Mon, Bama, and Pali in 1113AD. Pyu had written records, dated from 1st century A.D. and Mon from 5th century A.D. and Bama had its own written records only in 11th century A.D.[51][52]

Beikthano (Vishnu)

Beikthano (Vishnu) at the end of 4th. AD (9Khmer troops occupied 210-225 AD.(Taung Dwin Gyi) after which the Mons moved in, giving the cities names Panthwa and Ramanna pura. Religious remains show both forms of Buddhism, Mahayanism and Hinayanism, together with Vishnu worship. There are large stone Buddhist sculptures in relief in the Gupta style, bronze statuettes of Avalokitesvara, one of the three chief Mahayanist Bodhisattvas, and so many stone sculptures of Vishnu that the city was sometimes referred to as ‘Vishnu City’.[53]

Pyu Kings are Maharajas

In Chinese Chronicles they recorded Pyu as ‘P’aio’. But Pyu Called themselves Tircul.[54]. There are records of Nan Cho and Tibet alliance in 755 AD to defeat Chinese. Nan Cho king Ko-lo-fen communicate with Pyu. Pyu Kings were called Maharajas and Chief ministers were called Mahasinas.

Nan Cho conscripted Pyu soldiers to attack of Hanoi in 863 AD. In 832 AD Nan Cho looted Han Lin village from Pyu.[55]

Pyu kings named Vishnu as in Gupta, India

Inscriptions in Pyu language using a South Indian script, showed a Vikrama dynasty ruling there at least from AD 673 to 718.[56]On Pyu’s stone inscriptions, kings names with Vikrama were suffix with Vishnu. The same tradition was noticed in Gupta era India 100 BC.and in Sri Kestia, Mon in south, Thai and Cambodia. Statue of Vishnu standing on Garuda with Lakshmi standing on the lotus on left. And Brahma, Siva and Vishnu thrones were also found. Name, Varman indicated that there was influence of Pallava of India.[57] The mentioning of Varman dynasty, an Indian name, indicated there was a neighbouring and rival city, but Old Prome is the only Pyu site so‘ far to be excavated in that area.[58]

Indian Dravidian tribe in Panthwa

In Chinese Chronicles Chen Yi-Sein instead gives an Indian derivation for Panthwa village, as the name of a Dravidian tribe settled in Mon’s areas around the Gulf of Martaban. This group was later one of the pioneers in a ‘Monized’ occupation of Beikthano village, which also led to the village/city being called Ramanna-pura, linked to Mon areas of southern Myanmar (1999:77).[59]

The Tagaung dynasty is explicitly incorporated into the story of Duttabaung’s mother and father; the lineage of the Queen of Beikthano is less consistent, but always intertwined with that of the Sri Kestra village rulers. In all of these, links are made between territorial control, royal patronage of Hindu or Buddhist sects and supernatural events. [60]

[edit] Orissa

Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived lower Burma, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.[61]

Thamala and Wimala

Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD.[62]

[edit] Andhra Dynasty

Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (Mon town) and Syriam (Ta Nyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.[63]

[edit] Indian Royal family

Abi Raja

Some believed that Burma started from Tagaung, built by Abi Raja, a Sakian (Tha Ki Win min), Indian Royal family member, migrated from Kapilavatthu (India) after defeated by the king of Panchala (India), Vitatupa. He left the Middle Country (India) and established the Tagaung country, known at that time as Sangassarattha or Sangassanagara. On the death of Abi Raja, younger son Kan Raja Nge (younger King Kan) got the throne. Thirty-three kings reigned there.[64]

Kan Raja Gyi ruled Arakan

Elder brother Kan Raja Gyi (elder King Kan) went down the Ayeyarwaddy River, ascended the Thallawadi River, arrived Kelataungnyo and ruled there as Rajagaha. He ruled the ancient Arakan.[65]

Kan Raja Gyi’s son Muducitta

His son Muducitta became king of the Pyus (ancestors of modern Myanmar). He founded the city of Kyauppadaung. He conquered the Dhannavati (built by king Marayu).[66]

Bhinnaka Raja

The invading Chinese from the north destroyed Tagaung. The last king of Tagaung, Bhinnaka Raja run away and died later. His followers split in to three divisions.[67]

One division founded the nineteen Shan States at the eastern part.

Muducitta, grand son of Abi Raja

Another division moved down Ayeyarwady River and combined with Muducitta (second generation migrant, grand son of Indian Abi Raja) and other Sakiyan (Indian) princes, among the Pyus, Kanyans and Theks.[68]

Naga Hsein, a Sakiyan Indian

The third group stayed in Mali with the chief queen Naga Hsein, a Sakiyan.(Indian) She was the queen of the Sakyiyan king Dhaja Raja migrated from India. On the way he founded Thintwe’. Then they founded the upper Bagan(Pagan).[69]

Dahnnavata captured Thambula, queen of Pyus. But Nanhkan (China) queen of Pyus had driven out the Kanyans, who lived in seven hill-tracks beginning Thantwe’.[70]

King Dwattabaung from Indian Royal Family

King Dwattabaung, direct descendent of Abi Raja (Indian Migrant) founded Thare Khit Taya in 443 BC. It was said to be self-destroyed in 94 AD. The history is half -mystical at that time.[71]

[edit] Talaings

Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.[72]

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues).[73]

The conquest of Thaton in 1057 was a decisive event in Burmese history. It brought the Burman into direct contact with the Indian civilizing influences in the south and opened the way for intercourse with Buddhist centres overseas, especially Ceylon.[74]

The evidence of the inscriptions, Luce[75] warns us, shows that the Buddhism of Pagan ‘was mixed up with Hindu Brahmanic cults, Vaisnavism in particular.[76]

[edit] Ah Yee Gyis

Ah Yee Gyis or Aries, notoriously powerful in Pagan or Bagan, before the Buddhist Religion arrived. Ah Yee Gyis or Aries were related to one Indian sect or religion. The Indian Aris or Ah Yees were also known for, swimming, martial arts, traditional medicine practice and the custom of sleeping with the brides on the first night of weddings. They are the last to eliminate just after formation of first Bama Empire.

[edit] Bengal prince Pateik Kara

Pateikkara was an Indian (Kala) prince from ancient Bengal who fall in love with Burma Bagan’s 3rd Great King Kyansittha’s daughter. King Kyansittha indirectly cause the death of his daughter, Shwe Ein Si’s lover, Prince of Pateik Kara. He used to bribe the royal guards with ten baskets of silver to see the princess. When the king heard of the secret lovers’ tryst, he forced his daughter to marry Sawyun, the son of late King Sawlu, although Sawyun was a handicapped person walking with a limp. Kyansittha preferred him rather than a Kala (Indian). [77]

[edit] India and Arakan

The Arakanese chronicles claim that the Kingdom was founded in the year 2666 BC.[78]

Wesali founded by Hindu Chandras

“The area known as North Arakan had been for many years before the 8th century the seat of Hindu dynasties. In 788 AD a new dynasty, known as the Chandras, founded the city of Wesali. This city became a noted trade port to which as many as a thousand ships came annually; the Chandra kings were upholders of Buddhism, … their territory extended as far north as Chittagong;—- Wesali was an easterly Hindu kingdom of Bengal — Both government and people were Indian.[79] So far as Arakan is concerned, the inscriptions show traces of two early dynasties holding sway in the north. The earlier one, a Candra dynasty, seems to have been founded in the middle of the fourth century A.D. Its capital was known by the Indian name of Vaisali and it maintained close connections THE PRE-PAGAN PERIOD 9 with India. Thirteen kings of this dynasty are said to have reigned for a total period of 230 years. The second dynasty was founded in the eighth century by a ruler referred to as Sri Dharmavijaya, who was of pure Ksatriya descent. His grandson married a daughter of the Pyu king of Sri Ksetra.[80]

Hindu statues and inscriptions in Wesali

The ruins of old capital of Arakan – Wesali show Hindu statues and inscriptions of the 8th century AD. Although the Chandras usually held Buddhistic doctrines, there is reason to believe that Brahmanism and Buddhism flourished side by side in the capital.

Chittagong is from Tsit-ta-gung

The Arab chief was the Thuratan, in the Arakanese utterance whom the king of Arakan Tsula-Taing Tsandra (951-957 AD.), claimed to have defeated in his invasion of Chittagong in 953 AD. In memory of his victory the Arakanese king set up a stone trophy, in the conquered land. And inscribed on it the Burmese word, “Tsit-ta-gung” meaning “there shall be no war”. And from this remark of the monument, according to Burmese tradition, the district took its name, Chittagong.[81]

Chittagong under Arakanese rule

Nearly a century, from about 1580 till 1666 AD Chittagong was under almost uninterrupted Arakanese rule. Arakanese captured and sent numbers of the inhabitants of Bengal into Arakan as agricultural and slave labours.

Arakanese known in Bengal as Maghs

The Buddhists Arakanese, known as Magh or Rakhine are descended from Aryans of Maghada, India Mongolians mixed with the Tibeto-Burmans.[82]

During the 16th and 17th centuries the Arakanese (known in Bengal as Maghs) in alliance with the Portuguese constituted a plundering party. By dominating the riverine tracts they plundered and devastated large parts of southern and eastern Bengal.[83]

They carried a large number of men, women and children from the coastal districts of Bengal,[84] as captives and the Maghs (Arakanese) employed them as agricultural labour. It is well known that the Kingdom of Arakan was a sparsely populated area, which required huge amount of human labour for agriculture. With this intention the Arakanese employed a large number of captives in the villages of land on the bank of the Kuladan river to the Naf. This Kula population of the country form about 15 percent of the whole population. A.P.Phayre mentions, “the Kolas or Mossalmans, are of an entirely different race. They being of Bengalee descent.[85]

Burmese settlement in Arakan

“The Burmese do not seem to have settled in Arakan until possibly as late as the tenth century AD. Hence earlier dynasties are thought to have been Indian, ruling over a population similar to that of Bengal. All the capitals known to history have been in the north near modern Akyab”.[86]

Arrival of Arab Muslims

The Arab Muslims first came into contact with Arakan through trade and commerce during the 8th century AD and since then Islam started spreading in the region. In those days the Arabs were very much active in sea-trade, they even monopolized trade and commerce in the East.[87]

Dr. Mohammad Enamul Haque introduces another Arakanese chronicle, which informs us of an Arab settlement, in the tenth century AD. extending from the mouth of the Meghna to the North of the Naf riverin the East.[88]

With the passing of time, the number of Muslims in Arakan began to increase. Gradually these Muslims have established very good and cordial relations with the local people and intermixed by marrying local women.

“They differ but little from the Arakanese except in their religion and in the social customs which their religion directs; in writing they use Burmese, but amongst themselves employ colloquially the language of their ancestors”.[89]

Even, a Russian merchant, Athanasius Nitikin, who travelled in the East (1470) mentions regarding activities of some Muslim sufis of Pegu (Bago). The Merchant pictured Pegu as “no inconsiderable port, inhabited by Indian dervishes.[90]

Ships wrecked at Ramree Island

In the history of the Arakanese kings, it is recorded that during the reign, of Arakanese king Mahat-y-ing Chandayat (780-810 AD.) several Kula or foreign ships were wrecked upon the island of Ramree, and the people who boarded on them were said to be Muslims. The Arakanese king ordered them to be settled in the villages of Arakan.[91]

Narameikhla alias Solaiman Shah

However, Islam made its first major political and cultural impact during the early 15th century through Narameikhla, king of Arakan. He lost the war,run to India Mogul Empire for help. With the help of Muslim soldiers he was restored as a king and Narameikhla, took the title Solaiman Shah.[92] and established a new dynasty, known as Maruk-u-dynasty, with its capital at Mrohaung.[93]

Arakan coins with Islamic features

With effect from the year 1430 the kingdom of Arakan became tributary to Bengal and the kings assume a Muslim name and struck coins with Kalima (The declarition of Islamic faith of the single God, Allah and believef of His messenger Mohammad- Peace be upon him.)[94]

“It is common for the kings, though Buddhist, to use Mohamedan designations in addition to their own names, and even to issue medallions bearing the Kalima, the Mohammedan confession of faith, in Persian script”.[95]

This practice was prevalent among the Arakanese kings till the first half of the seventeenth century. This was because they not only wished to be thought of as sultans in their own rights, but also because there were Muslims in ever larger numbers among their subjects. A.P.Phayre observes that the practice of assuming Muslim name and inscribing Kalima in their coins was probably first introduced in fulfilment of the promise made by Mung-Somwun but was continued in later time as a token of sovereignty in Chittagong.[96]

He also mentions that “these they assumed as being successors of Mussalman kings, or as being anxious to imitate the prevailing fashion of lndia.[97]

Muslim influence in Arakan since 1430

So the Muslim influence in Arakan may be said to date from 1430, the year of Narameikhla’s restoration.During his reign an unexpected development took place, which paved the way for a period of Muslim domination in the land of Arakan. From this time onwards the relation of Muslims with the Arakanese became more intimate and for about two centuries Arakan was united in a bond of friendship with Islamic lands. As a result of the impact of the civilization of the Muslims, Arakanese culture also progressed and thus began the ‘Golden Age’ in the history of Arakan.[98]

Muslims Massacred in Arakan

The next and last event was the flight of Shah Shuja, the brother of Aurangzeb, to Arakan in 1660, which brought a new wave of Muslim immigrants to the kingdom of Arakan and also caused political changes. Later on the prince and some of his soldiers were murdered on Feb., 1661.[99]

Kaman or Kamanci

But “who escaped the massacre were later admitted into the king’s bodyguard as a special archers unit called Kamans or Kamanci”.[100]

From 1666 to 1710 the political rule of Arakan was completely in their hands, during which the Muslim Kaman units played a decisive role of king makers and king breakers. Their numbers were increased from time to time by fresh arrivals from upper India.[101]

Buddhist Arakan Kings with Islamic names

All the kings of Arakan were said to be Buddhist. However to rule the 12 towns in the Bangal smoothly seven kings decided to have Arakanese and Mogul Islamic names. The interference of Ava and Pegu in the affairs of Arakan had important consequences for that country. The Ava king placed his son-in-law on the throne of Arakan. The Mons in return invaded the country, killed the Burmese nominee and replaced him with a ruler chosen by Razadarit. In 1430, however, with the assistance of Bengal, the exiled king, Narameikhla,returned and was reinstated as the vassal of the Mohammedan king of Gaur. He founded Mrohaung as his capital, and his, Mohammedan followers built a mosque there. From this time onwards the Arakanese kings, although Buddhists, used Mohammedan titles in addition to their own names, They even issued medallions bearing the Kalima, the Mohammedan confession of faith. The connection between Arakan and India became even more pronounced when in 1459 an Arakanese king occupied Chittagong.[102]

The Islamic-names of Arakan Kings

No- – -Name- – – – – – – – – – – year

1 Min-kha-ri (Ali Khan)- – – 1433
2 Ba-saw-phru (Kalama Shah)- -1459
3 Dolay (Mokhu Shah)- – 1482
4 Ba-saw-min-nyo (Maha Moshah)- -1492
5 Min-raza-kri (Ili Shah)- – – 1501
6 Saw-min-o (Jal Shah)- – – 1515
7 Thazata (Itsli Shah)- –1515

Summarized History of ArakanIndependent Kingdom — 266 BC- 1782 AD.
Burmese ruled ———-1783 – 1815 AD.
British ruled ———-1815 – 1942 AD.
Japanese ruled ———-1942 – 1945 AD.
British ruled ———-1945 – 1947 AD.
Burmese rule ———–1948 till present.

Continue reading

Burmese Indians; Culture

Burmese Indians; Culture

Culture

India has been particularly influential in Burmese culture as the cradle of Buddhism, and ancient Hindu traditions can still be seen in brahmins presiding over important ceremonies such as weddings and ear-piercings but most notably in Thingyan, the Burmese New Year festival.[5] Traditions of kingship including coronation ceremonies and formal royal titles as well as those of lawmaking were also Hindu in origin.[5] Many Burmese dishes and breads came as a result of Indian influence, prominently reflected in the Burmese version of Indian biryani (ဒန္ပောက္).

The Japanese invasion led to an exodus of half a million Indians mostly by overland route enduring great suffering and loss of life so there was a dramatic drop after Burma gained independence from Great Britain in 1948.[7]

[edit] Economic roles

Burmese Indians had made their livelihoods as merchants, traders and shopkeepers as well as manual labourers such as coolies, dockers, municipal workers, rickshaw men, pony cart drivers, malis and durwans. They were also heavily represented in certain professions such as civil servants, university lecturers, pharmacists, opticians, lawyers and doctors. They had virtual monopolies in several types of businesses such as auto parts and electrical goods, ironmongery and hardware, printing and bookbinding, books and stationery, paper and printing ink, tailoring and dry-cleaning, English tuition, and money lending. They traded in textiles, gold and jewellery where the market was traditionally dominated by Burmese women. However, Ne Win’s rise to power in 1962 and his relentless persecution of “resident aliens” (immigrant groups not recognised as citizens of the Union of Burma) led to an exodus of some 300,000 from racial discrimination and particularly after wholesale nationalisation of private enterprise a few years later in 1964.[7]

[edit] Religion

The Bengali Sunni Jameh Mosque, built in the colonial era, is one of many mosques in Yangon.

The Bengali Sunni Jameh Mosque, built in the colonial era, is one of many mosques in Yangon.

More Burmese Indians practise Islam (Mahamaydin – Muhammadan pronounced in Myanmar language) than any other religion, perhaps indicating a preponderance of people who had come from East Bengal, although there are large numbers of Hindus. Burmese Muslims, some of them of mixed blood born of Burmese mothers, call themselves Bama Musalin (ဗမာမူစလင္) and the majority belongs to the Sunni sect with small numbers of Shi’as. The Burmese call them Zaydabayi or Pathi kala (ပသီကုလား). Other religions practised by Burmese Indians include Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism, and Bahá’í.

[edit] Muslims

Myanmar Indian Muslims formed one of the definite group among Myanmar Muslims or Burmese Muslims.

Myanmar’s Muslims are descendents of the following countries – a more appropriate and accurate term should be South Asian” Burmese as they consist of groups originating from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Afghanistan. Also, an even smaller minority claim descent from Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moors, various groups of Indian-Muslims, Pakistanis, Pathans, and Bengalis intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups such as, Rakhine, Shan, Karen, Mon etc.

The various sub groups of Burmese Indian Muslims are; Soorti, Meimans, Chulia. Tamil, Bengali, Pakistan, Shia (originated from Iran), Dawoodi-Bhora community, Isaili Community, Malabar group,Hydrabud Muslims, Madarasi depending from their origin in India subcontinent.

Many of the Pakistani affiliated groups including the Rakhine have been resettled to Pakistan.

Nationalization

Most of the South Asians who arrived during the time of British India went back to their respective countries in the subcontinent after General Ne Win took over and nationalized all the business. So who decided to continue to stay in Burma cut off the umbilical cord and have shown love to the new home, Burma. Now most of them are second and third generation or some of them were married to locals and almost totally assimilated into mainstream Myanmar Muslims. [103] Now they lost contact with their roots and most of them are even not interested at all to trace their origin.[104] [105]

Myedu Muslims

Some of the earliest Myanmar Muslims or Zerbardi or Kala Pyo or Myedu Muslims or Myedu Kalas or Thone Thaung Khunhit Yar (=3700) were also actually from the Indian subcontinent of Asam and Manipura, brought in by the Burmese Kings as prisoners of wars.[106] Some of the most assimilated or Burmanized Muslims in Burma took the name Pathi as the race and even try to put infront of their name as a prefix e.g. Pathi Ko Lay.

In the 1930 Census, British enlisted Muslims as Zerbardi Race. But most of the Muslims did not know the origin of the word and refused to accept that name. Moshe Yegar solved the problem by the following finding. He searched for the source and found out in the library in Singapore that the Arab sailors called themselves, people above the wind. (Orang atas angin, in Malay) and called the Muslims from Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Indonesia as, people under the wind (Orang bawah angin, in Malay). That is Zerbard in Persian. So Zerbardi referred to Muslims from Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Indonesia.[107]

[edit] Racial Discriminations

[edit] Anti-Indian Riots

British Official White Paper

This paragraph’s basic facts are taken from Maurice Collis’ “Trials in Burma”. He was the judge in Rangoon, eye witnessed the riots and wrote his book based on the British Official White Paper given by, The Simon Commission. (The Royal Statutory Commission, appointed according to the Law of the Government of India1919, The Montague-Chelmsford Law.) [108]

Anti Indian sentiments

Anti Indian sentiments started after the First World War during the British rule. [109] In Burma there were half million Muslims in 1921. More then half of Indians were Indian Muslims. [110] Although Myanmar Muslims are different from the Indian Muslims and Indian Myanmar Muslims, Burmese Buddhists put them together even mixed with Hindu Indians, and called them Kala.[111]

The root of this hatred was_ [112] [113]

  1. Different in religion.

  2. Basic anti foreigner feelings.

  3. Low standard of living of the recent migrants.

  4. Recent migrants willingness to do, Dirty, Difficult and Dangerous jobs.

  5. Indians took over the Burmese lands especially Chittiers.

  6. Indians had already filled up and monopolized the government services when the Burmese were later ready for those jobs.

  7. Professional competition.

  8. World economic recession of 1930 aggravated the competition for the reduced economic pie.

1930 anti-Indian riots

In 1930 there was an anti-Indian riots in Burma under British rule.

The problem started in Yangon port, because of the irresponsible action of the British firm of Stevedores. It had employed hundreds of Indian labourers. While those Indians were on strike, that firm had employed the Burmese workers just to break the strike. So the Indians had to give in and ended the strike. Next morning when the Burmese workers came and report for work they were told by the British firm that their service was no more needed. Some of the Indian workers who were angry because they had to end the strike at failure because of these Burmese workers laughed at them. Some Burmese workers were angry and started the fight and Indians retaliate. It grew rapidly into anti Indian (including anti Muslims) riots. Even within the first half-hour at least two hundred Indians were massacred and flung into the river. Authorities ordered the police to fire upon any assembly of five or more who refuse to lay down the arms, under Section 144 of the Criminal Procedure Code. That was a black day of 26 May. Within two days it spread to the whole country and no one knew the exact causality. [114]

Anti Muslim riots in 1938

There was another anti Muslim riots in 1938, while still under British rule. The real basic hidden agenda was aimed at British Government but the Burmese dare not show this openly. The growing Nationalistic sentiments fanned by the local media disguised as anti Muslim to avoid the early detection and notice followed by the full blown force of mighty British Government machinery.Throughout the Burmese struggles against British rule, all the political issues, movements, meetings, demonstrations, riots, rebellions and even the revolutions were instigated, inspired, influenced and led by newspapers. [115] [116]

Burma for Burmese Campaign

Burmese started the Burma for Burmese only Campaign. Then marched to the Muslim (Surti) Bazar. [117] While the Indian Police broke the violent demonstration, three monks were hurt. Burmese Newspapers use the pictures of Indian police attacking the Buddhist monks to further incite the spread of riots.[118] Muslim properties: shops, houses and mosques were looted, destroyed and burnt to ashes. They assaulted and even massacred the Muslims. It spreads to all over Burma and recorded that 113 mosques were damaged. [119]

The Inquiry Committee by British

On 22.9.38. British Governor set up the Inquiry Committee. [120] They found out that the real cause was the discontent in the government regarding the deterioration in sociopolitical and economic conditions of Burmans. [121] The book was used as an inciting factor by the irresponsible Burmese newspapers. [122] They use the anti Muslim propaganda as a disguise to cover up for the political struggle to gain independence.So the Buddhist used the Muslims as a scapegoat, for the first time, to fight against the British.

The Simon Commission (The Royal Statutory Commission, appointed according to the Law of the Government of India1919, The Montague-Chelmsford Law) to inquire the effects of Dyarchy system of ruling Burma, had recommended that special places be assigned to the Myanmar Muslims in the Legislative Council.

It recommended that full rights of citizenship should be guaranteed to all the minorities: the right of free worship, the right to follow their own customs, the right to own property and to receive a share of the public revenues for the maintenance of their own educational and charitable institutions. It recommended Home Rule or independent government separate from India or the status of dominion.

But the British Government refused to accept all those recommended except the separation, at the round table committee on India held in London in 1930.

[edit] After Independence

King Dragon expelling Rohingyas

While preparing for that Citizenship Act, General Ne Win expelled some of the Arakan Rohingya Muslims in an operation, code named-‘King Dragon’. There are still some refugees in Bangladesh and some of them have set up anti-Rangoon groups to fight for self-determination. About 60,000 of Muslims have since migrated to Saudi Arabia where they were greeted with open arms as brothers-in-Islam.[123]

[edit] Massacre of Indian Shans

— the sort of fighting and bloody killings that took place between 1812-19 when the Burmese kings of Mandalay tried to conquer and subdue the Shan Ahom kingdom in Assam, India, where the Burmese General Maha Bandula’s troops committed indescribable cruelties and barbarities as to decimate something like 2/3 of the population and certainly 1/3 of the men and boys – disemboweling them, eating their flesh and burning them alive in cages to intimidate and suppress the Shan Ahom of Assam,India.[124]

This event so weakened and disorganized the Shan Ahom that by 1839 the kingdom was completely annexed by the British. Before that from about 1220 – 1812 AD they maintained themselves under one Dynasty, (that of Mong Mao 568-1604 AD when its descendants ruled Hsenwi or Theinni in Burmese). Indeed the Shan Ahom resisted conquest by the Mughals who had conquered much of India before the British incursion.[125] [2] Burmese translation of above interview_ [3]

Continue reading

Burmese Indians; Language Part 3

Burmese Indians; Language

Language

Burmese Indians also speak an array of different languages. There are Tamils, Punjabis, Parsis, Gujaratis and Marawaris as well as Bengalis and Pathans. Most can only communicate in Burmese, due to years of assimilation and lack of education in languages other than English. However, small segments of the population can speak other languages, such as Urdu, Hindi, Tamil, and Arabic.

Notable Burmese Indians

  • Exiled Moghul Emperor

The Mughal (and Muslim) rule was formally abolished by the British. The last Muslim Moghul Emperor of India, Abu Za’far Saraj al-Din Bahadur Shah and his family members and some followers were exiled to Yangon, Myanmar (Burma).

The king-poet was arrested from Delhi after the failure of the first war of independence against the British in 1857. The sad and broken Bahadur Shah was brought here in chains after the brutal murder of his sons.

Bahadur Shah Zafar spent four long years in Yangon and died on November 7,1862. Confined to a garage attached to a bungalow of an English officer, Zafar lived the life of a ‘faqir’ and passed away in ignominious anonymity in the outskirts of the city.

Two other exiled members of his family, wife Begum Zeenat Mahal and granddaughter Raunaq Zamani Begum who died in 1930 were buried alongside Bahadur Shah’s grave.

Now his burial site became a minor diplomatic clash between India and Pakistan. Both of them want to control the site now famous as a shrine.[126]

The Mazar (mausoleum) , located at No. 6, Theatre Road, is the most famous address for any Indian visiting the Myanmar capital, Yangon. Beginning with Subhash Chandra Bose, there has been a tradition of Indian leaders visiting the monument as part of their official itinerary.

  • S. N. Goenka – eminent Vipassana Buddhist meditation teacher (b. 1924)

  • Goshal aka Thakin Ba Tin[7] – Communist leader and founding member from the 1940s to the 1960s

  • S. Mukerjee aka Pyu Win[7]– Communist trade union leader killed in the 1950s

  • Dr. Nath[7]– Communist leader and founding member killed in the 1960s

  • Saya Rajan aka Aung Naing[7] – Communist trade union leader captured in the 1950s

  • Thakin Tha Khin (Shan Indian) – Government Minister in the 1950s[7]

  • Maung Di – Department chair and dean of Rangoon Arts and Science University (now Yangon University), Deputy Education Minister. Son of the Dean of Islamic Religious College in Kanbalu.[127]

  • Ba Than Haq – Professor of Geology and Minister of Mines. (A Muslim who converted to Buddhism)[128]

  • Sein Win (Shia Muslim who converted to Buddhism) – Prime Minister of General Ne Win’s Government.[129]

  • Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint. Martyred after failed attempt of coup d’état[130]

  • Bahadur, the Pelé of Burmese football

For much of the 1960s, the team was led by the Ghurka-born striker from Shan State, Suk Bahadur—the Pelé of Burmese football, who was also a dominating tennis and field hockey player as well as the national 100-meter sprint champion.

Historian John F. Cady writes in his book The United States and Burma that following consecutive victories in international matches in 1970–71, “proficiency in soccer became a significant mark of Burmese identity and prestige.”[131]

Indeed, football provided a strong focus for the representation of Burma to the rest of Asia. The list of Burma’s football “heroes” meanwhile provides an epic narrative of sorts in which the “beautiful game” has made an important contribution to the construction of the nation. To restore that sense of pride to Burma’s national side, the state-owned press kicked off a small media campaign. A January 13, 2000, article in the English-language daily The New Light of Myanmar urged public support. “To reach the Golden Age in soccer again, all media organizations are to provide assistance for development of soccer.” A separate article in the same paper stated that football victories bring honor to the state and that the people’s “hearts are thrilled with pleasure when they see or learn the victory of their national team. That is the sign of expressing their patriotism.”[132]

  • Daw Tint Tint @ Usha Narayanan, wife of Former Indian President, Kocheril Raman Narayanan

In 1949, K. R. Narayanan joined the Indian Foreign Service (IFS) on Nehru’s request.[133] He worked as a diplomat in the embassies at Rangoon, Tokyo, London, Canberra, and Hanoi. He was the Indian ambassador to Thailand (1967-69), Turkey (1973-75), and the People’s Republic of China (1976-78).

While working in Rangoon, Burma (Myanmar), K. R. Narayanan met Ma Tint Tint, whom he later married in Delhi on 8 June 1951). Ma Tint Tint got the BA (Psychology) from Rangoon University and went to India to do Masters.[134] Their marriage needed a special dispensation from Nehru per Indian law, because Narayanan was in the IFS and she was a foreigner. Ma Tint Tint adopted the Indian name Usha and became an Indian citizen. Usha Narayanan worked on several social welfare programmes for women and children in India. She also translated and published several Burmese short stories; a collection of translated stories by Thein Pe Myint, titled Sweet and Sour, appeared in 1998. She is the only woman of foreign origin to have become the First Lady. They have two daughters, Chitra (who has served as Indian ambassador to Sweden and Turkey) and Amrita.

  • Helen of Bollywood

Born on July 14, 1938 or 1939. Helen was exotic as all vamps must be, but the Bombay film industry’s somewhat uncomplicated notion of exotica was such that Helen could be made to fit any set of circumstances. As an alien with no fixed place of origin (her mother was a half-Spanish, half-Burmese, and her father a Frenchman posted in Burma though she took on her step-father and became Helen Richardson and walked her way to Assam along with other refugees after the Second World War), she could be any kind of foreigner, any outsider.

It is a tribute to her talent and charisma that she literally side-stepped all competition during the period she strutted her stuff to perfection. How good a job did Helen make of seduction? A great one for the viewers – her fan base hasn’t diminished much in close to 50 years.”[135] [4]

See also

References

  • Priestly, Harry. “The Outsiders“, The Irrawaddy, 2006-01. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • Butkaew, Samart. “Burmese Indians: The Forgotten Lives“, Burma Issues, 2005-02. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • Gregory, James. Myanmar: A Neglected Area of Tamil Lexicography. University of Cologne.

  • Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.

  • Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.“Ancient Pyu”

  • Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.“Bagan Culture”,

  • Shway Yoe (Sir James George Scott) 1882. The Burman – His Life and Notions. New York: The Norton Library 1963.

  • Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books

  • ‘The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  • Tamil Studies Abroad, A Symposium edited by Xavier S.Thaninayagam, published by the International Association of Tamil Research, 1968:

  • The Chettiars in Burma by Sean Turnell Economics Department Macquarie University.

  • The Sikh Regiment In The Second World War, Colonel F.T.Birdwood OBE.

  • Myanmar Muslim History, Myanmar Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University. Limited Edition.

  • The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  • Bertil Lintner, famous Sweden journalist expert on Burma, 17th. of April 1988 in the Bangkok Post.

  • ‘DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA” . Tiger Yawnghwe or His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Pha; he is the eldest son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the former Saopha[Prince] of Yawnghwe[Nyaung-Shwe] and the first President of Burma after Burma’s Independence from British colonial rule. Interview with Dr Tayza, Chief Editor of Burma Digest.

  • Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) ‘The Story of Myanmar told in pictures’.

  • Elizabeth Moore, Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2004.

  • D. G. E Hall, A History of the South East Asia, New York, 1968.

  • G.E Hervey, History of Burma, London 1925,

  • D. G. E Hall, Studies in Dutch Relations with Arakan, Journal of the Burma Research Society, VOL XXVI, 1936, P. 6. and Mr. R. B. Smart, Burma Gazetteer-Akyab District, voL A., Rangoon. 1957

  • A.P. Phayre, History of Burma 1853

  • A. P. Phayre, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1846.

  • Haresh Pandya: “K. R. Narayanan: Indian president from downtrodden caste”, The Guardian, 29 Nov. 2005.

  • SURESH KOHLI, Helen of Bollywood . Hindu, India’s National Newspaper Friday, Apr 14, 2006.

  • Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books.

  • M.S. Collis, Arakan’s place in the civilization of the Bay, Joumal of the Burma Research Society, 50th Anniversary publications No.2, Rangoon, 1960

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Burma – CIA World Factbook
  2. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 111, paragraph 4
  3. ^ “Ancient Pyu” page 4. Professor U Than Tun M.A.B.L.D. Lit. Ph.D.
  4. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 36, paragraph 4. Page 37, line 1,2
  5. ^ a b c d Shway Yoe (Sir James George Scott) 1882. The Burman – His Life and Notions. New York: The Norton Library 1963, 436,249-251,348,450. 
  6. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 29, line 6,7,8. paragraph 3,4. page 30.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i Martin Smith (1991). Burma – Insurgency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London,New Jersey: Zed Books, 43-44,98,56-57,176. 
  8. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 29 p 29, paragraph3 first line
  9. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 32, paragraph 2, line 2,3,4
  10. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 32,paragraph 3
  11. ^ ‘The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 30.
  12. ^ Thanjai Nalankilli, TAMIL TRIBUNE, July 2002 (ID.2002-07-02)
  13. ^ From Tamil Studies Abroad, A Symposium edited by Xavier S.Thaninayagam, published by the International Association of Tamil Research, 1968:
  14. ^ Tamil Nation
  15. ^ Ananthan @ siva.for.uidaho.edu on: Fri Aug 23 03:24:50
  16. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 30, paragraph 4, line 8
  17. ^ Furnivall 1956:120
  18. ^ Cooper 1959:30
  19. ^ Cooper 1959:30
  20. ^ BPBE 1930a:203
  21. ^ Testimony of a Karen witness to the Burma Provincial Banking Enquiry, 1929.
  22. ^ Sir Harcourt Butler, Governor of Burma, 1927.
  23. ^ Adas (1974b:389)
  24. ^ Parching the Land?: The Chettiars in Burma by Sean Turnell Economics Department Macquarie University.sturnell@efs.mq.edu.au
  25. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S. Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma. Third edition 1960. Page 41
  26. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 30 paragraph 4, line 9, 10
  27. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 30, paragraph 4, line 8
  28. ^ Nepal – From The Anglo-Nepalese War To World War II
  29. ^ [1]
  30. ^ Martial India, F. Yeats-Brown, 1945.
  31. ^ The Sikh Regiment In The Second World War, Colonel F.T.Birdwood OBE
  32. ^ Pashto/Urdu/Persian: پشتون Paštūn or پختون Paxtūn. Also Pushtuns, Pakhtuns, Pukhtuns
  33. ^ Urdu: پٹھان, Hindi: पठान Paṭhān
  34. ^ Persian: افغان Afğān
  35. ^ Banuazizi, Ali and Myron Weiner (eds.). 1994. The Politics of Social Transformation in Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan (Contemporary Issues in the Middle East), Syracuse University Press. ISBN 0-8156-2608-8 (retrieved 7 June 2006).
  36. ^ Kakar, Palwasha. Harvard University – School of Law – Tribal Law of Pashtunwali and Women’s Legislative Authority (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  37. ^ Caroe, Olaf. 1984. The Pathans: 500 B.C.-A.D. 1957, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195772210 (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  38. ^ Anglo-Afghan Wars, Iranica.com (retrieved 16 January 2006)
  39. ^ Ethnic, Cultural and Linguistic Denominations in Pakhtunkhwa, Khyberwatch.com (retrieved 7 June 2006)
  40. ^ ‘The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden
  41. ^ “Bagan Culture”page 42, Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.
  42. ^ “Ancient Pyu” page page 3&4 Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.
  43. ^ Thailand History books
  44. ^ Minye Kaungbon (1994:165). New Light of Myanmar
  45. ^ ILCAA 1999 – Gustaaf Houtman. Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics. ILCAA Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia & Africa Monograph Series 33, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1999, ISBN 4-87297-748-3, p 070/392
  46. ^ “Ancient Pyu” page page 3&4 Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.
  47. ^ Dr Than Tun (History Professor, Mandalay University) ‘The Story of Myanmar told in pictures’.
  48. ^ Dr Than Tun , “The Story of Myanmar told in pictures”
  49. ^ Dr Than Tun , “The Story of Myanmar told in pictures”
  50. ^ Chinese imperial history
  51. ^ Chinese imperial history
  52. ^ “Ancient Pyu” page page 3&4 Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.
  53. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 8
  54. ^ (Perso-Arab authours) of 9-10 AD
  55. ^ (Elizabeth Moore, Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2004)
  56. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 8
  57. ^ (Elizabeth Moore, Myanmar Historical Research Journal 2004)
  58. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 8
  59. ^ D. G . E. HALL, “BURMA”
  60. ^ D. G . E. HALL, “BURMA”
  61. ^ HGE Hall, “History of Southeast Asia.”
  62. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma
  63. ^ HGE Hall, “History of Southeast Asia.”
  64. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.page 1. paragraph 2&3
  65. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 2, paragraph 2
  66. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 2, line 22
  67. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 3, line 4 to 7
  68. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 2,3,6,13
  69. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 3,4&30
  70. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page6,12,13
  71. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,page 7,9,13,21,23,83,86,94
  72. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.
  73. ^ HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia.
  74. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 16
  75. ^ Luce , G. H., ‘Burma’s Debt to Pagan’, Journal of the Burma Research Society, Vol. XXII, p121.
  76. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 16
  77. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, [Glass Palace Chronicle] Page 105 paragraph 4 to page 106 paragraph 1
  78. ^ A.P. Phayre, History of Burma London, 1883, PP. 293-304.
  79. ^ M.S. Collis, Arakan’s place in the civilization of the Bay, Joumal of the Burma Research Society, 50th Anniversary publications No.2, Rangoon, 1960, P. 486.
  80. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 8 -9
  81. ^ A.P. Phayre,op.cit, P36.
  82. ^ HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia.
  83. ^ For details; J.N.Sarkar: The Feringhi Pirates of Chatgaon; Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengalvol.111,1907,pp.419-25,andFBemier:Travels in the Mughal Empire. Delhi l 968, P.175.
  84. ^ (District Gazetteer – 24 Pargana. P. 39.)
  85. ^ A. P. Phayre, Account of Arakan Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, vol. X, 184 1, P. 68 1.
  86. ^ D. G. E Hall, A History of the South East Asia, New York, 1968, P. 389.
  87. ^ Muhammed Abdur Rahim, Social & Cultural History of Bengal, VoL 1, Karach, 1963, P. 37
  88. ^ Muhammed Enamul Haque, Purba Pakistane Islam, Dhaka, 1948, pp. 16-17 & Enamul Haque 0 Abdul Karim Shahitya Bisharad, Arakan Rajshabhay Bangla Shahitya, Calcutta, 1935, P. 3.
  89. ^ D. G. E Hall, Studies in Dutch Relations with Arakan, Journal of the Burma Research Society, VOL XXVI, 1936, P. 6. and Mr. R. B. Smart, Burma Gazetteer-Akyab District, voL A., Rangoon. 1957
  90. ^ G.E Hervey, History of Burma, London 1925, P. 121.
  91. ^ A.P. Phayre, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, voL XII, part, 1, 1844, p.36.
  92. ^ (A.S.Bahar, The Arakani Rahingyas in Burmese Society, M.A. Thesis, University of Windsor, Ontario, Canada, p.27.)
  93. ^ (Moshe Yegar, Op. cit.; P. 18.)
  94. ^ M. Robinson and L.A. Shaw, The Coins and Banknotes of Burma, England, 1980, P. 44.
  95. ^ (G.EHarvey, Op. cit, P. 140.)
  96. ^ A.P. Phayre, History of Burma 1853, P. 78.
  97. ^ A. P. Phayre, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1846.
  98. ^ M. Siddique Khan, op. cit., P. 249.
  99. ^ G.E.Hervey, The fate of Shah Shuja 1661. Journal of the Burma Research Society, part 1, 1922. pp. 107-115.
  100. ^ M. Siddique Khan, op, cit., p. 253.
  101. ^ G. E Hervey, History of Burma, London 1925, P. 148. Mohammad Khalilur Rahman, Tarik-i-Islam Arakan & Burma, Urdu version, Quoted by Abdul Haque Chowdhury.
  102. ^ BURMA, D. G . E. HALL, M.A., D.LIT., F.R.HIST.S.Professor Emeritus of the University of London and formerly Professor of History in the University of Rangoon, Burma.Third edition 1960. Page 31-32
  103. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 29 paragraph 1
  104. ^ Myanmar Muslim History, Myanmar Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University. Limited Edition
  105. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 71,86 & Chap 4
  106. ^ ‘The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 11, paragraph 3. Page 12 paragraph 1
  107. ^ ‘The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 28,33,49,57,64,74,107,118
  108. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma
  109. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 32
  110. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 29 paragraph 1 and foot note 1. Page 31 line 1, 2, 11
  111. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma
  112. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma
  113. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 111, paragraph 4, line 8 to 15. Page 27, paragraph 4, line 5,6,7. Page 31 paragraph 2. Page 32 paragraph 4
  114. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma
  115. ^ Democratic Voice of Burma, Media conference (July 19-20, Oslo) Burmese Media: Past, present and future by U Thaung (Mirror/Kyae Mon news paper Retired Chief Editor)
  116. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 32 paragraph 4.Page 36, paragraph 1, line 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15
  117. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 36, paragraph 3.
  118. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 36, paragraph 4. Page 37, line 1,2
  119. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 37, paragraph 2.
  120. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, line 1
  121. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, paragraph 2
  122. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, paragraph 2, line 12,13,14
  123. ^ Newsletter WAMY World Assembly of Muslim Youth Movement, Riyad Saudi Arabia
  124. ^ History of Assam by Sir Edward Gaits.
  125. ^ “DIALOGUE WITH A SHAN LEADER, H.R.H HSO KHAN PHA” . Tiger Yawnghwe or His Royal Highness Prince Hso Khan Pha; he is the eldest son of Sao Shwe Thaik, the former Saopha[Prince] of Yawnghwe[Nyaung-Shwe] and the first President of Burma after Burma’s Independence from British colonial rule. Interview with Dr Tayza, Chief Editor of Burma Digest.
  126. ^ Independent-Bangladesh,Bahadur Shah Zafar’s Mazar,Myanmar turns down Pakistan’s claim,PTI, YANGON.Nov 16:2003
  127. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.
  128. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.
  129. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.
  130. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.
  131. ^ John F. Cady, The United States and Burma
  132. ^ January 13, 2000, article in the English-language daily The New Light of Myanmar
  133. ^ Haresh Pandya: “K. R. Narayanan: Indian president from downtrodden caste”, The Guardian, 29 Nov. 2005.
  134. ^ Mrs President’s interview with News Straight Times
  135. ^ SURESH KOHLI, Helen of Bollywood . Hindu, India’s National Newspaper Friday, Apr 14, 2006

[edit] External links

  • Myanmar Muslim news- [5]

  • Burmese Muslims Network- [6]

  • Islamic Unity Brotherhood [7]

  • Myanmar Muslim political Awareness Oranization- [8]

  • Panthay on line community- [9]

  • Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights[10]

  • US Department of State,International Religious Freedom Report 2005 on Burma[11]

  • US Department of State, Burma, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2005.Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor[12]

  • Amnesty International’s report on Burma[13]

  • UK Conservatives’ Human Rights[14]

  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims[15] [16]

  • Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims (in Burmese. We also love Burma.)[17]

  • Racial Discriminations on Burmese Muslims[18][19]

  • Human Rights issues in Burma [20]

  • PRAYERS FOR BURMA [21]

  • Priestly, Harry. “The Outsiders“, The Irrawaddy, 2006-01. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • Butkaew, Samart. “Burmese Indians: The Forgotten Lives“, Burma Issues, 2005-02. Retrieved on 200607-07. 

  • The Persecution of Muslims in Burma, by Karen Human Rights Group

Continue reading