Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia fails Human Rights standard test


Speaker Tan Sri Pandikar Amin Mulia fails

Human Rights standard test

He is usually not neutral because he knows which side of the bread is buttered. Pandikar Amin (WRONGLY, according to Human Rights standard) told Fong that he did not think that the term was insulting as pendatang haram referred to illegals.

Earlier, Datuk Seri Tiong King Sing’s (BN – Bintulu) spoke on the problems of illegal immigrants when Datuk Wilfred Bumburing (BN – Tuaran) stood up to complain of crimes committed by pendatang haram (illegals).

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Myanmar government planning for another episode of Anti-Muslim riots

Myanmar government

planning for another episode

of Anti-Muslim riots  


Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities. -Voltaire

Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities. -Voltaire


Anti-Muslim Riots in Bago/Pegu

Anti-Muslim Riots in Bago/Pegu





Dear Brother,

I hope you can share the following news which is the part of a deliberate plan of the Military Junta of Burma to use its long term policy of using religious hatred to create the political environment that may benefit the Military Junta of Burma to stay in Power Forever.
Please prevent hatred against any race or religion and create the unity and harmony among all the races and religions of the people of Burma.

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Leadership quality of the Myanmar Military Generals

 Leadership quality of  the Myanmar Military Generals

KJ John | Apr 1, 08

Modified and edited the original letter, Leadership for the times” by KJ John in the Malaysiakini .

I have edited and adapted to the Myanmar context from the original article. I hope that KJ John  and Malaysiakini could understand and forgive us for this. They should even be proud that they could contribute a very good article for the fellow Myanmar/Burmese citizens.

True leadership is_

  • the art of setting new directions
  • and then creating the environment for that vision to become possible; not just plausible.
  • Nurturing the right climate for ideas and ideals to flourish

It is just as important as the new directions set.

Follower-ship consequently is_

  • the discipline of acknowledging visionary leadership
  • and the requisite obedience to new and shared directions.

Together they make up what is called_

  • a purpose-inspired life of leadership
  • and follower-ship.

Peter Vaill, my doctoral chairperson, calls this ‘Managing as a Performing Art’ (also the title of a book).

Frankly, both models are only partially relevant under current conditions of rapid, turbulent change; when small ripples become tidal waves of change being washed in, and without any human ability to control them.

Allow me to give ‘my three sen’ worth of advice to Myanmar Military SPDC leadership on differing styles of organisational leadership models that appear to be practiced.  

Unfortunately, within Myanmar Military Generals, the current models of leadership and managing are what I have in the past referred to as ‘cat or dog loyalty models of blind obedience’.

As the Burmese saying goes_

Yae Boo Pauk Tar_ Ma Low Chin Boo.

Yae Par Dar Bae_Low Chin Dae.

Yes! In the Military_

  • the leaders never accept the excuses.
  • Orders must be obeyed and fulfilled.
  • Rank and file must be willing to sacrifice their lives on the line of duty.
  • Soldiers must be like robots.
  • If the owner/handler/player click the button, whether right or wrong button, the robort must obey like a character in the video-game.
  • No reasoning nor analysis of correctness or morality or religious views of the nature of job or consequences of the order and results need to be considered.
  • Order is order.
  • Do or die in the battle field or face the consequences of punishments or court-martialed.

Because more than 70 percent of the electorate are living in urban areas, the  governance of Myanmar would be decided on modern and urban issues. That is enough reason for a predictable and fundamental change in scenario and landscape of today’s Myanmar politics.

The information age contributed to a fundamental and radical change in people’s expectations and perceptions. Urban voters were concurrently informed, misinformed and dis-informed. But, it appears like no one from the military government either heard or really understood this.  

Today, all of that is water under the bridge in urbanised Myanmar towns. These are so-called developed states in urbanisation terms. The arrogance and abuse of power in most states and local military authorities would ensure the outcome of the coming referendum.

Models of leadership

With this as the context, allow me to reflect on the two most prevalent models of leadership visible within all organisations, whether in the corporate or political world or civil society or in the military dictator governments.  

The one demands what I call ‘the cat loyalty syndrome’.

A syndrome is almost like a theological conviction about a truth that the beholder believes in and expects from the rest of the world.

The cat loyalty model demands the symbolic and implicit obedience and loyalty of a cat to the house.

This model of leadership demands that the person is loyal to the home or the institution that one belongs to, and claims full cat-like commitment to it.  

  • Most cats are in fact comfortable in the house
  • even after the owners move out.
  • They simply can carry on with life even with the new owners.
  • To the cat, that house is its home
  • and there is little or no loyalty to the master or owner of the house.
  • Owners can come and go.

This appears to be the prevalent model of leadership in SPDC leaders, demanding absolute obedience to the Tatmadaw and its current leader. Questions over their morality and ethics are a secondary matter.

The ‘dog model of loyalty’ puts a premium on loyalty explicitly to the master, but not so much to the house or organisation. But the more important question is: who is the real master? If one served long with General Ne Win or Senior General than Shwe, then one must always be almost loyal to them, in spite of differing circumstances or different worldviews one holds.

It is a lifetime personal loyalty to the person and relationship, and not so much to the authority or the position of the person. The result is almost blind loyalty to all instructions of the master and almost zero public disagreement with that person. Any disagreement must be handled in the privacy of the relationship.

Maybe Senior General than Shwe, as a strong military-type, also expects this kind of blind loyalty from all the generals.

Under conditions of turbulence, old-style captains cannot expect blind obedience. Truth is what will help all to move forward. Under whitewater conditions of extreme turbulence, what we need is a newer model of leadership, not that of a calm captain of an ocean-going vessel.

Vaill would argue that all leadership today is currently operating under whitewater conditions. Because of the Internet and the convergence of new technologies, leadership models must change to reflect new realities. He might ask, for instance: What is the real meaning of leadership under whitewater rafting conditions?

Message for Senior General than Shwe:

Robert Greenleaf’s ‘servant leadership model’, which emulates the ‘work with me and not for me’ motto should actually be the right one to replace Than Shwe’s ‘Listen to me, obey my orders’ military doctrine. There were many good speeches and slogans but things were done wrongly on the ground.  

  • Myanmar Military should work with the people.
  • Myanmar Military should work with all the opposition groups.
  • Myanmar Military should work with the NLD including their present leaders including Daw aung San Suu Kyi.
  • Myanmar Military should work with all the Ethnic Minority groups.
  • Myanmar Military should work with all the Religious Minority groups.

Senior General, you need their cooperation, their advise, their blessings to face the whole world. Their experience can tell you the truth about what is happening on the ground.

  • You need to work with them and not ask them to work for you.
  • You need to work with them  and no need to lock them up in the jails.
  • You need to work with them  and no need to lock them up in in their houses as house arrests.
  • You need to work with them  and no need to be afraid to talk to them.
  • You need to work with them  and no need to be afraid to start a dialogue with them, discuss and negotiate with them.
  • You need to work with them  and start a  national reconciliatory process which could eventually protect you, other SPDC generals, families, friends and cronies.

They will not and cannot do this as if you refuse to allow them or rufuse to listen to them or you recognize and respect them as the valuable personalities in their own rights. And they have as much if not more experience to provide leadership under whitewater conditions.

The ‘servant leadership model’ requires one to become chairperson of the board but not try to lead like an Old Captain. The person does not table papers but listens to ideas and steers the discussion towards a consensus decision.

Peter Drucker calls this ‘wise leadership’.

My three sen worth of suggestions for Sr General Than Shwe:

  • Let the people ask any question they choose and encourage open dialogue.
  • Do not protect anyone, let each carry their own weight or sack them if need be.
  • Ask all your generals to sincerely work with you and not for you.

You must start out right with good intentions, by making everyone  in SPDC to declare their assets publicly.

The people will judge you in the coming referendum and election by what you do and not just what you say.

Integrity means both –

  • doing what you say
  • and then preaching only what you have already practiced.

Let me end with a quote from John F Kennedy, who in his first speech as US president said: “Ask not what the country can do for you but ask what you can do for the country.”  

Myanmar Tatmadaw should review both the cat and dog loyalty models, and try to distinguish how every public servant and military official can serve first the public and national interest (defined as the interest of all the people of Myanmar, not just any one group regardless of how we carve the cake).


Myanmar and other Political Jokes

Myanmar and other Political Jokes

Cows in Politics Explained

Some are mine but I got the original idea from here_ 

  1. Myanmar under successive military governments:  You have two cows.  The government seizes both and sells you the milk with high price. You join the underground and start a campaign of sabotage.
  2. Burma under U Nu: You have two cows. U Nu prohibited slaughtering of cows. They were sold as, “Toe Toe Thars”, by smugglers. (Toe Toe means harsh harsh, quietly, secretly. Thars means meat.)

  3. Burma under General Ne Win:  You have two cows.  Ne Win’s BSPP government seizes both and provides you with small amount of diluted milk which is a little bit spoilt.
  4. Burma under General Saw Maung’s SLORC:  You have two cows. Military government took both, promised to give back after enquiry (election) but was deposed in a coup to prevent fulfilling his promise.
  5. Myanmar under Sr General Than Shwe. You have two cows. SPDC withdraw the license to breed the cows and given one license to U Pine (ex-military association) and the remaining license goes to U Tayza.
  6. Myanmar Tatadaw in Arakan: You have two cows. Tatadaw slaughtered one to eat. Ask you to plough the army land with your remaining one cow. You are forced to pull the plough together with the remaining cow as a voluntary service.
  7. Myanmar Tatadaw in Karen State: You have two cows. Myanmar Military would negotiate, bribe one cow, named as Democratic Buddhist Cow and incite to fight your remaining cow, assassinate you or your family, raid across the fence, burn your house across the border and to destroy the Mosques.
  8. Myanmar Tatadaw in Shan State: You have two cows.  Tatmadaw would slaughter both cows, rape your village women and set your village on fire.
  9. Myanmar under General Khin Nyunt: You have two cows. Khin Nyunt’s would smile but with the sweet innocent face he would order Myanmar Military Intellgence to start a religious or racial riot against you and burn your two cows together with your house.
  10. Myanmar Chins: You have two cows. Bandage one as if wounded and put a POP on another so that they could be accepted by UNHCR to be able to export to the Western Developed countries.
  11. Myanmar Democratic secular opposition: You have two cows.  Don’t talk about racial discriminations nor equal rights. Your cows are not important they are counting their own sheeps and praying that the Burma Revolution would last forever. Then only they could continue to collect funds.
  12. A SOCIALIST:  You have two cows.  The government takes one and gives it to your neighbor.
  13. CAPITALISM, AMERICAN STYLE:  You have two cows.  You sell one, buy a bull, and build a herd of cows.
  14. BUREAUCRACY, AMERICAN STYLE:  You have two cows.  The government takes them both, shoots one, milks the other, pays you for the milk, then pours the milk down the drain.
  15. AN AMERICAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You sell one, and force the other to produce the milk of four cows.  You are surprised when the cow drops dead.
  16. A JAPANESE CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You redesign them so they are one-tenth the size of an ordinary cow and produce twenty times the milk. You then create clever cow cartoon images called Cowkimon and market them World-Wide.
  17. A CHINESE CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You have 300 people milking them. You claim full employment, high bovine productivity, and arrest the newsman who reported on them.
  18. AN INDIAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You worship both of them.
  19. A GERMAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You reengineer them so they live for 100 years, eat once a month, and milk themselves.
  20. DEMOCRACY, AMERICAN STYLE:  You have two cows.  The government taxes you to the point you have to sell both to support a man in a foreign country who has only one cow, which was a gift from your government.
  21. A RUSSIAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You count them and learn you have five cows. You count them again and learn you have 42 cows. You count them again and learn you have 12 cows.  You stop counting cows and open another bottle of vodka.
  22. A FRENCH CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You go on strike because you want three cows.
  23. A BRITISH CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  They are mad.  They die. Pass the shepherd’s pie, please.
  24. AN ITALIAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows, but you don’t know where they are. You break for lunch.
  25. A BRAZILIAN CORPORATION:  You have two cows.  You enter into a partnership with an American corporation.  Soon you have 1000 cows and the American corporation declares bankruptcy.
  26. AN AMERICAN REPUBLICAN:  You have two cows. Your neighbor has none. So what?
  27. AN AMERICAN DEMOCRAT:  You have two cows.  Your neighbor has none.  You feel guilty for being successful.  You vote people into office who tax your cows, forcing you to sell one to raise money to pay the tax.  The people you voted for then take the tax money and buy a cow and give it to your neighbor. You feel righteous.

Intrigue and illness in Myanmar’s junta

Intrigue and illness in Myanmar’s junta


 BANGKOK – This month’s surprise announcement in Myanmar of a planned national referendum on a new constitution in May and multi-party democratic elections by 2010 are all part of Senior General Than Shwe’s game plan to hold onto power and ensure his family’s interests are secured. The question now is whether or not the junta leader’s health will hold out that long.

A major turning point in the competition occurred nearly six months ago, when Maung Aye was replaced as the head of the junta’s powerful Trade Council, right before the beginning of the August unrest. Maung Aye was also reportedly replaced as military chief during last year’s protests, where Thura Shwe Mann took charge of security arrangements, including suppression of the demonstrations, and commenced chairing crucial National Security Council meetings on Than Shwe’s orders.

Since the crackdown, however, the wheels of government have reportedly ground to a halt. “Ministers have been told directly by Than Shwe that he does not need to be consulted on any issue, other than those related to political or foreign policy issues,” said a military source, who spoke on condition of anonymity. But because officials fear making any moves that could be perceived as a challenge to Than Shwe’s power, decision-making is in gridlock, according to the source.

“There’s total inertia in [the capital] Naypyidaw. No one dares make a decision, even in regard to the smallest matters without approval from the top, which is rarely forthcoming,” a senior government official recently confided to a Western diplomat who spoke with Asia Times Online.

Read more Larry Jagan

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

Sr. General Than Shwe is the thief

of time


Procrastination is a type of avoidance behaviour which is characterised by deferment of actions or tasks to a later time. Psychologists often cite procrastination as a mechanism for coping with the anxiety associated with starting or completing any task or decision.

For the person procrastinating this may result in stress, a sense of guilt, the loss of personal productivity, the creation of crisis and the disapproval of others for not fulfilling one’s responsibilities or commitments. While it is normal for individuals to procrastinate to some degree, it becomes a problem when it impedes normal functioning. Chronic procrastination may be a sign of an underlying psychological or physiological disorder.

The word itself comes from the Latin word procrastinatus: pro- (forward) and crastinus (of tomorrow). The term’s first known appearance was in Edward Hall’s Chronicle (The union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancestre and Yorke), first published sometime before 1548.[2] The sermon reflected procrastination’s connection at the time to task avoidance or delay, volition or will, and sin.

Causes of procrastination


The psychological causes of procrastination vary greatly, but generally surround issues of anxiety, low sense of self-worth and a self-defeating mentality. Procrastinators are also thought to have a higher-than-normal level of conscientiousness, more based on the “dreams and wishes” of perfection or achievement in contrast to a realistic appreciation of their obligations and potential.

Author David Allen brings up two major psychological causes of procrastination at work and in life which are related to anxiety, not laziness.[citation needed] The first category comprises things too small to worry about, tasks that are an annoying interruption in the flow of things, and for which there are low-impact workarounds; an example might be organizing a messy room. The second category comprises things too big to control, tasks that a person might fear, or for which the implications might have a great impact on a person’s life; an example might be the adult children of a deteriorating senior parent deciding what living arrangement would be best.

A person might unconsciously overestimate or underestimate the scale of a task if procrastination has become a habit.

From the behavioral psychology point of view, James Mazur has said that procrastination is a particular case of “impulsiveness” as opposed to self control.[citation needed] Mazur states that procrastination occurs because of a temporal discounting of a punisher, as it happens with the temporal discount for a reinforcer. Procrastination, then, as Mazur says, happens when a choice has to be made between a later larger task and a sooner small task; as the absolute value of the task gets discounted by the time, a subject tends to choose the later large task.


Research on the physiological roots of procrastination mostly surrounds the role of the prefrontal cortex. This area of the brain is responsible for executive brain functions such as planning, impulse control, attention, and acts as a filter by decreasing distracting stimuli from other brain regions. Damage or low activation in this area can reduce an individual’s ability to filter out distracting stimuli, ultimately resulting in poorer organization, a loss of attention and increased procrastination. This is similar to the prefrontal lobe’s role in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), where underactivation is common. [3]

Procrastination and mental health

Procrastination can be a persistent and debilitating disorder in some people, causing significant psychological disability and dysfunction. These individuals may actually be suffering from an underlying mental health problem such as depression or ADHD.While procrastination is a behavioral condition, these underlying mental health disorders can be treated with medication and/or therapy. Therapy can be a useful tool in helping an individual learn new behaviors, overcome fears and anxieties, and achieve an improved quality of life. Thus it is important for people who chronically struggle with debilitating procrastination to see a trained therapist or psychiatrist to see if an underlying mental health issue may be present.

Severe procrastination can cross over into internet addiction or computer addiction. In this instance the individual has a compulsion to avoid reality by surfing the web or playing video games (game addiction) or looking at online pornography (pornography addiction). Although these are relatively new phenomena, they are being considered as psychiatric diagnoses by mental health professionals.


Traditionally, procrastination has been associated with perfectionism, a tendency to negatively evaluate outcomes and one’s own performance, intense fear and avoidance of evaluation of one’s abilities by others, heightened social self-consciousness and anxiety, recurrent low mood, and workaholism. Slaney (1996) found that adaptive perfectionists were less likely to procrastinate than non-perfectionists, while maladaptive perfectionists (people who saw their perfectionism as a problem) had high levels of procrastination (and also of anxiety).[4]

Academic procrastination

While academic procrastination is not a special type of procrastination, procrastination is thought to be particularly prevalent in the academic setting[citation needed], where students are required to meet deadlines for assignments and tests in an environment full of events and activities which compete for the students’ time and attention. More specifically, a 1992 study showed that “52% of surveyed students indicated having a moderate to high need for help concerning procrastination”[5].Some students struggle with procrastination due to a lack of time management or study skills, stress, or feeling overwhelmed with their work.[

Quotations on procrastination

  1.  ”I’ll stop procrastinating, I swear… Starting on Monday.” — Frikkin Ninja

  2. “You can read this one later!” – Evrim

  3. “If it weren’t for the last minute, I wouldn’t get anything done.” — Anon

  4. “I think a lot of the basis of the open source movement comes from procrastinating students…” — Andrew Tridgell (Article)

  5. “I love deadlines. I like the whooshing sound they make as they fly by.” — Douglas Adams

  6. “Waiting is a trap. There will always be reasons to wait – The truth is, there are only two things in life, reasons and results, and reasons simply don’t count.” — Robert Anthony

  7. “We don’t have anything as urgent as mañana in Ireland.” — Stuart Banks

  8. “A perfect method for adding drama to life is to wait until the deadline looms large.” — Alyce P. Cornyn-Selby

  9. “Procrastination: Hard work often pays off after time, but laziness always pays off now.” — Larry Kersten

  10. “Anyone can do any amount of work provided it isn’t the work he’s supposed to be doing at the moment.” — Robert Benchley

  11. “Procrastination is the art of waiting.” — Procrastination help

  12. “Procrastination is like masturbation, It’s fun until you realize you just screwed yourself”–Anonymous

  13. “Only Robinson Crusoe had everything done by Friday.” — Author Unknown

  14. “Procrastinate now, don’t put it off.” — Ellen DeGeneres

  15. “Procrastination is the thief of time.” — Edward Young

  16. “You can procrastinate later.” — kanzure

  17. “Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday.” — Don Marquis

  18. “Procrastination is my sin. It brings me naught but sorrow. I know that I should stop it. In fact, I will–tomorrow!” — Gloria Pitzer

  19. “Procrastination will kill us all if it ever gets around to it.” — Anon

  20. “Time you enjoy wasting isn’t wasted time.” — Bertrand Russell

  21. “Procrastination is the key to flexibility” — Anon

  22. Between saying and doing many a pair of shoes is worn out. ~ Italian Proverb

  23. One of these days is none of these days. ~ English

  24. “Never put off until tomorrow what you can do today.” — Mark Twain

  25. “Telling someone who procrastinates to buy a weekly planner is like telling someone with chronic depression to just cheer up.” — Joseph Ferrari

  26. “Faith in to-morrow, instead of Christ, is Satan’s nurse for man’s perdition.” Rev. Dr. Cheever

  27. “To be always intending to live a new life, but never to find time to set about it; this is as if a man should put off eating and drinking and sleeping from one day and night to another, till he is starved and destroyed.” Tillotson

  28. ‘By the streets of “By and By” one arrives at the house of “Never.”‘ Cervantes

  29. “By one delay after another they spin out their whole lives, till there’s no more future left for them.” L’Estrange

  30. “For Yesterday was once To-morrow.” Persius

  31. “Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day” Franklin

  32. “Indulge in procrastination, and in time you will come to this, that because a thing ought to be done, therefore you can’t do it.” Charles Buxton

  33. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  34. Procrastination isn’t the problem, it’s the solution. So procrastinate now, don’t put it off. Ellen DeGeneres

  35. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness; no laziness; no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Lord Chesterfield (1694 – 1773)

  36. My evil genius Procrastination has whispered me to tarry ’til a more convenient season. Mary Todd Lincoln (1818 – 1882)

  37. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  38. Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday. Don Marquis (1878 – 1937)

  39. Procrastination is the thief of time. Edward Young (1683 – 1765)

  40. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from robbing he next comes to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and procrastination. Thomas De Quincey, Murder Considered as One of the Fine Arts – 1827

  41. Know the true value of time; snatch, seize, and enjoy every moment of it. No idleness, no delay, no procrastination; never put off till tomorrow what you can do today. Earl of Chesterfield

  42. Procrastination is the grave in which opportunity is buried. Author Unknown


  1. Wikipedia encyclopedia

  2. Wikiquote

  3. And Google search of various Quotations

  4. All Quotations search site

A digitally enhanced Myanmar opposition

A digitally enhanced

Myanmar opposition

By Paul Watson, Los Angeles Times Staff Writer
January 7, 2008


YANGON, MYANMAR — During 45 years of military rule, Myanmar’s generals drilled fear and suspicion so deeply into the minds of their people that when their opponents tried to harness the rage seething on the streets last fall, no one knew whom to trust.
The generals quickly took advantage, crushing the pro-democracy demonstrations, killing at least 15 people and jailing thousands. It was a brutally simple strategy that had worked before.

But this time may be different. An information revolution has come slowly to this poor, isolated country, and the military government may have inadvertently handed its enemies the keys to organizing a more effective underground movement.

Protesters had difficulty communicating until they landed in jail, where they traded e-mail addresses and cellphone numbers. Many are out again, building a network for what they call a new revolution.
There seemed little chance of getting organized until more than 2,000 protesters, arrested and jammed into crowded jail cells, met one another and overcame their distrust. Now, most of them are on the streets again, carefully building a network for what they call a new revolution.

Their digital tools are e-mail and text messages, which are more powerful than a megaphone, and cellphone cameras that are so common that thousands of people are potential journalists.

Most spent only a few days in jail, long enough to overcome distrust, make new contacts with the underground, and organize more cells that now communicate through coded messages, Internet drop boxes and old-fashioned couriers.

Secret couriers, who already run messages between exiled opposition leaders and supporters in Myanmar, could smuggle video and photos into Thailand to be sent across the Internet from there.

1948-2008 Burma/Myanmar? Independence Day

1948-2008 Burma/Myanmar

?????????????? Independence Day ?????????????









Is this Independence?









That wasn’t a real protesting by true monks. It was set up by the military Juntas to lodge a wedge between Buddhist and Muslims in Burma.

I was there in Mandalay when that happened. The Buddhist monks sheltered the Muslims in their monestries while other bogus MI monks are destroying the mosques. The whole world and many Burmese citizens know who were the people doing that.

At last 3 agent provocator, Military Intelligent monks were caught by the civilians who were trying to protect their homes and the monks rioting in  the city against Muslims were not the real monks.

They just shaved their heads with the boots underneath the robes, using walki-talkies exclusively used by the Myanmar Tatmadaw and sometimes seen using or ridiong the motorbikes which practice is strictly forbidden by real monks.

Why the people did not join them if that is a clash between Muslims and Buddhists? We all, Buddhists and Muslim friends were still hanging out and helping each other.


LOOK! There was an MI Myanmar Military Intelligence Agent Provocator with long hair holding a very long stick.

People saw the military issued singlet under wear under some of the fake monks. Sometimes we could see the military boots they were wearing. What a shame Phut Kyar Killer Tatmadaw.

I dream of speaking with DSAI, former D.P.M. of Malaysia

I dream of

speaking with

DSAI, former D.P.M. of Malaysia  


I was trying to get a chance to have an interview with the former Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim (many Malaysians affectionately referred him in a short form as DSAI) also since last year.

Burma Digest Chief Editor was eager to get this interview as he is famous for his bright ideas, brilliant oratory skills and is known internationally and highly respected for his principled stance against corruption, for his skillful management of the Malaysian economy, as an ardent supporter of democracy and for his authoritative voice bridging the gap between East and West. He is regarded as one of the forefathers of the Asian Renaissance and a leading proponent of greater cooperation among civilizations. Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim was the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia from 1993-1998. Served as Minister of Finance for Malaysia from 1991-1998. He is an internationally renowned speaker on the subjects of democracy, freedom, good governance, Islam and democracy and the need for accountability.

Strangely, I have this unusual dream of getting a chance to have a face-to-face interview with DSAI. As the dream was like a real life-like and I could recall each and every word answered by DSAI in the dreams, I decided to record all of them in detail here.

I hereby wish to apologize Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim, his family and the political party from the bottom of my heart for dragging DSAI’s name in my dreams and this article.

I hope all of the concerned personalities could kindly understand and forgive me for daring to dream and write about this interview, which never materialized or happened in the real world.

Beware this is just fictional, not real.

BURMA DIGEST: Dear Datuk Sri, thank you very much for allowing us to interview.  His Excellency Datuk Sri Anwar Ibrahim…You are welcome. Question…As Datuk Seri is well known internationally as an ardent supporter of democracy, we wish to know your views based on democratic principles, regarding Burma’s present and future. 

Answer…Most of the people around the world just uttered the word democracy without knowing the essence of democracy. Let’s focus on the fundamentals of democracy such as human rights, individual freedom, good governance, and rule of law. 

Question…Burmese Military Generals are trying to hook wink the people of Burma, Governments around the world and United Nations with their “Seven Steps Road-map for democracy”. How do you see that road map? 

Answer…Most of the dictators around the world and even the Socialist and Communist leaders used to claim that they are practicing democracy to sugar coat their bitter pills of authoritarian rule of undemocratic governments. 

Question…They had ignored the results of the 1990 election where opposition won 85% of the seats. However, they are now preparing for the referendum and another election. 

Answer… The true cultivation of democracy requires more than simply the introduction of elections. It also requires the establishment of a democratic process and a levelling of the political playing field.

Now they had refused to honour the election they themselves had held because people rejected their Military affiliated party and had given mandate to the opposition. It is a blatant insult to the wisdom of the Burmese people and against the basic concepts of democracy.

If some one is regarded to be unreliable and broken the promise, especially if that person is the leader of a country, how could we trust them again?  If the Burmese people rejected their referendum and or the election, what is the Military Junta going to do?  Do they dare to promise the people of Myanmar and the whole world including the UN that they would just quietly withdraw peacefully to their barracks, like their previous leader General Saw Maung of SLORC had promised before the 1990 elections?The Generals must allow the free and fair competition among political parties.The election authorities and election officials must be independent, impartial, and effective in guaranteeing free and fair elections.

Question…In the Full or true democracy, how should SPDC conduct the referendum and or the election? General Ne Win’s Burmese Socialist Programme Party had legalized his authoritian, dictatorial military rule with the referendum and the elections before.They are trying to hook wink the whole Burma/Myanmar with the “Seven steps of Road map to democracy.” But the catch word of SPDC is “Guided” or “Disciplined” Democracy.  

Answer…I want to stress again my words, Holding the elections regularly is not enough. We need the establishment of a democratic process and a levelling of the political playing field.  The basic characteristics of democratic system must be instituted and followed such as:

  1. There must be plurality

  2. We must allow multi-political parties even if based on different races and religions

  3. There must be no intimidation of the candidates.

  4. There must be no intimidation of the oppositions; there must be no threats or restrictions on all the candidates and parties.

  5. All the citizens must be allowed to participate in the election process, voting as well as standing as a candidate or people’s representative.

  6. There must be an independent unbiased Election Commission.

  7. I strongly recommend a UN Election Watch Dog.

  8. The opposition must be given a free hand to campaign.

  9. The opposition must be allowed access and usage of mass media even if it is controlled by the military government.

  10. And all must accept the result of the elections whether any one win or loss.

  11. Voters must be able to freely choose their preferred candidates/parties without interference

Question…Just look at the Seven steps of Democratization of SPDC Junta. Are they conforming to the fundamentals of democracies? 

Answer… The most important thing in the democracy is to respect and recognize each and every person’s rights, minority races, minority religions, workers, women, children including handicapped persons etc.  

  1. And those minorities’ rights must be protected from the “bullies” of the majority.

  2. The National Convention should have been conducted in a more meaningful way and a more inclusive or all-inclusive process.

  3. All the people of Myanmar/Burma must be allowed to be participated by representation.   

  4. NLD, all the oppositions, civil society, ethnic minorities and minority religious groups must be allowed to be participated or allowed to present an open official stands, give suggestions, requests or objections.

  5. I heard that anyone commenting about the National Convention could be prosecuted.

Then only it could be called democratic and could be accepted by the people of Burma and the   International Community.  

Question… Delegates to the Convention were chosen by the SPDC and the Fundamental human rights and democratic requirements of the delegates are fulfilled in the convention. There were no sign of a genuine process of political transition to a real democracy. 

Answer… Yes the delegates to the Convention should be freely chosen and it should proportionally reflect the results of the 1990 elections.Some of the delegates were arrested for the activities carried out in relation to the Convention. Moreover, some were expelled or barred from the Convention for what they say or advocate peacefully.  

Question…SPDC Generals accused that Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD are stubborn and radical. What is your comment, how do you see them?   

Answer…I think that NLD and Daw Suu are pragmatic.

  1. They keep on saying that they could forgive and forget the past wrong doings and she is especially promoting Loving Kindness. The 1990 election they won is the real fact, no one including SPDC Generals could deny.

  2. Student leaders are also telling that they did not wish to revenge or even mention about their sufferings but asking for true and meaningful dialogue and National Reconciliation.

  3. Re-arresting the student leaders and continued arresting Daw Suu, NLD, opposition members and leaders do not show that the Generals have good faith or that they are sincerely changing towards a real democracy.

 Question…But the whole world leaders especially ASEAN leaders are seems to be believe them and just supporting their claim to give more time. 

Answer…No! The whole world knows that Myanmar Generals are just buying time or procrastinating and giving lame excuses to keep on staying in power.  ASEAN and other world leaders are just trying to be polite and diplomatic only. On the other hand, some neighbours just closed their one eye to continue exploit Burma. No one believes the SPDC Generals. I wish to quote Dr. Paul Joseph Goebbels  “If you tell a lie big enough and keep repeating it, people will eventually come to believe it.” And the person telling the lies also started to believe that he is telling the truth because that person is also unknowingly trapped in the illusion he had made.So SPDC is saying these over and over and over and over again, and hoping that the Burmese people and the whole world will believe it, and that’s their strategy.This propaganda technique is called “The Big Lie”. 

Question…What are the other facts that may pull down the SPDC’s future Guided or Disciplined democracy to a lower level or to the bottom of the ratings:  

Answer… In the SPDC’s Guided or Disciplined democracy:

  1. The censorship of the print and online media is worse in the world ranking now and there is no indication of relaxation in a near future. All the Media must be free.

  2. The SPDC government policies is currently favoring one race and religion in the Military  and Government ignoring the ethnic minorities and minority religious groups.

  3. There are no signs of freeing the political prisoners and there is no promise of not to continue the practice of re-arresting the freed political prisoners because of their peaceful political activities.

  4. If they want to be recognized as moving towards the true democracy, they must allow individual freedom and especially the political freedoms. SPDC must allow the freer level of democratic development.

  5. SPDC must respect the Civil Rights of all the citizens.

  6. There must be good Governance free of Corruption.

  7. There must be Rule of law not Rule by Law.

  8. Political participation of all citizens must be allowed.

  9. Civil liberties must be allowed by SPDC.

  10. All the restrictions of SPDC on political parties must be stopped. SPDC Junta is not showing any signs or indications of reducing this oppression at the present and because of that, the opposition groups in Burma/Myanmar are fragmented and ineffective.

  11. There must be a legitimate, non-arbitrary, transparent process to amend the constitution and laws.

  12. Burmese People’s rights to demonstrations and assembly must .be recognized.

The Outsiders: Burmese Muslims

The Outsiders

By Harry Priestley/Rangoon
January 17, 2006

Read here

In a country where discrimination against minority groups is a fact of life, Muslims are bottom of the heap.

There is a saying that if you lose control of your bicycle in Burma’s western Arakan State, you shouldn’t worry as it will stop when it hits a kala.

Kala is Burmese slang for outsider, or alien, and although Caucasians are sometimes referred to as white kala, the term is more commonly used for anyone dark skinned, usually of Indian origin. While some shrug the term off, others consider it abusive and degrading: an insult to people whose ancestors may have fought for the country and who consider themselves wholly Burmese.

However the name is interpreted, the fact remains that Burmese Muslims of Southern Asian descent—there is also a small community of Chinese Muslims, the Panthay, with roots in southern Yunnan province—are treated very much as outsiders. Some Buddhist Burmese complain that Muslims refuse to integrate, or sneer at their religious practices. Others will look you in the eye and tell of a Muslim master plan to convert Burmese women to Islam, raise children and, eventually, take over the country.

A Buddhist taxi driver in Rangoon rolled his eyes when I asked him whether he liked Muslim people: “They kill cattle,” he said, referring to Eid Al Adha, the Muslim festival of sacrifice. “We need cattle to work in the rice fields, but they kill them.”

The ceremony is an important date in the Muslim calendar, commemorating Allah’s challenge to Ibrahim, and the meat from the sacrificed animal is shared among the community. Although the meat is gratefully accepted by Muslims and non-Muslims alike, many Buddhists find the ceremony offensive.

“We definitely have an image problem,” admits Ahmed, a local Muslim leader speaking after Friday prayers at one of Rangoon’s downtown mosques. “We encourage people to be discreet, so as not to offend others, but I think sometimes we make local people feel like they are living with strangers—the way some of us dress, the way we speak, our activities. We are partly responsible.”

The “some of us” here illustrates the divide even within the Muslim community. As Moshe Yegar points out in his 1972 study The Muslims of Burma, there are deep-rooted differences between the Rohingyas of Arakan State, the fundamentalist “Indian Muslims” who are mostly based in Rangoon and those who have striven for total integration: “These are different groups that do not identify with each other, do not share the same goals and aspirations, and hardly ever cooperated in any of that community’s struggles.”

The first Muslims to settle in what is now Burma are believed to have been Persian and Arab mariners who landed on the Arakan coast back in the 8th or 9th century and, according to records, their descendents served under King Anawrahta (1044-1077) and his son King Sawlu (1077-1088). The 12th and 13th centuries saw the arrival of more seafarers, as well as an influx of Muslims from present-day Bangladesh—the Rohingyas. The kingdom of Arakan fell to the Burmese toward the end of the 18th century and was ceded to the British 40 years later, during the first Anglo-Burmese war.

When the British embarked on their annexation of Lower Burma in 1824, they brought with them significant numbers of migrants from South Asia, a number of whom assumed key posts in business, politics and the civil service. Many retained their positions following independence in 1948, and during the fifties and early sixties there were several notable Muslim MPs and ministers.

But when General Ne Win swept to power on a wave of nationalism in 1962, things began to change. Expelled from the government and army, Burmese Muslims found themselves ever more marginalized. The position of Muslims in society and the legacy of independence heroes such as Abdul Razak, better known as Saya Gyi U Razak (see box), who was assassinated along with national icon general Aung San, was slowly being eroded.

A 2002 report from New York-based Human Rights Watch (“Crackdown on Burmese Muslims”) notes: “There is no written directive that bars Muslims from entry or promotion in the government…but in practice that is what happens.”

“There is definitely discrimination in the workplace,” says Aesop, a local Muslim businessman. “There are no Muslim headmasters or directors of companies. No professors. There are sergeants and corporals in the army, but nothing above that.”

While all but the elite must wait for the wheels of bureaucracy to slowly turn in Burma, many Muslims feel the wheels turn more slowly for them. As Aesop says: “Our citizenship rights are denied. Identification cards—which show you are Muslim—are confiscated or not granted in the first place. Without an identity card you can’t travel, conduct business or study. It’s a form of ethnic cleansing.”

A recent article in the government newspaper The New Light of Myanmar (“Myanmar [Burma], Where all Citizens Enjoy Freedom of Worship,” December 2, 2005) trumpets the country’s cordial relationship with the Muslim population, who officially make up 3.78 percent of the nation’s 54 million citizens, though other estimates put the figure as high as 16 percent. It also rather confusingly claims that “unlike in some countries, there have occurred no conflicts nor riots based on religious or racial disputes in Myanmar. Whenever there was a racial tension due to an instigation or a wedge driven among the religions, the government has always settled the disputes in coordination with respective racial or religious leaders.”

While this ties in neatly with the guidelines for Burma’s ongoing constitutional convention—which espouses “freedom of conscience and the right freely to profess and practice religion subject to public order, morality, or health”—it may surprise those who hold the government responsible for the waves of anti-Muslim violence that have erupted in recent years.

The Human Rights Watch report also details events from 2001, when angry mobs attacked Muslim homes, businesses and mosques in Sittwe, Taungoo and Prome. Anger at the Taliban’s destruction of Buddhist monuments in Afghanistan, or the conversion to Islam by local women marrying Muslim men may have proved the catalyst for violence, but many of the attacks, which resulted in the destruction of hundreds of properties and dozens of deaths, were first blamed on Buddhist monks. Reliable reports, however, suggest the ringleaders were in all probability disguised government agents sent in to stir up trouble.

Heavy restrictions were placed on the towns where conflict arose. Evening curfews were imposed and group prayers of more than five people were banned. Existing laws meant that permission to build new mosques, or even repair those damaged during the riots, was consistently denied.

The same is true in the new satellite towns that have sprung up on the outskirts of Rangoon. When the government forcibly relocated thousands of residents from rundown inner city neighborhoods in the early nineties—ostensibly to demonstrate its commitment to urban development, but in reality to sell off vast swathes of land to private developers—no provision was made for any religious practice, other than Buddhist. One almost completely Muslim neighborhood in Tamwe Township was scooped up en masse and dumped in a new location outside Pegu. Permission for the building of mosques has been turned down time and time again and Muslims are forced to pray privately and behind closed doors.

More and more, Muslims are being encouraged to shut themselves off from society at large, to become more self-reliant, to become more insular.

Bus driver Mahmood sends his son to a Muslim school, where he studies the Koran every day. Mahmood does not describe himself as a particularly devout Muslim but, with a young family to support, he cannot afford the fees to provide all his children with a state education. The school is funded by a group of private Saudi Arabian companies and is free to any child with a basic knowledge of Islam.

“I’m so happy for my son,” says Mahmood. “His future is safe.”

Muslim schools funded privately from overseas are increasingly common in Rangoon and, with the Burmese economy currently in tatters and the education system in freefall, they are proving an attractive proposition. The image of Muslims “looking after their own” is gaining admirers on a wider scale, too. “It’s not unheard of for poor Buddhists to convert to Islam to take advantage of funeral services, which the local mosques pay for,” says one Rangoon journalist. “Now some Buddhist organizations have even started similar services.”

But while foreign bodies continue to lend financial support at a community level, many are asking whether the world’s Muslim community could do more to help its Burmese brothers.

“Our only real contact with the Middle East is with the Hajj [the pilgrimage to Mecca or Medina that Muslims are expected to complete at least once in their life],” says Ahmed. “In the Middle East, they don’t know where Burma is. Their only point of reference is “that lady” [Aung San Suu Kyi] or the place where bogus monks throw stones at mosques.”

With the denial of citizenship, restrictions on religious practice, professional discrimination and a growing sense of alienation, one might expect Burmese Muslims to be easy prey for extremist groups operating in the region.

Separatist clashes in Indonesia’s Aceh province and the southern Philippines, together with continuing violence in Thailand’s Deep South have thrown Islam into the Southeast Asian spotlight as never before. Paramilitary groups such as the Malaysian Mujahideen Group (KMM) and the pan-Southeast Asian Jemaah Islamiyah—whose latest series of suicide bombings left at least 19 dead in Bali—have been linked with Osama bin-Laden’s al-Qaeda network and are believed to be laying foundations for a hardline Islamic state, comprising parts of Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

For now, though, disaffected young Muslims are more likely to flee the cities and join ethnic resistance groups. The All Burma Muslim Union, which the government routinely brands “Muslim terrorist insurgents,” actually operates alongside the largely secular Karen National Union and, despite a swelling of its ranks following anti-Muslim riots in the eighties, remains a very minor force. Extremist Muslim groups simply do not appear to exist in Burma.

But many feel it is only a matter of time. “If the persecution continues,” says Ahmed, “Burma could become a breeding ground for terrorists.”

Interview with Chairman of Global Peace Malaysia (English)

Interview with Mr. Ahmad Azam Abdul Rahman,

Chairman of Global Peace Malaysia (GPM)

 _ interviewed by Dr San Oo Aung



Mr Ahmad Azam Abdul Rahman is the Chairman of Global Peace Malaysia, GPM, a Humanitarian Mission across Borders.

He is also the President of the consortium of 77 NGOs.

He is also a Member, founding Executive Committee Member of the Union of World Islamic NGOs.

In addition, he is the Board Member of Kuala Lumpur Society for Transparency International.

He is an Executive Committee Member of the International Movement of Just World.

He was the member of Malaysian Youth Consultative Council appointed by Youths and Sports Ministry.

He was the President of ABIM, Malaysian Muslim Youth Movement.

Burma Digest’s representative in Malaysia, Dr. San Oo Aung, recently got a kind permission to interview this great humanitarian who has a lot of interest in Burmese Politics.

Burma Digest is gathering the views of third persons to break the ice in Burma Politics and to boost the real and rapid progress in the democratization process of our country.


[This interview in video format will be available later.]

BURMA DIGEST: Dear brother we are glad to be here, with you today.

Abdul Rahman...Thank you very much.


Question…Brother, what is your opinion regarding the possible chances of changes in Burma towards democracy.

Answer…I think, basically, no one country in the world would like to be forced to change the way they do things. So when there is an element of forcing you to change according to your standard or your values, I think naturally there will be an element of resistance.

In the issue of Burma, we have to look from that angle as well, how to change it in a way that is acceptable (to all) and that could be difficult.

We can put pressure but when there is an element of force, then the people would cling to themselves and would resist.

So we have to bring in all kind of approaches to bring change and to bring democracy in Burma.


Question… Brother, you are interested in Burmese Politics and had organized protests at Burmese Embassy in Kuala Lumpur. And had organized press conferences in KL against the admission of Burma into ASEAN. At the press conference, you had revealed the various evidences of the atrocities committed by the Myanmar Military Government on its religious and ethnic minorities. You had even been to Burma Bangladesh border to help the Myanmar Rohingya Refugees. And you are the prime mover and campaigner in Malaysia to recognize the Rohingyas from Burma. Could you explain about your political activities?

Answer… Well my first contact with Burma was when there were the Rohingya refugees 10 of thousands in early 1990. We were shocked why their own citizens are disowned and rendered stateless citizens, just because their skin colour is not the same or they speak different language. 

Because of that, Malaysia has to, in a way, suffer to take care of their problem of Burma . We have to take care of their problem till now. 

I was in ABIM as the President then. We started to have a programme how to help them. The only way to help them is to send them back to Burma and let Burma accept them as their own citizen and treat them as their own. And it is the only way.


Question…Any progress in solving their problem? 

Answer…It is very unfortunate that there is only very little progress. In the case of Rohingya, they (Military Junta) disowned them. So it is a pity and I am quite surprise why they (SLORC/SPDC) are behaving like that. They were there, born there and the history had shown that they are the part and parcel of Burma.


Question…You had lobbied against accepting Burma into ASEAN. Kindly explain your political activities and reactions. 

Answer…Being an NGO, we don’t have the authority at the Government. The only weapon that the NGO has is that to let it known that you are unhappy with your government. 

We don’t know why they (SLORC/SPDC) are treating against their own people against the decency of normal human being.

So we organize to demonstrate the reasons why Burma should not be accepted into ASEAN. ASEAN has an accepted way of Governance. Anyway, they had been accepted. 

We still have to put some pressure with the hope that they will change , they will have some consideration to accept common principles agreed by ASEAN.


Question…What is the reactions of your government and their reasons?

Answer…We were called by the Malaysian Foreign Ministry, when we started to attack on Burma.

(They said)

  1. If you push Burma, in any way that reasonably is not acceptable to them, they will cling to themselves.

  2. They will close all the avenues for change.

  3. So you have to know when not to push them, try to convince them, and try to help them so that there will be a level of confidence building.

  4. So you have to develop a careful building mechanism to trust us and

  5. Maintain a level of dialogue and conversation.


At the same time, (I believe that) atrocities on their own people must be highlighted, because it is in a modern world, we cannot do what we like to human beings. There are some levels of human dignity on its citizens by any government in the world.


Question…So what should we do to change or win over these Generals’ hearts and minds?

Answer…If you look at the Burmese Generals as the power that be in Burma, if they are not exposed to Intellectual Conversations, invited more on the dialogue, they could not be pulled out of the cocoon of Burma. If not this ailing generals, their sons or their grandchildren will see the light one day.

I hope I can see some degree of changes. And naturally the next generation of generals will change. I don’t think the next generation of generals will be the same as this first generation generals.


Question…So you mean it will be a very long struggle and we have to wait for the future unfolding of events.

Answer…I will like to see the struggle shown by (Nelson) Mandela (of South Africa). He was in jail, could not get out for two decades.

I am sure, after the second generation of leaders, they will have more tolerant views on things.

Of course, we want to see the changes yesterday!

But it is impossible.

We have to go step by step with the systemic efforts and at the end to institute changes over time.

But we don’t know when it will happen. We could not predict when the Soviet Union will collapse in 80’s 90’s. We don’t expect but it had happened.

But there must be a group of people trying to highlight these issues and trying to put pressure in a way for the changes to occur, whether they succeed or not.


Question…What is ASEAN doing to change Burma, is that just a drama or a staged show?

Answer…It is a dilemma.

  • If we isolate Burma,

  • if they are not allowed to develop,

  • there will be no interaction.

  • If there is no two-way interaction with the people of Burma,

  • they all will be in their own cocoon.

We want them to be changed anyway. Want to include them in a very part and parcel of the ASEAN.

Then the first thing to do is, we have to open up the doors for interaction and negotiation. May be the first generation generals are very stubborn with their own way of thinking.

But I believe the younger people will see how beautiful KL is, how Thailand is developing fast and the rapid growth of other countries. So the younger generation may have different appreciation on looking things.


Question… West’s economic sanctions were busted by China, Thailand, India and ASEAN’s own agenda. What do you think?

Answer… There are pros and cons of economic sanctions.

Economic sanctions can only work if every body agree or do at the same time.

If one country instituted the economic sanctions and other country is benefiting from it, that would be a failure.

There must be a consensus if we want to see the changes in Burma.

If we want to see that kind of sanctions (successful), they have to be done consensually. Then no country could take advantage to others’ sanctions.


Question…How about Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Noble Peace Laureate; she was in jail repeatedly and is now under house arrest?

Answer…I think she is the symbol of resistance and to what is happening to the Burmese people. Burmese abroad and other NGOs must share the same principle of continued highlighting her plight and the issue of democracy in Burma.

Just like what happened to Mandela, the struggles have to continue and the changes have to be planned very well. If no immediate changes in this first generation generals, the 2nd and 3rd generation generals have to change definitely. We must have optimistic views that there will be definitely some changes.


Question… Asean’s way of no-interference is ineffective, should they change their stance?

Answer… The main question is the confidence building mechanism had to be instituted first. The idea of non-interference is to respect the way we do things, that no body should interfere us.

I don’t like people interfering in how I run my own family. Likewise if any other country wanted to initiate change in Burma and telling them what to do, how to run the country, definitely they won’t accept it. So the position or the policy of noninterference is the idea of friends to respect each other in the way of doing things.

  • But at the same time, we are concern also.

  • We cannot blinded our eyes with what is happening in Burma.

  • So the level of building confidence is important.

  • The trust is very very important.

  • And those who are very close to Burma, benefiting from trade like China, Thailand and Singapore, having business and interest must play their role of opening up Burma.


Question… What is the role of UN, UN Tribunal or International Criminal Court’s action on the Burmese Government? Or we just need to keep quiet while Burma events unfold itself.

Answer…It is also a dilemma. If we charge one of the Generals in International Criminal Court of Justice, definitely, they are going to be afraid and will hang on to the power at what ever cost it may be.

So efforts to bring changes have to tackle subtly with controlled pressure, to get desired affects. Again, I wish to stress the building of confidence to those who like to see changes in Burma.


Question… Opposition has no much trust on the Burmese Generals as they are clearly buying some more time only. And the generals also do not trust them. Your views?

Answer…The Generals know that_

  • the opposition is going to take power away from them.

  • So it is the natural thing that they are buying time.

  • They are going to do what ever they can to hold on to the power.

  • They will hang on to power at whatever cost.

  • They will kill their own people.

  • People will be put into prison.

There is no straightforward simple answer:

  • You need to continue with the straight form of various opposition activities

  • You need to exert Economic Sanctions.

  • You must exert multiple approaches on how to bring the changes.

  • We never know which will be effective to bring up the changes in Burma.


Question…Burmese Junta is killing Ethnic Minorities; Karens, Shans and Rohingyas. They are jailing Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Shan leaders, and NLD leaders. They are practicing forced relocation, forced labours and forced conversion of religions. What is your view on these atrocities?

Answer…Yes, these are the things they are doing, and it is not acceptable by any standard. If you kill the Ethnic Minorities just because they are different from you, grant or made laws making Rohingyas stateless persons because they are different from you, it is wrong.

You are transferring your problem to the other country. Malaysia and Thailand suffer because of this attitude. It is not acceptable.

How to make them realize and to change them is not easy.


Question…Regarding ASEAN Integration, are you modeling EU and is Burma a thorn in ASEAN?  Could ASEAN Integration benefit the people or it is just for the benefits of governments only?

Answer… EU Integration or development is not for every country. Those who are not ready yet could come in later.

  • If you are not ready, want to take time like Burma,

  • if they do not change,

  • they will be left out from benefits of ASEAN Integration.

Naturally, the future leaders (of Burma) would not want to be left out.

They will like to be included. Time frame depends on their (pace of) change.


Question…Is there any possibility of future Academicians, Professionals, workers and students easier to come and work or study here? In other way will there be any easier Immigration Policy?

Answer…There are influx of migrants/workers, 10 of thousands of Rohingyas, other groups from Burma, Philippines and Indonesia. Malaysia also has a certain kind of policy so that it may not affect the demography and social dimension of itself. Again, Malaysia has a selective policy of supporting but understandably generally very strict policy of giving partial preference to certain other countries.


Question…Malaysia is accepting and even granting scholarships to many Burmese and Rohingyas in the International Islamic University and other Private Universities. Is there any chance of accepting more liberally and also into the schools?

Answer… Previously Rohingyas were not allowed to study in Government Primary and Secondary Schools. Just imagine that after 10 years, those Rohingya children without reading and writing skills would give more problem, bigger problem to our country.

So we are in the process of granting them a status so that they could stay, work and attend schools in Malaysia. This started last month but there are some teething problems but it is a right action.

  • Yes, but we cannot accept or open up free for all.

  • The feeling of the Malaysians Vs foreigners must be considered.

  • It could create Anti-other races feelings.

  • There must be a balance.


Question…The opposition and the Generals do not trust each other. There is a stalemate or deadlock in Burmese Politics. What should we do?

Answer…I have my trusted person. You yourself would be like that. Burma (generals) will also have some trusted countries that they trusted them as very close like e.g. China. China could play some role to try to change Burma.


Question…Could OIC play some role in Burma?

Answer…Burma is not an OIC member. Until and unless the OIC put the Rohingya problem as a minority affair problem in the OIC Agenda, OIC could not do any thing officially.


Question…Which country’s model should Burma take as a role model? Indonesian Military taking 30% of MPs or South Africa model?

Answer…You could take any model, Indonesia, South Africa or even European Countries.Every nation has its own peculiar system and way of doing things.

  1. Thinking Groups for change (Think tanks) in Burma must look all the models.

  2. Military must be given a role to play.

  3. Even the opposition has to realize and accept the fact that the Military has a role.

  4. All Civil Society must also be given the role to play.

  5. Must develop and convinced the idea that every body has the role to play.

  6. All the citizens must be given the role and proper recognition.

  7. That is the best way to convince all of them to bring them to come forward to change.


Question…Is there any real hope of change or we all are just day dreaming for a false hope?


  • I believe strongly that they are going to change.

  • I believe that the present ailing generals would be replaced by younger generation generals who see the changing world’s happenings.

With more tourism and travel (to and fro) the more they see what happening in the world.


Question…What is the role of people to force the change?

Answer…If the people refuse to cooperate:

  • any government will surely collapse. See the Shah of Iran backed by America using all the facilities killing his own people.

  • But the soldiers also have families and relatives who are the part of People.

  • Ruling Junta, elite have to change if the people oppose them.

  • So the people should be alerted and open up their awareness (of their power).


Question…We Burmese are familiar with the Buddha’s teaching. Could you kindly share us an advice as a conclusion based on your Islamic back ground?

Answer…Yes, I would finally like to advise one thing.

When our Prophet conquered and entered Medina, in Arabia:

  • he had practiced the CONCEPT OF POWER SHARING.

  • He understood that no one race alone should or could rule the country.

  • He accepted that no one race is superior to another.

  • There is no superior race and every body is same.

  • So the first foundation of Islamic state is the Multi Racial Society.

So my advice to non Muslims and Muslims, who wish to change to democracy_

  • Whether (you are) Academicians, Professionals, Politicians, Oppositions… all must unite.

  • Don’t form different groups but unite into a big single group.

  • In any struggle for change to democracy, no one race can live and fight alone.

  • Don’t discard the other races with the mentality to form one superior race just because they are not like you.

  • If not your struggle and policy will definitely fail.

So I think this is the spirit of human dignity and the feelings of human beings regardless of race and religion.

That should be the basic of any struggle.


BURMA DIGEST… Prophet Mohammad had said_ “The ink of the scholar is more valuable than the blood of the Martyr.”

So thank you very much brother, for sharing your valuable and lovely thoughts, ideas and advices. Thank you very much.

Abdul Rahman…Thank You.


[Author’s Note: The facts or ideas in this interview may not represent the concepts of Burma Digest Team and some of the opposition groups may not be agreeable to all of these. We are just presenting the alternative views, facts and ideas of the third party, interested and trying to help our country.]



Ko Ko said _

Very good…at last I know now there are still many Malaysians who understand our country’s  problems…Thanks Abdhul Rahman for your every action taken against the Burmese Junta…

Dr Zafar Shah said _

Dear Respected brother, TQ and salutes for helping us against the evil Junta. We are amazed and respect your wide influence and contacts in the Islamic World. Please may you kindly contact your affiliated NGOs and OIC Governments not to lend any political support to the Myanmar Government at UN especially in UN Security Council meetings.

Bo Aung Din said _

Yes Mr Ahmad Azam, you are right. China could play some role to try to change Burma. In addition, I think Russia, India, ASEAN e.s.p. Thailand, Singapore (you had already rightly pointed out some)  are also important to persuade or pressure Myanmar to change. Nowadays OIC Islamic countries have a lot of interaction, trade and influence on the above nations.

Dear Sir could you kindly lobby through your brothers-in- Islam, NGOs, OIC and contacts to pressure the above nations to persuade Myanmar Generals to change their heart.

But in the mean time to vote against Myanmar Junta in every UN voting and not to use VETO to protect them.

Maha Bandula said _

TQ for the interview Saudara Ahmad Azam. Mr Ibrahim Gambari, UN Under Secretary and Mr Zaid  Ibrahim (Datuk) were at UN with  Laura Bush to campaign actively for Burma.

Please kindly persuade your best friend, Mr Anwar Ibrahim (Datuk Seri), Former Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia, to act as  a PEACE MAKER to negotiate between all the parties in Burma/Myanmar.

He is the best person to do this as he has a very good cordial relations with World Bank and IMF, US, the Western Governments, OIC  leaders and Japan and personally knew some of the top Generals of Myanmar.

Mohd Yahya Bin Ahmad (Deputy Secratay-General, Rohingya Informatin Center, Malaysia) said _

Dear.Saudara Br.Ahmad Azam Bin Abdul Rahman, Assalamualaikum Wr.Wbr. First of all we wish to inform that we are extremely thankful to Allah SWT) as Whose blessings enable you to write on Rohingyas’ historical facts. Some incontrovertible evidence for your kind information, you have been advocating the Rohingya issue aggressively in Malaysia since 1990 with the support of the Muslim Youth Movement of Malaysia. We know Saudara and many Malaysians are still understand our Rohingya problems

…Thanks also for your every action taken against the Burmese Junta

…Dear Respected brother, We are amazed and respect your wide influence and contacts in the Islamic World. Please may you kindly contact your affiliated NGOs and OIC Governments not to lend any political support to the Myanmar Government at UN especially in UN Security Council meetings. Thanks a lot.

SHWE BA  said _

Dear Sir, you may wonder why many of the above are requesting you to lobby OIC, Islamic NGOs to lobby for Burma. Just see the following news, as I am sure no main-stream media had publish this in your country.

Burma issue at the UN Security Council. Sep 16, 2006; which said _

A divided UN Security Council voted yesterday to add Burma to its agenda, deeming the military-ruled country a threat to regional and international peace and security, despite a strong opposition from China. Ten nations; the United States, Britain, France, Argentina, Denmark, Greece, Japan, Ghana, Peru and Slovakia voted in favour of adding Burma to the council agenda, while China, Russia, Qatar and the Democratic Republic of Congo voted against it, saying Burma has made strides in solving its problems. Tanzania abstained.

Please kindly help to lobby QUATAR and other OIC members to support the UN’s action on Myanmar. In addition, please kindly pressure or persuade China and Russia not to use VETO to protect or shield Myanmar in UNSC.

Famous Burmese Muslims

Famous Burmese Muslims  or

List of Burmese Muslims


  1. U Razak. U Razak (20 January 1898 – 19 July 1947; Arabic: Abdul Razak) was a Burmese politician who was a respected educationalist. He was a minister and was assassinated, along with his cabinet, on 19 July 1947. July 19 is celebrated in Myanmar today as Martyrs’ Day. U Razak was Minister of Education and National Planning, and was chairman of the Burma Muslim Congress. [1]

  2. Saya Gyi U Nu . Mayor of Yammar Watti, Shwe Taung Thargathu @ Mohamed Kassim @ Saya Gyi U Nu (Great Teacher or Guru) was a very famous Burmese Muslim writer during King Bodawpaya.He had written and translated a lot of Islamic religious books. He used Pali and other words and terms from the Burmese religious literature to Burmanise the Islamic literature. Combined with his flowery, poetic Burmese writing, his books are regarded as Myanmar Muslims’ classics. [2] Bodawpaya appointed him as the head of the mission to India to collect and bring back books and Scriptures in Sanskrit, Hindi Urdu and Farsi. [3] Saya Gyi U Nu was appointed as the Mayor of Yammar Wati with the Shwe Taung Tharga title. [4] But recent military rulers prohibited the Muslims from using these Pali words and terms in Islamic religious books.

  3. U Shwe Yoe aka U Ba Ga Lay. U Shwe Yoe was a Burmese Muslim named, U Ba Ga Lay. He was the pioneer famous Cartoonist, Actor, Comedian and dancer. U Shwe Yoe dance was U Ba Ga Lay’s jolly joker dance sequence in, “Ah Ba Yae” (Oh Ah Ba. Ah Ba means old man or father in Burmese) which was one of the pioneer films of Myanmar movie history about rural life. The dance is full of fun and joy and it appealed so much to the Myanmar audience and is adopted as a dance for all festive occasions..[5][6]

  4. Colonel Ba Shin. Colonel Ba Shin a noted historian was later a member of The Myanmar History Commission, [7]UTC and Islamic Religious Affairs Council.

  5. U Raschid. U Raschid, an Indian Myanmar Muslim, was active in Thakin Movement (The Burmese National movement against ruling British). He was the secretary general of Rangoon University Students’ Association in 1931 together with prominent Myanmar political leaders: Aung San, U Nu, U Kyaw Nyein, U Ba Swe etc. U Raschid was the first president of the All Burma Students’ Union. In 1952 U Nu appointed him as Minister for Housing and Labour, later in 1954, Minister for Trade and Development, in 1956, Minister of Mines, in 1960 Minister of Commerce and Industry. In 1958 he was the Vice President of the Trade Union Council of Burma. U Nu requested him to change his name to U Yanshin to make him more acceptable to other Buddhist but he declined. General Ne Win arrested him in 1962, during the coup. [8]

  6. U Khin Maung Latt. U Khin Maung Latt was one of the Myanmar-Muslim Cabinet Ministers in U Nu’s Government held the Social Services and Health portfolio. He was the secretary of U Razak before his (U Razak) assassination. He had been active in the Students’ organizations of Yangon University and had took part in the very famous students’ strike of 1936. He successfully organized the Muslims in whole Burma to stand united under the AFPFL flag during the struggle for the independence. He worked together assisting U Razak. When AFPFL split in to two, U Khin Maung Lat was with the Stable Fiction. U Raschid remained with U Nu. [9]

  7. Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein and family members. Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein was also a very prominent Myanmar Muslim. He was known to be a great boxer, and had even represented Burma in the Olympics. He had successfully trained a lot of boxers. And he had rejuvenated the Myanmar traditional boxing. He was a famous writer also. His son U Win Nyein is also a prominent Journalist. U Chit Nyo, brother of Kyar Ba Nyein is also a famous writer. Myo Myint Nyein was the editor of Payphuhlwar, a former monthly magazine in Burma. Awarded the International Press Freedom Award in abstentia by the Toronto-based Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE). He is the brother of Win Nyein.

  8. Daw Win Mya Mya.  NLD Mandalay Division Organizing Committee member, Daw Win Mya Mya is a Panthay Muslim. She was assaulted by the SPDC affiliated thugs and arrested at Depayin together with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other NLD members. She is a brave and active NLD leader. [2] She was arrested during the fuel price rise demonstration led by revered Buddhist Monks in Mandalay, in September 2007, during the fasting month of Muslims.

  9. Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw . Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw from Navy was a very prominent writer and pioneer NLD leader died in SPDC jail. He was buried at Kandaw Gale Sunni cemetery. [10]

  10. Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint. Martyred after failed attempt of coup d’état during General Ne Win’s rule. [11]

  11. Saya Chair also had a very good relation with the Military Government and was appointed the Chairman of the Election Commission. [12]

  12. Hajima Pyinmanar (Sein) Daw Pu. Hajima Daw Pu was also a famous Myanmar-Muslim philanthropist. Because of her donation of a new Kidney Hospital and good social relations with General Ne Win, Military Government even awarded her with a medal for her outstanding social deeds. [13]

  13. Sultan Mahmood (Health Minister) Wealthy and influential Myanmar Arakan Muslim from Akyab, Arakan, a Rohingya, Sultan Mahmood was the political secretary in U Nu’s government and later was appointed as Health Minister. [14]

  14. Other Rohingya MPs (Member of Parliament) Other Rohingya Myanmar/Burmese (Arakan) Muslims in U Nu’s Parliament as parliamentary secretaries were Mr Sultan Ahmed and Mr Abdul Gaffar. Mr Abdul Bashar, Mrs. Zohora Begum @ Daw Aye Nyunt,Mr Abdul Khair, Mr Abdus Sobhan, Mr Abdul Bashar, Mr Rashid Ahmed, Mr Nasiruddin (U Pho Khine), were members of Parliament in different terms in U Nu’s Government. [15]

  15. Colonel (Tat Hmu Gyi) U Pho Kar He started to enlist in Mindon’s Cannon regiment since young. During King Thibaw’s reign, he was the Captain on the Sekyar Ngwezin Thulu ship which went to Bamaw to attack the Burmese Rebels and the Chinese invaders. During the third Anglo-Burmese war, he was at Min Hla Fort leading 200 Cannoners. U Pho Kar was together there with his uncles Captain Bo Kyae, Captain Bo U Maung, Sergeant (Thwe Thaut) U Kyar Yone. At the battle, one Captain and 50 soldiers killed. Burmese had to retreat and U Pho Kar retreated with the gun-shot wound on the abdomen. After the war he settled in Maymyo. Parliamentarian Haji U Than Nyunt was his son. U Pho Kar died on 10th. May 1956 at the age of 95. [16]

  16. Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors. There were also Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors like U Pe Khin and U Hla Maung.

  17. Ambassador U Pe Khin was the most important negotiator and architect of the historical Panglon treaty. When General Aung San was disappointed, given up and decided to take the flight back to Rangoon that evening, U Pe Khin persuaded General Aung San to stay for one night and to allow him to negotiate with the Ethnic Minority leaders. U Pe Khin successfully negotiated with those Ethnic leaders to get an agreement for this most important treaty in Burma, which was the foundation for the Union of Burma and its Independence. [17]

  18. Than Phae Lay was a popular comedian and famous singer. Khin Maung Htoo and Chit Kaung are also famous Burmese Muslim singers.

  19. Psychiatrist Prof Dr U Ne Win, Medical Superintendent (Head of Hospital) Yangon Psychiatric Hospital. *

  20. Faridah Meer, the Head of the Department in Surgery in the National University Malaysia (UKM)(General Hospital Kuala Lumpur).

  21. Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt. Captain U Khin Maung Latt or Haji Hassan Latt was also one of the pioneer pilots after independence. Later he became the General Manager of Burma Airways and was the personal pilot of General Ne Win.

  22. U Kyaw Kyaw. U Kyaw Kyaw was also one of the very few Myanmar-Muslims promoted to the high position in the Military Government. He was the Managing Director of the Myanmar Economic Bank. He was born on 15th October 1937 in Ye Nan Chaung, and died on 2nd of April 2003, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A graduate of Rangoon University, later he joined the State Commercial Bank of Burma as a junior officer. He was trained in Westminster Bank of England in early sixties. He is well respected among his friends and banking society for his vision, discipline, and hard work. During his tenure as Managing Director, he initiated computerization of Banking System in Burma. His concern is always been the dual exchange rate of Burmese currency, and inconsistent monetary policy of Military Government. He also tried to start Myanmar Stock and Exchange in cooperation with a Japanese Bank.

  23. Myanmar Muslim activists. Some Myanmar Muslim activists such as Pathi Ko Lay and Dr Kyaw Nyein were also promoters of total assimilation of Burmese Muslims in to Burmese. Especially Dr Kyaw Nyein had a very good relation with the very powerful and famous Mandalay Young Buddhist Monks and to some extent successful in countering the agent provocateurs from inciting the anti Muslim sentiments. Because of his request, real monks influential in Mandalay searched and confiscated and destroyed nearly hundred thousand anti-Muslim pamphlets allegedly distributed the Myanmar Military secret agents. Although reported to the authorities, no one was arrested for that crime in a country where many people were arrested, tortured and jailed for printing or photocopying or distributing any anti-government papers or even for distribution of Human right Declaration from UN office. Lu Du Daw Amar, highly respected journalist wrote in one of the monthly magazine recently about Myanmar Muslims from Mandalay. She praised them for their understanding and respect of the Burmese Culture. While trying to stress the deterioration of religious knowledge among Myanmar Buddhist youths, she pointed out that some of them even did not know how to talk with the monks. She mentioned the skills and politeness of Myanmar Muslims in dealing and talking with the Buddhist monks.

  24. U Shaw Phi. U Shaw Phi, Myanmar Muslim rich man, contractor and investor, was also very famous and well connected person among the local and central Military leaders. He was arrested few times because of his extraordinary efficiency and excellent contacts. Once, old and damaged vehicles, which were beyond repairable condition, from the army and State Transport Department were bought from the government. U Shaw Phi ‘shamed’ the Military government by the speedy successful repair within one month. His refurbished buses and trucks hit the roads and he was ‘invited’ into the jail for questioning for few months for his efficiency to repair the damaged vehicles so quickly. He was arrested once because of that kind of efficiency, for the crime of finishing his own house in front of the prolonged project of building the new parliament building. Because he built his house with three shifts of workers day and night, General Ne Win became jealous and ordered to arrest him to inquire how he managed to get the required raw material for the construction. And he was arrested few times without any trial when the number twos in the governments or any other high ranking officials were required to remove from their positions. They were unofficially alleged to have connection with that wealthy man and were said to be not fit to hold high posts. But strangely, the probes or investigations always had to stop before other VIPs were implicated. Obviously, the almost bankrupt authorities needed U Shaw Phi’s skills and wealth.

  25. Pali Professor, RASU, Ahmad Kasim

  26. MASU, English Professor Ali.

  27. Senior Research Officer, History, Dr Daw Yi Yi

  28. Associate Professor, History, MASU U Maung Maung Lay

  29. RASU Chemistry Professor U Aung Khin @ Md Ali

  30. Professor U Ko Lay, Maths, MASU.

  31. (Sugar) U Ba Sein. Pilot factory and Nylon Factory.

  32. EC Madar Umbrella Factory and Soap Factory.

  33. U Shwe Thar Aung. Chairman Arakanese Muslim association.

  34. Major (Dr) Htun Nyo. ENT Surgeon. Mingladon, Maymyo, UKM (Malaysia), Saudi Arabia.

  35. Dr U Hla Khaine. Ph.D. Anatomy UK. Professor, Head of Department. UKM. UIA. (Malaysia)

  36. Prof. Dr U Khant @ Habib Khan, Psychologist.UM, UIA. (Malaysia) Pased away at 2.00 AM, on August 02, 2007 in Yangon, Myanmar.

  37. Ye Soe was one of the famous Myanmar Muslim novelists. He wrote detective stories based on foreign books but he Burmanized them and was accepted by many youths. He wrote more than hundred books.

  38. U Kar, was the Rector of Rangoon Arts and Science University in 1962. He was the Education Minister of the 1958 Caretaker Government.

  39. U Ali. He was famous for the Classic Burmese old songs. Even most famous singer Mar Mar Aye learned from him. Piano Ko Mar Mut was also famous. [18]

  40. Movie stars. Shwe Ba and Maung Maung Ta were very popular movie stars in Burma. After retirement Maung Maung Ta got the Ph.D. with the thesis with the Shia Muslims in Burma. I hereby hope and request to Dr Mg Mg Ta or his friends to kindly contribute his thesis in the Wikipedia and allow me to copy in my web blog.

  41. Lt. Col. Khalid Maung Maung. Southern Shan State BRC Supervision Committee Chairman Lt. Col. Khalid Maung Maung.

  42. Prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army. There were few prominent Burmese Muslims in Burma Army earlier. Brig. General Maung Maung Gyi was from Burma Navy and Colonel Tin Soe was with the Revolution Council of General Ne Win. Various forms of Military Governments continue to rule Burma (Myanmar) since that council overthrown the democratically elected U Nu’s Government.

  43. Daw Saw Shwe. Famous Myanmar Muslim woman. Chairperson of Burma Muslim Organization.

  44. U Aung Thin represented the Myanmar Muslims at the Round Table Committee on whether Burma should be separated from India or not. That was held at London, in 1930.[19]

  45. U Ba Oh was a very rich Burmese Muslim philanthropist. He funded BMS Burma Moslem Society’s activities and was voted president for life. He was not only active in social and welfare, but he had also stood bravely in demanding the rights of Myanmar Muslims. [20]

  46. Haji Thein ( President-Islamic Religious Affairs Council )(Pulae, Pearl)

  47. Dr. Tin Maung (Son of U Kar), he was the Rector of Institute of Computer Science & Technology (ICST).

  48. Notable Burmese Muslims under Burmese Kings                                                          All the list of persons below ae taken from the “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111[21]

  49. Naymyo Gonnayap Khan Sab Bo @ Abdul Karim Khan. Ambassador to Indochina.

  50. Minister Mingyi Maha Min Htin Yar Zar @ U Chone, Akhbad Myin Wun, calvary Captain, Mayor of Pin Lae town.

  51. Maha Min Kyaw Thiha Min Htin @ U Pho Yit, Mayor of Tapae town.

  52. Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Nae Htun,Kala Won.

  53. Maha Bawga Dana Thiri Yarzar Mullah Ismail, Custom Chief. Royal Ship Captain, Mayor of Kyauk Yae town. He donated the Mandalay Soorti Mosque.

  54. Maha Min Hla Min Htin Yarzar @ U Naw Khan, Kalay Tain Nyin Yargazo Mayor.

  55. Maha Min Khaung Kyaw Htin @ U Pyar, Mayor of Sinku.

  56. Malar Mon @ U Pwint, Explosive expert. (Yan Chet won)

  57. Min Hla Min Htin Thu Rain, Western Jail Superintendent.

  58. Min Htin Yarzar, Chief Clerk.

  59. Nay Myo Thiha Kyaw Htin @ U Tar, Advocate.

  60. Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhayar @ Marmet Ebrahim, Advocate.

  61. Nay Myo Yaza Thinkhaya @ Abdul Rahman, Advocate.

  62. Nay Myo Min hla Yazar Thu @ U Kyin Oo, Special squad Captain. (Ywe Let Yar Bo)

  63. Min Htin Thithi Yarzar @ U Khaung, Special squad Captain.

  64. Maha Thu wunna Thaetha @ U Yan Aung. (Rich man)

  65. Maha Thiri Thukha Thaetha @ Maung Sein. (Rich man)

  66. Mantaka Maha Thala @ U San Pyaw (Richman)

  67. Maha Bawga Punnya @ U Yit (Rich-man)

  68. Abit Shah Husaini, Chief Islamic Judge (Bodaw).

  69. Malauvi Kabul, Chief Islamic Judge (Mindon)

  70. Naymyo Gonnayat @ Khalifa U Pho Mya

  71. Khalifa U Hwe Lone.

  72. Royal ship Captain U Pho Mya.

  73. Bo Min Setkyar Amyoke Tat U Hashim.

  74. Bo Min Bone Oh Bengla Amyoke Tat, U Yauk.

  75. Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major of 275 soldiers, Head of 5 Thwe Thauks who had 55 soldiers each under them) Thwe Thauk Gyi of Cannon brigade U Bo. (I could not mention the few dozens of Thwe Thauk Gyis because of imited space)

  76. Setkyar (Amyoke Tat) Cannon brigade Chief Officer, U Pho Kar.

  77. Custom Chief, Ar Gar Sherazi (Shia Muslim)

  78. Price Controller, U Maw.

  79. Merchant U Shwe Thi.

  80. Horse Calvery Chief Captain, Wali Khan.

  81. Horse Calvery Captain U Tu Wa , Wali Khan Horse Calvery.

  82. Thibaw’s personal secretary, U Hashim.

  83. Thwe Thauk Gyi (Major) U Danaing (Kindar Kala Pyo Army) Grandfather of Pathi U Ko Ko Lay.

  84. There are many Thwe Thauk Gyis, Captains and Palace Ladies closed to the queen.

[edit] See also


  1. ^ Burmese Encyclopedia Vol 11, P 73 printed in 1970

  2. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  3. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 157.

  4. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 166.

  5. ^ U Shwe Yoe’s alias U Ba Ga Lay by Tin Soe. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001. page 80,91&82 1

  6. ^ Ludu Daw Ah Mar, Shwe Yoe, Ba Galay – Artists of the same names in 2 volumes 1969

  7. ^ ibid

  8. ^ ibid

  9. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  10. ^ This poem in Burmese, “Sayar Maung Thaw Ka” by Kyaw Zwa in Burma Digest published on 23. 06.2007 mentioned this fact.[1]

  11. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.

  12. ^ ibid

  13. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  14. ^ Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  15. ^ Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  16. ^ “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. page 90-112.

  17. ^ General Ne win’s personal assistant Thetkatho Ne Win’s records.

  18. ^ Mar Mar Aye’s radio interview

  19. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  20. ^ ibid

  21. ^ The “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion.The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111.

Open letter to H.E. Professor Sergio Pinheiro

Open letter to H.E. Professor Sergio Pinheiro


Professor Sergio Pinheiro
(Brazilian law professor and
human rights investigator)
Special rapporteur of the
U.N. Secretary General on
human rights in Myanmar


Dear Mr Sergio Pinheiro,                                       

                                          Thank you for the great job you are going to do for the Burmese people. Instead of pressing SPDC generals to investigate the fatal crackdown on protesters in September, please may you kindly start an investigation yourself as the Myanmar SPDC top generals had all the knowledge of those and they had ordered the killing. 

We all Burmese people and some of the world observers already know that allowing you, Sergio Pinheiro, Special rapporteur on human rights in Myanmar of the U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki Moon and Mr Ibrahim Gambari are just the stage-shows to deflect the public and international outrage after SPDC Military had brutally suppressed, assaulted, arrested, tortured about six thousand and murdered few hundred of peaceful demonstrators and revered monks.  

SPDC and Than Shwe could be able to defuse the anger of the world and save the faces of their friends; China, Russia, India and ASEAN esp. Singapore and Malaysia, who would applause and go on supporting and exploiting Myanmar for another few decades. Procrastination and buying time is the ultimate goal of the SPDC Junta. At the same time, the SPDC media is repeatedly declaring that Myanmar Military Government   is steadfastly going to continue the cracking down on democratic forces until the opposition is totally eliminated or annihilated or totally uprooted. 

When Mr Ibrahim Gambari was asked by the reporters, why instead of looking around the killing field in Yangon, why did he went to Shan State and other irrelevant places, he replied that he had no  power nor mandate to go anywhere he like to investigate but just a guest of the SPDC and had to follow their arrangement.  

According to the unconfirmed reports, up to 8,000 people may have been rounded up around Yangon. This could not be independently confirmed but dissident groups have said that up to 6,000 people have been arrested since troops put down the uprising on Sept. 26 and 27 when they opened fire on crowds. The government says 10 people were killed but others say up to 200 people died in the crackdown on demonstrators who were largely led by Buddhist monks. Part of the proof is already in the photographs and videos came out from Burma and splashed in all the media worldwide.

But the SPDC Myanmar Military Junta had tried to destroy the evidences, repaired the monasteries, arrested, intimidated or killed the witnesses, confisticated all the films, audio and video evidences. So, to safe time and to make your job easy, instead of investigating all the cases of assaults, brutality and killings, please may you kindly just investigate one case which could represent all the atrocities of the SPDC on the unarmed peaceful civilians without provocation or threat of violence. 

Just investigate the murder of Japanese reporter for Tokyo-based APF News, Kenji Nagai’s case thoroughly from all the angles as if you are the investigation officer for a serious crime. If you could have the help of CIA, FBI or CSI team (Crime Scene Investigators) you could easily bring those Criminal SPDC Junta to the International Criminal Court for cold blooded killing of this Japanese photo-video Journalist.  

Footage capturing the last, terrible seconds of Kenji Nagai’s life has been aired on Japanese television and you could easily get to the root of the truth behind the 50-year old photo-journalist’s murder by Burmese troops.  

You should ask the detailed analysis of that video-clip and photos from the Japanese authorities. You could get the confirmation that the person in the pictures and video was the authentic pictures of Mr. Kenji Nagai.  

You should record the Japanese experts who had examined the footage and contradicted the official Burmese explanation of Nagai’s death – that he was killed by a “stray bullet”. 

You should record the Japanese investigators, who were seen in the news photographs at the crime scene. 

You should investigate how they get those pictures and video. And the person who shoot them. (You should plan and give the complete witness protection to the whole family of the Burmese photographer by taking the whole family back to USA immediately.) 

You must record the doctor at the Japanese embassy in Burma who confirmed that a bullet entered Nagai’s body from the lower right side of his chest, pierced his heart and exited from his back.  

You should insist to give a chance to record the interview with the “soldier” who shot Mr Nagai and if possible the squad or platoon involved.  

If you were not allowed to see the killer soldier and his troop, please kindly made sure, you get the black and white reply on paper. Who refused your request? 

You should try your best to get the most important fact, who had given the shoot to kill order? 

You need to make sure whether it is true that that even five generals including Yangon Division General were sacked because they refused to shoot the unarmed civilians and monks. If that was true, it is clear that the person who had given the order was higher than generals and Yangon Division Commander General and the five generals.

Only after the incriminating video-proof surfaced, the SPDC is trying to give excuses like a common criminal, they officially change the shooting to an accident.

What did SPDC mean by saying it was an accident? The SPDC soldiers were trigger happy and were ordered to freely shoot Myanmar citizens but they thought that the Japanese photo-journalist was a local Burmese Chinese and accidently or wrongly shoot and killed? Even if the victim in the shooting video was not a foreigner but local Myanmar citizen, it is still a crime to kill an unarmed civilian without provocation. SPDC Generals and especially Senior General Than Shwe is responsible to answer and clarify at the ICC. You should try to prove that there is Criminal Intent by SPDC.

The doctrine of transferred intent is another nuance of criminal intent. Transferred intent occurs where one intends the harm that is actually caused, but the injury occurs to a different victim or object. For example, SPDC soldier shoot the Japanese Photo-journalist “accidentally” because he thought that it was a local Burmese-Chinese.  The concept of transferred intent applies to homicide, battery, and arson. Felony murder statutes evince a special brand of transferred intent. Under a felony murder statute, any death caused in the commission of, or in an attempt to commit, a felony is murder. It is not necessary to prove that the defendant intended to kill the victim.

And the _

  1. arresting of the local journalists,

  2. cutting off the phone lines,

  3. vcutting off the internet internet

  4. Searching and

  5. confiscation of the cameras and hand phones capable of taking pictures

  6. are also clear case of trying to cover-up their crimes.

Above acts should be considered as the part of the cover-up scheme. This is the typical scenario of committing the Eighth Stage of Genocide, cover-up and denial.The whole SPDC from the Senior General Than Shwe to the soldiers who had done the shootings are all equally guilty of this killing

The “soldier” who shot Kenji Nagai was curiously wearing the slippers. I think this is the first time our world had witness a regular government soldier without boots. (Even there were reports that SPDC soldiers entered the monastries and pagodas without taking off their shoes.) May be there is some truth in the repeated rumors that SPDC officers trained the convicted criminals to shoot the rifles (or semi-automatic machine guns) and given the stimulants like Amphetamines or Ecstasy pills to commit the atrocities like killing the monks and civilians. There are also repetitive reports that the SPDC soldiers are given the same stimulants like Amphetamines or Ecstasy pills to commit raping of ethnic minorities.

If that is true, the one who ordered or give the command to shoot and kill would be more guilty then the actual perpetrators. This is a very important point for you as a prosecutor at ICC.  

Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war and serious crimes. The doctrine of “command responsibility” was established by the Hague Conventions IV (1907) and X (1907).  This The Hague Conventions IV (1907) was the first attempt at codifying the principle of command responsibility on a multinational level.

The “Yamashita standard” is based upon the precedent set by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita. He was prosecuted, in a still controversial trial, for atrocities committed by troops under his command in the Philippines. Yamashita was charged with “unlawfully disregarding and failing to discharge his duty as a commander to control the acts of members of his command by permitting them to commit war crimes.”

It was not until after WWI that the Allied Powers’ Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War and on the Enforcement of Penalties recommended the establishment of an international tribunal, which would try individuals for_

  1. “order[ing], or,

  2. with knowledge thereof and

  3. with power to intervene,

  4. abstain[ing] from preventing or

  5. taking measures to prevent,

  6. putting an end to or repressing,

  7. violations of the laws or customs of war.”

Introducing responsibility for an omission; Command responsibility is an omission mode of individual criminal liability:

The superior is responsible for_

  1. crimes committed by his subordinates and

  2. for failing to prevent or

  3. punish (as opposed to crimes he ordered).

The Yamashita courts clearly accepted that a commander’s actual knowledge of unlawful actions is sufficient to impose individual criminal responsibility.

Additional Protocol I

The first international treaty to comprehensively codify the doctrine of command responsibility was the Additional Protocol I (“AP I”) of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949.

Article 86(2) states that:

The fact that a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from …responsibility …

  1. if they knew, or

  2. had information which should have enabled them to conclude in the circumstances at the time,

  3. that he was committing or

  4. about to commit such a breach and

  5. if they did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repress the breach.

Article 87 obliges a commander to

“prevent and, where necessary, to suppress and report to competent authorities” any violation of the Conventions and of AP I.

In Article 86(2) for the first time a provision would “explicitly address the knowledge factor of command responsibility.”

The term “command” can be defined as_

A.  De jure (legal) command, which can be both military and civilian. The determining factor here is not rank but subordination.

Four structures are identified:

  1. Policy command: heads of state, high-ranking government officials, monarchs

  2. Strategic command: War Cabinet, Joint Chiefs of Staff

  3. Operational command: military leadership; in Yamashita it was established that operational command responsibility cannot be ceded for the purpose of the doctrine of command responsibility – operational commanders must exercise the full potential of their authority to prevent war crimes, failure to supervise subordinates or non-assertive orders don’t exonerate the commander.

  4. Tactical command: direct command over troops on the ground

B. De facto (factual) command, which specifies effective control, as opposed to formal rank.

This needs a superior-subordinate relationship. They are:

  1. Capacity to issue orders

  2. Power of influence: influence is recognized as a source of authority in the Ministries case before the
    US military Tribunal after World War II.

  3. Evidence stemming from distribution of tasks: the ICTY has established the Nikolic test – superior status is deduced from analysis of distribution of tasks within the unit, it applies both to operational and POW camp commanders.

Additional Protocol I and the Statutes of the ICTY, the ICTR, and the ICC makes prevention or prosecution of crimes mandatoryThe Nuremberg Charter determined the basis to prosecute people for:

  1. Crimes against humanity: murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhuman acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated.

The jurisdiction ratione personae is considered to apply to “leaders, organisers, instigators and accomplices” involved in planning and committing those crimes.

You should also try to prove the Malice of the SPDC. It is a state of mind that compels a person to deliberately cause unjustifiable injury to another person. At common law, murder was the unlawful killing of one human being by another with malice aforethought, or a predetermination to kill without legal justification or excuse.

The whole world knows that you would be able to show the proof of the Motive of SPDC.  As Motive is the cause or reason that induces a person to form the intent to commit a crime. It is not the same as intent. Rather, it explains why the person acted to violate the law. The knowledge that SPDC will receive the permanent dominance of Myanmar Military upon the death of the demonstrators is clearly the motive for those murders or massacres. But anyway the proof of motive is not required for the conviction of a crime. The existence of motive is immaterial to the matter of guilt when that guilt is clearly established. However, when guilt is not clearly established, the presence of motive might help to establish it. If a prosecution is based entirely on circumstantial evidence, the presence of motive may be persuasive in establishing guilt; likewise, the absence of motive might support a finding of innocence.

Instead of proper apology, or an acknowledgment expressing regret or asking pardon for a fault or offense from the SPDC Generals we are getting the excuses, to explain (a fault or an offense) in the hope of being forgiven or understood. SPDC falsely hope to be freed from the crimes, as from an obligation or duty. But sadly those were even not the explanations offered to justify or obtain forgiveness, nor reason or grounds for excusing: Senior General Than Shwe and other top generals must know that Ignorance is no excuse for breaking any law, local or ICC.

An excuse is essentially a defense for an individual’s conduct that is intended to mitigate the individual’s blameworthiness for a particular act or to explain why the individual acted in a specific manner.

To be excused from liability means that although the defendant may have been a participant in the sequence of events leading to the prohibited outcome, no liability will attach to the particular defendant because he or she belongs to a class of person exempted from liability. In normal circumstances, this will be a policy of expediency. Hence, members of the armed forces, the police or other civil organizations may be granted a degree of immunity for causing prohibited outcomes while acting in the course of their official duties, e.g. for an assault or trespass to the person caused during a lawful arrest. But in the Cases of the Crimes against Humanity, Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing or the Massacre of peaceful demonstrators and the point-blank shoot to killing of the Japanese Photojournalist cases at the ICC the above excuses are not valid at all. 

As a Law Professor, I hope you should told SPDC on their face to understand that they could not claim for the Diplomatic Immunity as they are not diplomats. It is for the exemption from taxation and ordinary processes of law afforded to diplomatic personnel in a foreign country only.

You should warn SPDC Generals that they should also understand that they could not claim for the executive privilege, exemption of the executive branch of government, or its officers, from having to give evidence, specifically, the exemption of the head of the government from disclosing information to inquiries or the judiciary. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or to protect the private discussions and debates of the president with close aides. Efforts by various the head of the governments to gain absolute and unqualified privilege have been rejected by the International Criminal Courts.

So, Mr Sergio Pinheiro, as you had made the remark while delivering his annual report on the human rights situation in the country, adding events that occurred since issuing your last written report in August. From Sept. 26-28 when authorities used what you, Pinheiro called “excessive force,” including firing on and beating protesters, to rein in the large crowds. But your good self, Mr Pinheiro, could not present exact figures for how many had been killed and arrested, you cited other reports that between 30-40 monks and 50-70 civilians had allegedly been killed and 200 beaten. “It is difficult at this stage to provide you with accurate numbers of persons killed and arrested as well as those who are still detained,” you had said, adding that you hope to travel to the country to make a more accurate assessment based on witness testimonies and meetings with authorities.In accordance with a resolution passed by the Human Rights Council earlier in the month, you will urge authorities to carry out a set of actions, including conducting “independent and thorough investigations into the killings and enforced disappearances” as well as taking “action against those responsible.”

You said you will also press officials

  1. to reveal the whereabouts of missing persons,

  2. take steps to unconditionally release all detainees,

  3. grant amnesty to those who have been sentenced,

  4. allow them access to humanitarian personnel, and ensure for their physical and psychological safety. 

You and others in the international community have repeatedly expressed concerns about the fate of thousands of protesters who have reportedly been detained.

Thank you for calling on officials to “immediately and unconditionally release the detainees and political prisoners” including General Secretary of the National League of Democracy Aung Sang Suu Kyi, who you had noted had been held for exactly 12 years under house arrest.

“The stability of Myanmar is not well served by the arrest and detention of political leaders or by the severe and sustained restriction of fundamental freedoms,” you had further stated. “There will be no progress in Myanmar’s political transition unless ordinary people have space to express their views and discontent peacefully and in public.”

“My task is to offer an honest, complex, objective picture of the crisis … the excessive use of force, what’s happening in terms of detainees, the number of deaths,”you had said.

You  said that you would then present a report with your recommendations to the Geneva-based Human Rights Council on December 11.

According to you, ”I have reports that the chase of bystanders or people involved in the manifestations continues. I think that the situation of fear prevails. I don’t think that the repression has finished,” you said.

You said that reports of deaths, torture and disappearances of those taken into custody continue to come in. “What annoys me is that the repression has not stopped a single moment — this is what annoys me — despite all the universal appeals,” you rightly  told reporters at the United Nations, during a press conference at UN Headquarters, you said: “I don’t think that the repression… has finished,” adding that a “situation of fear prevails” in the country.

“I will ask free access, the secretary general will ask free access,” Pinheiro said, adding that visiting prison cells to speak to detainees was “a requirement.”

We hope you would not forget the above noble quotes and remarks you had given infront of the international media.

We hope and pray that you would not be constrained by the military junta,by hook or by  crook, but be able to go where you want in Myanmar as you had vowed.


Thanking You

Yours Humbly


Dr San Oo Aung 



Race. Ethnic Groups

Successive Myanmar Military leaders repeatedly claim that Muslims in Myanmar (Burma) could not be called, registered or enlisted as a separate race. They are giving various reasons or lame excuses for that attempts of Ethnic Cleansing. (

1. Muslims in Myanmar (Burma) are mix-blooded people, not pure race as Burmese Buddhists.

2. Muslims are migrants only and not the original people of the land.

3. Muslims are scattered all over the country without owning a separate state as other races of Burma.

4. No race can be formed base on the religion.

5. By calling Kala, meaning Indian, the authorities equate all the Muslims with the recent migrants of Indians under the British or even trying to accuse as fresh illegal immigrant.

6. The hidden agenda is their deep-seated fear of propagation of Islam. They are scared of future Muslim dominance although it is not possible.

We hereby intend to consider some undeniable facts about the “ROOTS OF MYANMAR MUSLIMS.”

Forefathers of Myanmar Muslims had landed in Myanmar (Burma’s Rakhine, Ayeyarwady delta and Tanintharyi coast) as early as ninth century, roughly about 200 years before King Anawrahta of Pagan established the first Myanmar (Burmese) empire in 1055 AD.

King Anawrahta later only concurred the King Manuha and Buddhist Mons of Thaton. He then invited Shin Arahan to propagate Buddhist teaching among people of Pagan. So the Buddhist religion reached Burma much later than the arrival of Islam. But we had to admit that the Hindus and Buddhists arrived the lower Burma (not owned by the Burmese or Myanmar yet) earlier than the Islam.

Because of that uniting force of Buddhist Religion, the original three Ethnic Minority Groups of Pagan: Pyu, Kan Yan and Thet assimilated homogeneously into present Myanmars. So, we hereby want to challenge present Myanmar Generals, especially BSPP/SLORC/SPDC and cohorts Burmese Chauvinists to deny that the Buddhist Religion forms the backbone of the formation of Burmans or Myanmars.

Even the Chinese, Indian Hindus, Indian Muslims, Japanese and some Anglo Burmans if they convert (or pretend to convert to) Buddhism they would be homogeneously assimilated into Burmese Buddhists.

Burmese Chinese like General Ne Win, General Khin Nyunt, President San Yu etc are accepted as “PURE BURMESE” and given hightest positions.

When SHIA MUSLIM U Sein Win and Sunni Dr Maung Di renounced Islam, they were accepted into the mainstream administration, Sein Win was even given PM post. Mg Di deputy Ed. Minister. There are many mixed -blooded people in Myanmar disguised as PURE Bamas. During the SPDC’s present registration on issuing National Identity Cards, if any one said he or she is Buddhist no more questions, easily accepted as pure Bama. But if someone replys one’s religion as Islam, even if he or she is recently converted into Islam, they refused to accept as a pure race.

It is not a simple, minor issue but the very important thing of denying a citizen’s right to posess a National Identity Card. Without it could not travel inside or outside MYANMAR/Burma.

2.Ethnic Minority Group and,

We should analyze which groups of people are deserved to be called or who have the sole right to be called a separate Race, separate distinct Ethnic Minority Group or a real Citizen.

1. Are only so called “pure race” should be called a race and not so pure or mixed blooded people could not stay together to form a RACE?

2. Or are those so called  “pure blooded” races are really pure enough?

3. Are those “Original Owners of the Land” really true or just mere early Migrants, reserving and monopolizing the place?

4. Are migrants are always regarded as migrants forever without entitlement to any Human Rights or Citizens’ Rights, even after few generations?

5. Well-established migrants, after already accepted as a citizen are still foreigners?

6. Are descendents of migrants and local mixed marriages still alien after few generations?

7. Could a conqueror of the war just annexes the new territory and regarded the locals staying in that land as Foreigners and started the ethnic cleansing?

8. Could that conqueror brought back the prisoners of war back, for various reasons e.g. slavery, to serve in various positions, civil or army, and allowed to settle in the heart of the country as permanent aliens for few generations?

9. Could the kings, after accepting the helping friendly allied foreign forces, allow them to settle in his country, gave land, property and even brides as rewards after the victory, but a few generations later kicked them out as lousy migrants?

10. After staying few dozens of years or few centuries under a foreign powers as a colony, once got the independence, could the new local government start to kick out the migrants entered during the period of colony? Is it legal to just want the land only and refuse to accept the people living on that land? Even if so, they should negotiate with their colonial power before accepting the independence. The colonial masters will surely divide the land or repartiatrate them back and that would delay the granting of independence.

11. Could they erase the real historical fact of gaining their independence after all was obtained with the help of so-called migrants?

12. Should they neglect the promises of fair and equal treatment or social contract or agreement that they had given to those Migrants and the colonial masters before gaining the independence?

13. Is a religion could never form the backbone of a race?

14. Is descendents of migrants could never form a separate or distinct race?

15. Is a religion could never form the backbone of an ethnic minority group?

16. Is descendents of migrants could never form an ethnic minority group?

7. To be regarded as a race, ethnic minority group or a citizen, is there any rule to be the original settler or owner of a land? Country? Or a State?

8.Have the Migrants no chance to be accepted as citizens?

Although all of the above questions lead to undeniable truth, we like to highlight the above axioms with the following facts. They are taken from the world’s historical theatre and our Myanmar (Burmese) geography and local history.


A group of people with a certain sense of itself and cohesiveness is called a race. There is usually a commonality or shared values such as: social, culture, attitudes and ideals.

The most important bond and determining all these is a religion. There is usually a common language, literature and a territory.

It may be a ‘pure’ race (homogeneous) e.g. Arian, Mongoloid or African. Or a ‘mixed’ race (heterogeneous) that is a mixture of few tribes, clans or minority groups. They mixed, stayed and struggled together with the sense of unity.

Let us look at how Islam deals with this sensitive racial issue as Arabs were and are so proud of their race.

Islam not only recognises absolute equality between men irrespective of any distinction of colour, race or nationality, but also makes it an important and significant principle, a reality.

All Human are descendants of one father and one mother. The division of the human race is neither meant for one nation to take pride in its superiority over others nor is it meant for one nation to treat another with contempt or disgrace, or regard them as a mean and degrade other races and usurp their rights.

South Africa Zulu is the combination of many tribes and clans by a powerful worrier in nineteenth century. So it is obvious that they are not homogeneous.

African Americans & Asian Americans are regarded as recognized Ethnic Minority Groups but there are many subgroups under them. Among Asian Americans, some of the bigger groups such as Indian Americans and Chinese Americans could be subdivided according to the clan, dialect, religion and their home state or district. So it is very obvious that non-homogeneous or more correctly, heterogeneous factor could not rule out the legality of a race.

Owning a territory, land, state or country is not very important to become a race. Israelis and Palestinians have no homeland at all earlier in the long world history. Actually they were not the original owners of that sacred land. Just because they were not the not the original owner of those land, we could not deny the fact that, the Israelis and Palestinians are distinct and famous races. They were even mentioned in three holy books and their racial conflict was and is the world’s most important and dangerous problems.

Most of the American Ethnic Groups also have no separate states.

Or some Ethnic Groups’ historical territories may be occupied by different nations or countries at present.

We like to give some examples.

The original land of Mons of Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia, is now  divided and occupied by three separate countries.

Like some of the Myanmar Ethnic Groups, the Malays, Indonesians and Polynesians had descended from the Yunan But few historians are thinking about the possibility of reverse migration from Australia side. But some Polynesians have got some mixture of Africa.

But even recently some genetic experts found out that there is some evidence that the Chinese originally descended and migrated from Africa. Actually the “Bush People” featured in  ‘ God is crazy 2′ are a little bit yellow and their features are some what like Myanmar or Mongoloid. (One of the Myanmar Doctor, Anaesthetic in Namabia wrote in the Myanmar Magazine in 1998).

Karens of Myanmar and Thailand. Shans, Siam and Southern Chinese (Nankhan) divided into the races of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos and some Chinese ethnic minorities.

Nagas of Myanmar and India are exactly same races in different countries.

And many Ethnic Minority Groups commonly found in China and India are also found and recognised as prided or precious nationals of Myanmar especially in Kachin and Shan States.

So the relation of the citizenship for the same race staying in different country is totally different.

Relation between the race and history of land ownership is also irrelevant.

And although the population of the Myanmar Muslims increased during the British rule of Burma because of new waves of Indian Muslim Immigration. This sharply reduced since 1941 because of Indo-Burman Immigration agreement, and totally stopped after Burma (Myanmar) gained independence in Jan.1948. So Myanmar Muslims are at least staying in Myanmar from 50 years and some of them are staying for more than 1000 years already.

Myanmar Muslims are descendants of Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moores, Indian-Muslims, Pakistanis, Pathans, Bengalis, Chinese Muslims and Malays intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups such as: Rakhine, Shan, Karen, Mon etc.

Muslims arrived Burma as travellers, adventurers, pioneers, sailors, Military Personals (voluntary and mercenary), and some of them as prisoners of wars. Some take refuge (from wars, Monsoon storms and weather, shipwreck and some for other various unforeseen circumstances). And some of them are victims of forced slavery. Some of them are professionals and skilled personals such as advisors to the kings and at various ranks of administration. Some are port-authorities and mayors and traditional medicine men. Some of them are good at various vocational skills, culture arts etc.

Mixed marriages, intermarriages and assimilation process of throwing away of almost all their foreign languages, foreign dresses and foreign culture slowly shaped them in to Ethnic Myanmar Muslim group of today.

But they had drawn a line in the ongoing process of assimilation. That line of limit is their religion, Islam.

As practising Muslims they could not go beyond the limit of tolerance of Islamic principles.

So Myanmar Muslims threw away Urdu, Bengali, Chinese, Hindi and all other foreign languages. Even Arabic is learned just to read Holy Koran and for prayers. Myanmar Muslims speaks Myanmar as their mother tongue, wear Myanmar dress and even have an official Myanmar name as well as Islamic Arabic name.

Because they could not compromise their faith in Islam in matters such as: only eating halal foods and drinks, marriage, divorce, inheritance, and other customs which heavily depend on Islam e.g. circumcision, funeral and burial rituals etc.

So Myanmar Muslims could not assimilate homogeneously as Chinese, Hindus and others, except for those who convert or renounced Islam. Complete Assimilation of a minority group always need a compromise of their tradition, their culture and some of their rights.


In Myanmar (Burma), General Ne Win ordered not to allow the registration of the Muslims as Burmese Muslims (Myanmar Muslims) and present Military Junta not only simply follow his tradition and laws but tightening their grips on Burmese Muslims. Although the whole world accepts that the persons who worships Islam are called Muslims, Ne Win and present Junta refused registration the citizens of Burma/Myanmar who professed Islam as Burmese Muslims or Myanmar Muslims.

They refused to allow the Muslims of Burma to be registered as Myanmar Muslims (Burmese Muslims). They are forced to register as Indian hybrid, Pakistan hybrid, and Bengali hybrid, worshipping Islam. So in order to avoid been labelled or registered or discriminated as a foreigner or a lower graded citizens, a few of the Myanmar Muslims even enlisted or registered themselves as Burmese-Buddhists.

Actually the religion is the most important factor in the formation of the Ethnic Minority Groups in the whole world. This is really the most explosive issue in most of the Ethnic- conflicts, leading to wars around the world throughout the history.

  1. In former Yugoslavia: Serbs, Croats Kosovo and Bosnia differences are mainly based on religion.

  2. In Lebanon, Christian and Arabs are the two opposing Ethnic groups.

  3. Even among main religions, sometimes different sects fought each other e.g. Sunni Muslims and Shia’ Muslims.

  4. Roman Catholics and Protestants of North Ireland are fighting based on religious differences in their Ethic groups but claimed to be based on political differences.

  5. In Sri Lanka, Buddhist and Sinhalese are fighting.

  6. In Indonesia the people from Bali are different from other parts of Indonesia because of the religion only. They remained Buddhist without converting to Islam. Because of the religion, they could not assimilate totally with Indonesian Muslims. They maintained some of their customs and rituals.

  7. The main difference of Indian and Pakistan is religion. Internal Racial Riots and continuos internal conflicts in these countries are based on religion.

  8. Cyprus, Germany, Italy, Spain UK and USA also have differences and voting-trends based on religious lines. (No Catholic could be elected President of USA for nearly 200 years until J.F.Kennedy became President in 1960).

Karens in Myanmar are also subdivided by religion. Christian Karens are more numerous and different from Buddhist Karens and Muslim Karens.

They differ not only in religion and customs but their political alienation or alignment is totally different. Ruling Myanmar Governments always look the Christian Karens with a suspect, because the Christians are more close and loyal to ex-colonial masters.

Just after the independence of Myanmar, mostly Christian Karens rebelled against the central government. And the Myanmar army lost most of the country. Christian Karens even arrested a group of top ranked military officers including the Deputy Commander-in- Chief of the Myanmar army. Buddhist Karens betrayed and rescued them back. They were honoured with the highest awards in Myanmar Military’s history.

Presently also, we could see the same kind of alignment. Buddhist Karens deserted the fellow Christian Karen rebels. Buddhist Karens joined their hands with Myanmar Army and raided the Christian-Karens across the Myanmar-Thai border. Apart from them, there are also Muslim Karens in Myanmar. Some of them even formed the Kawthoole Muslim Liberation Force (KMLF) and formed alliance with the Christian Karen rebels.

Buddhist-Rakhines are also different from Muslim Rakhines or Rohingyas. Some of them are even active as a rebel group called, the Rohingya Patriotic Front.

Panthays or Chinese Myanmar Muslims are also totally different from other Chinese or other Myanmar Chinese.

Buddhist Shan and Muslim Shans are also quite different. So it is obvious that the new Ethnic Minority Groups will appear depending upon their religion.

The religions will always become the main and very strong bonds in the formation of the various Ethnic Minority Groups in Burma / Myanmar.

And the religion is the main obstacle obstructing the complete assimilation of the minority groups.

In other words, religion sometimes prevents the disappearing of the Ethnic-minority groups.

Daw Aung San Su Kyi in her book “The Voice of Hope” told Alan Clements about the politics and religion:

The journalist asked, “When you speak to the people you talk a lot about religion, why is that?”

Daw Aung San Su Kyi replied , “Because politics is about people, and you can’t separate people from their spiritual values.”

And he said that he had asked a young student who had come to the weekend talks about this: “Why are they are talking about religion?” The student replied, “Well that’s politics. “Our people understand what we are talking about. Some people might think it is either idealistic or naive to talk about ‘metta’ in terms of politics, but to me it makes a lot of practical good sense.

AC: It’s a matter of debate, but politics and religion are usually segregated issues. In Burma today, the large portion of monks and nuns see spiritual freedom and sociopolitical freedom as separate areas. But in truth, dhamma (Religion) and politics are rooted in the same issue – freedom.

D A S S K: Indeed, but this is not unique to Burma. Everywhere you’ll find this drive to separate the secular from the spiritual. In other Buddhist countries you’ll find the same thing – in Thailand, Sri Lanka, in Mahayana Buddhist countries, in Christian countries, almost everywhere in the world.

I think some people find it embarrassing and impractical to think of the spiritual and political life as one. 

I do not see them as separate.

In democracies there is always a drive to separate the spiritual from the secular, but it is not actually required to separate them.

Whereas in many dictatorships, you’ll find that there is an official policy to keep politics and religion apart, in case I suppose, it is used to upset the status quo.


HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY alone could not be the basic factors determining the legality of the official recognition of the Ethic Minority Groups of a country.

Especially history is a very poor guide. There was almost always someone else there first. Israelis and Palestines almost always fight for their ‘native’ homeland. Actually neither of them were there first to occupy that land.

Just have a look at the history of Myanmar

Assam and Manipure of India; Phi Mor, Gor Lan and Kan Fan of China (the names stated here are Myanmar names); Ayuthya of Thailand; Penang of Malaysia, were once under Myanmar’s influence, even if it was for a brief period of time.

And alternately, Arakan King Narameikhla founded the Mrohaung or Mrauk-Oo with the military help of Nadir Shah, the Muslim Sultan of Bengal. So his heirs, the successive Arakan kings were subject to Bengal from 1430 to 1531 AD.

The Buddhists of Arakan the other major ethnic community, known as Magh or Rakhine are a mix-blooded race descended from Aryans of Maghada, India, Mongolians and Tibeto-Burmans.

(I am sure that the racist Rakhine Professor of Burmese history, now living in Japan is a desendent of the one of the earliest mixed blooded migrant and is now shamelessly claiming as a pure original race. Note for that person, I am not a Rohingya but a Burmese Muslim only. If you want to practice what you preach, don;t continue to stay in Japan, go back to your mother land Rakhine.)

Hindus, Portuguese, Chinese, British and Japanese partly or completely colonise Myanmar in history for various lengths of periods.

And in ancient times, Polynesians of Pacific Islanders were believed to be the first natives of the ancient Burma and were pushed down by ancient Indonesians and Malays. Actually all those Polynesians, Indonesians, Malays and most of the present Myanmar and Ethnic Minorities descended or migrated from China through Yunan.

Hindu colonists, of Andhra Dynasty, from middle India (180 BC) established Hanthawaddy (actually Mon town Han Sawadi – similar to Thailand citizen Mons) and Syriam (Tanyin or Than Lyin) in Burma.

Even before them, Orissa, Indian Buddhist colonists, arrived there earlier, settled and built pagodas since 500 BC.

There was a well-known belief and people even used to say that Myanmar started from Tagaung, built by Abi Raja, a Sakian (Tha Ki Win min), Indian Royal family member, migrated from Kapilavatthu (India) after defeated by the king of Panchala (India), Vitatupa. He left the Middle Country (India) and established the Tagaung country, known at that time as Sangassarattha or Sangassanagara.

On the death of Abi Raja, younger son Kan Raja Nge (younger King Kan) got the throne. Thirty-three kings reigned there.

Elder brother Kan Raja Gyi (elder King Kan) went down the Ayeyarwaddy River, ascended the Thallawadi River, arrived Kelataungnyo and ruled there as Rajagaha. He ruled the ancient Arakan. (Read this the racist Rakhine professor, your earliest king is an INDIAN.)

His son Muducitta became king of the Pyus (ancestors of modern Myanmar). He founded the city of Kyauppadaung. He conquered the Dhannavati (built by king Marayu).

So what is the great deal, dear Buddhist Burmese brothers?

The pure Indian or Kala brothers, Kan Rajas (Kan Yaza Gyi and Nge) were your ancestors. One started Myanmar kingdom and another the Rakhine Kingdom. Both of them were very fresh, recent and new immigrants. And your Myanmar (Burmese) and Rakhine Royal families descended from them.

Are all of you are not ashamed to call the Muslims Kalas and labelled as migrants, hybrids, non citizens, when all of you are actually totally same as us. And all of us know that all the major religions never started in Burma. All of the religions are foreign to all of us.

The Mainland Burmese are now able to colonize the Arakan State because, the British presented them, free of charge, as an extra gift during the granting of Independence to Burma. Actually the Burmese could colonize the Arakan State with their own strength for thirty-two years only from 1783 to 1815 AD.

The Arakans (Buddhists and Muslims) agreed to join the Burmese Union because they had trusted all the promises given by General Aung San, during the Pang Long Treaty. If not, the British would not allow including the Arakan and other States to join the mainland Burma.

But General Ne Win and successive Burmese Generals betrayed the ethnic minorities and ignored the promises given by General Aung San.

Although the minorities including Arakans had given up their rights to separate from the Union, the Burmese Chauvinist Military Generals still refused to recognize their other rights e.g. religious, cultural, political and civil rights etc. Muslims of the Arakan i.e. Rohingyas are suffering most. It is a little bit funny that in spite of long established history of Muslim Rohingyas, the Burmese colonist Generals, who could manage to colonized Arakan for a mere thirty-two years only, claims that they are the rightful owner of Arakan and the Rohingyas are alien migrants. (Note I am not a Rohingya)

If we continue back to the glorious Burmese history:

The invading Chinese from the north destroyed Tagaung. The last king of Tagaung, Bhinnaka Raja run away and died later.

His followers split in to three divisions.

One division founded the nineteen Shan States at the eastern part.

Another division moved down Ayeyarwady River and combined with Muducitta (second generation migrant, grand son of Indian Abi Raja) and other Sakiyan (Indian) princes, among the Pyus, Kanyans and Theks.

The third group stayed in Mali with the chief queen Naga Hsein, a Sakiyan.(Indian) She was the queen of the Sakyiyan king Dhaja Raja migrated from India. On the way he founded Thintwe’. Then they founded the upper Bagan(Pagan).

Dahnnavata captured Thambula, queen of Pyus.

But Nanhkan (China) queen of Pyus had driven out the Kanyans, who lived in seven hill-tracks beginning Thantwe’.

King Dwattabaung, direct descendent of Abi Raja (Indian Migrant) founded Thare Khit Taya in 443 BC. It was said to be self-destroyed in 94 AD. The history is half -mystical at that time.

Mons or Talaings, an Ethnic Minority Group of Myanmar, migrated from the Talingana State, Madras coast of Southern India. They mixed with the new migrants of Mongol from China and driven out the above Andhra and Orissa colonists.

Those Mon (Talaings) brought with them the culture, arts, literature, religion and all the skills of civilisation of present Myanmar. They founded the Thaton and Bago (Pegu) Kingdoms. That Mon mighty Kingdom extended from Lower Burma (Pathein or Bassein, Mawlamyine or Moulmein, Tanintharyi or Tenasserim, Tanyin or Syriam), Thailand and Cambodia. King Anawrahta of Bagan (Pagan) conquered that Mon Kingdom of King Manuha, named Suvannabumi (The Land of Golden Hues).

Two princes named Thamala and Wimala (Myanmar version of Indian names-Thalma and Vimala.) established the town Bago in 573AD. Tabinshwehti (Taungoo Dynasty) conquered it in 1539 AD. The Arabs and European travellers of the ninth century saw many Myanmar-Muslim sailors and traders, in Pegu (Bago), also known as Ussa.

Now there are only a few real Mons (much less than few hundred thousands) in Myanmar. But they were rewarded with the separate Mon State by the General Ne Win’s government because of his strong second man, General Tin Oo (actually he was even well known as ‘one and a half ‘ i.e. higher than number two position, as he controlled the Military Intelligence). He was a Mon. Later he was accused of corruption and removed from the number two post. This was allegedly after the Thailand’s official twenty-one gun salute and red carpet reception for his (General Tin Oo) son and daughter-in-law’s honeymoon trip there. Please allow me to interrupt with another interesting short story, which is not directly related with the main issue but because of a lot of coincidences. Another General Tin Oo (now NLD opposition leader) was the Chief Commander or Middle Division Military Command. He was very popular among the grass root people, Military rank and file and among the ruling elite. He had just rooted out the prolonged strong hold of Burma Communist Party’s head-quarters on the Bago Yoma (Pegu Mountain Ranges). When we met, I was surprised because he recognised me although I was almost an ordinary person and we had only met briefly once before that. He greeted me and suddenly joked with me. He told me the story of Kyansittha, during the war with the Mon (Talaings) went to pray the famous Shwe Maw Daw pagoda in Bago. When he came down the ‘Talaings’ had surrounded the pagoda, but Kyansittha manage to come down without any harm. He asked me the reason and answer to this ‘miracle’. The answer is very easy, just a Homophone only. Ta, means one in Burmese. Ta-Line means one line on the shoulder i.e. a rank and file in his own army. So, Kyansittha was not surrounded by the enemy Mons (Talaings) but was just surrounded by his own military men, ‘Ta-Lines’. That General Tin Oo was later promoted to the Chief Commander of Burma Armed Forces and became ‘the number two man’ in Burma. But that position was dangerous under the dictator Ne Win. Once the second man became popular and if there were signs of a threat, he used to removed and replaced with a weaker person so that his number one position would be safe. General Tin Oo was accused of corruption. He had alleged to accept five bottles of liquor, accepted the government controlled foreign currency to buy medicine for his child suffering from leukaemia. The Burmese Military Attaché in London allegedly gave that medicine to him. Another reason for his removal was, his wife, a Medical Doctor was proud and rude among the military families!

Portuguese, Philip Debrito (Nga Zin Ga) established a colony in Syriam from 1581 to 1613.

Chinese Kublai Khan’s Muslim Turkish soldiers, commanded by Nasrudin, the son of Yunan Governor attacked and took over Burma in 1277 AD. Tartars at first took strong hold in Bhamo (Burma) for a few years and later destroyed Bagan (Pagan) in 1287 AD.

Shans of Myanmar and Siams, now known as Thais are from one same Ethnic Group. Their language is different in slang only. They are descended from Sino-Shan and Mon Khamars, who came down from Yunan, China.

U Nu, the last democratically elected Prime Minister of Burma, overthrown by the General Ne Wins’ Military coup, later formed the government-in-exile in Thailand. After he returned (surrendered) to Burma, there were praises in the Government controlled Media, regarding his patriotism in refusal to sign an alleged agreement to allow Shan State to be annexed with Thailand in exchange for the Military and financial aids.

Myanmar language

Myanmar Muslims are using Myanmar language as their mother tongue. They are well assimilated in this aspect. A lot of Ethnic Minority Groups through out the world are facing problems because of the language differences.

Myanmar spoken language is under Tibeto-Burman family.

The source of the Myanmar script (written language) was adopted from the Brahmi script from India (500 BC. to 300 AD.), in the reign of King Asoka.

This Brahmi Indian scrip spread to Tibet, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia and even some parts of Indonesia. In Myanmar, this Brami script was developed and modified by the civilisations of Pyu (now disappeared and totally assimilated in Myanmar), Mon, Rakhine, and Myanmar. Myanmar language script was fine tune again after introducing Sanskrit, Pali, Pyu and Mon scripts. Earliest Myanmar written language starts in Bagan (Pagan) period of eleven century.

When compare to many of the prided, recognised ethnic minorities, especially WAs, most of them  could not speak Myanmar language, most of the Muslims in Myanmar could speak the mother tongue.

Myanmar traditional dress. Myanmar-Muslims have adopted and taken the Myanmar dress as their own.

It is widely accepted that Taik pone (Myanmar man’s jacket) was taken from China and the Longyi (Sarong) was taken from India.

Curiously Muslim religious customary Purdah, a veil for the women, is spread to even Burmese-Buddhists and other Ethnic Minorities. They called that with the adopted name Pawah.

So the present Ethnic Groups all over the world, including the races of Myanmar (Burma) are not the original owners of the land. And they are not neatly arranged into Nations. There is a lot of spill over into neighbouring states.

And their religion, language, culture and traditional dresses are usually found to be shared or modified from others.

The author of this book wish to make clear that the above paragraph does not mean to insult or belittle the spirit and pride of Nationality and the state of been a member of a particular Ethnic Group. I wished to reduce the fanatic extremist, Nationalistic Spirits only. After all, we all are just fellow, brothers and sisters staying temporary on earth. Why should we fight the deadly wars and hate each other for the non- permanent properties and lands. Peace, kindness, loving kindness, forgiveness, charity, helping the needy and various good virtues are the teachings of all our Religions.

So, based on the above, undeniable, concrete facts and truths –

  1. no one should deny the rights of Muslims in Burma (Myanmar).

  2. Myanmar Muslims have a right to be recognized as one of the races in Myanmar (Burma).

  3. We are one of the legal Ethnic Minority Groups of Myanmar (Burma).

  4. Myanmar Muslims (Burmese Muslims) are no more foreigners nor migrants but full-blown citizens of Myanmar (Burma).

  5. Muslims in Myanmar (Burma) have the same and equal rights with all other Myanmar citizens, including Burmese Buddhists and all the ethnic minorities of Burma (Myanmar).