China Olympic Games and Repression

China Olympic Games and Repression

Repression continues in China, before Olympic

Myanmar democracy activists urge

Olympics boycott


Myanmar democracy activists called Monday on people across the world to boycott televised coverage of this summer’s Olympics in Beijing, in protest at China’s support for the ruling military junta.

The 88 Generation Students group, which includes some of the country’s top pro-democracy leaders, also urged viewers against buying any merchandise linked to the Games.

The Olympics are set to open on August 8, the 20th anniversary of a pro-democracy uprising led by students in Myanmar.

The military, which has ruled the country formerly known as Burma since 1962, opened fire on the crowds, killing an estimated 3,000 people.

Leaders of the uprising were handed lengthy prison sentences, but when released they formed the 88 Generation Student group.

The group began new protests in August last year, harnessing public anger at a surprise hike in fuel prices that left many unable to afford even meagre bus fares to work.

Many of the leaders were again arrested, but Buddhist monks took over the protest movement, which swelled into the biggest anti-government uprising since 1988.

In a statement issued by leaders now in hiding, the group called “for citizens around the world to pressure the government of China to withdraw its unilateral support of the Burmese military junta and to boycott the 2008 Beijing Olympics.”

“China is a major trade partner, major arms supplier and major defender of the junta in the international arena,” it said.

“The military junta in Burma is still in power to this day, despite strong and continuous resistance by the people of Burma, because of China’s support.”

The group said that instead of supporting the regime, China should help to facilitate a national dialogue among the military and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who has spent 12 of the last 18 years under house arrest.

The military last week announced that it had completed drafting a new constitution that it plans to bring to a referendum in May. The document would bar Aung San Suu Kyi, a Nobel peace prize winner, from running in elections now slated for 2010.


Repression continues in China, one year before Olympic Games
The Reporters Without Borders list of nine things the Chinese authorities must do before the Beijing Olympic Games:
Reporters Without Borders also supports the eight demands of the Collectif Chine JO 2008 (China 2008 Olympics Collective), an alliance of nine human rights organisations based in France:
Reporters Without Borders wrote to IOC Jacques Rogge in June 2007

Repression continues in China,

before Olympic Games

When the International Olympic Committee assigned the 2008 summer Olympic Games to Beijing on 13 July 2001, the Chinese police were intensifying a crackdown on subversive elements, including Internet users and journalists. Six years later, nothing has changed. But despite the absence of any significant progress in free speech and human rights in China, the IOC’s members continue to turn a deaf ear to repeated appeals from international organisations that condemn the scale of the repression.

From the outset, Reporters Without Borders has been opposed to holding the Olympic Games to Beijing. Now, a year before the opening ceremony, it is clear the Chinese government still sees the media and Internet as strategic sectors that cannot be left to the “hostile forces” denounced by President Hu Jintao. The departments of propaganda and public security and the cyber-police, all conservative bastions, implement censorship with scrupulous care.

At least 30 journalists and 50 Internet users are currently detained in China. Some of them since the 1980s. The government blocks access to thousands for news websites. It jams the Chinese, Tibetan and Uyghur-language programmes of 10 international radio stations. After focusing on websites and chat forums, the authorities are now concentrating on blogs and video-sharing sites. China’s blog services incorporate all the filters that block keywords considered “subversive” by the censors. The law severely punishes “divulging state secrets,” “subversion” and “defamation” – charges that are regularly used to silence the most outspoken critics. Although the rules for foreign journalists have been relaxed, it is still impossible for the international media to employ Chinese journalists or to move about freely in Tibet and Xinjiang.

Read more

And continue to read these


Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

Pictures of the campaign

See photos of the operations carried out in Beijing, Paris, New York…

Media downloads

Download the “Beijing 2008” campaign graphic
Download the “Beijing 2008” web banner

in this country

15.10 – China
Reporters Without Borders activists rally in front of Olympic museum in Lausanne as Chinese Communist Party’s 17th congress opens
15.09 – China
New York Times researcher Zhao Yan freed on completing jail term
14.09 – China
Arrests and incidents involving foreign journalists show government is not keeping Olympic Games promises
31.08 – China
Congress passes law censoring disaster coverage
30.08 – China
Calling for lawsuit’s dismissal, Yahoo! says it is “political and diplomatic issue”

in the annual report

China – Annual report 2007

Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity,

Boycott China Olympic


This blogger cut and pasted the original slogan ” British difficulty, is Burmese opportunity” which was a famous nationalist slogan during the British Colonial revolution.

This blogger feels that the time is over due to start the campaign to boycott the Chinese Olympic as Chinese Communist Government has avoided its responsibility as a communist party to support the oppressed Burmese People against the Imperialist Military Junta.

International community sees China as a new emerging superpower, which is able to play a pivotal role to solve the problem in country like North Korea and Sudan. Chinese Communist Government who has planned the Olympic , spent billions of Dollars for preparation, and for mega sports facilities for their up coming National Event.

At the same time, Chinese communist authority must be very nervous for any negative effect towards the ” Chinese Olympic” which will be a prestigious event for the Modern China. This event will be remembered in the history of China as its legacy.

Since Chinese Communist Government has blind eyes and deaf ears towards the 50 Million Burmese people’s voice, we should make Chinese Communist Government difficult and Shameful for supporting the world’s worse regime ” Military Junta of Burma”.

To Burmese freedom fighters, this is the time we should start the slogan

” Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity”

This is the auspicious time , to start a campaign for boycotting the Chinese Olympic.

Sit Mone

Let’s exploit our strategic position between the two greatest civilizations

  Let’s exploit our strategic position

between the two

greatest civilizations

Dear Nan, our village or Shwe Myae is actually the virtual highway link between the villages in the south and their origin Ko Yu Nan’s village in northern part. Ko Indo Nesia, Daw Ma Lay traveled through our village in 2500 BC and 500 BC.

And those villagers on the numerous Islands up to U Au’s and Daw Zee Lans’ place, now we called Ko Poly Nisian also thought to have came down the same road.

Many of our cousin brothers like U Ka Yin (Pha Thi) and Daw Mon even came down earlier than Daw Shan from far north of Ko Ta Yoke village. U U Bamas and other cousin brothers of Tibet-Bama family villagers also came down from above. You and your half brother Ko Thai, Ko Laos and Ko Kam Bodia also came down from Ko Yu Nan’s village.

In the official Thailand History books, they even claim that all of the above came down from Ko Ta Yoke place through Ko Yu Nan’s village and even Daw Tibet had made an almost U turn and climbed beck onto the Tibet High Lands.

Those came down from north were met by the travelers from Ko Kala’s village. They came down from northwest. There was an old silk road from U Ta Yoke village at north-east to U Kala’s village at south-west. And that high way was in our Shwe Bama land.

Later they built the Burma Road which linked Burma and China. Its terminals are Kunming in China and Lashio in Burma. The road is about 1,130 kilometres long and runs through rough mountain country. This remarkable engineering achievement was built by 200,000 Chinese labouers during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and completed by 1938. It had a strategic role in World War II, where the Allied Powers used the Burma Road to transport war supplies to China. Supplies would be landed at Rangoon and moved by rail to Lashio, where the road started in Burma. In charge of the Operation was General Merrill and General Stillwell. At that time, Burma was a colony of the United Kingdom.

When the Japanese overran sections of the Burma Road the Allies flew supplies over the Hump and built the Ledo Road, also later known as the Stillwell Road. Ledo Road was built from Ledo in Assam into the Hukawng Valley as an alternative to the Burma Road, which had been closed by the Japanese. It was completed in January 1945 and was renamed Stilwell Road by Chiang Kai-shek.

(From the Wikipedia encyclopedia.)

Now China and India are negotiating with Shwe Bama villagers to build a modern high way liking their villages through our land. Recently Ko Ka Lar’s village chairman U Mus Lim went to Shwe Bama and signed an agreement to lay natural gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of our village to Ko Ka Lar’s village. And there is already an agreement to connect the gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of the village to Ko Yu Nan’s village. So these high ways and pipelines would become the renaissance of our forefather’s migration.

Dear Nan, why are you very sensitive, I am just mentioning the coincidences but not supporting those pipe-lines. You already know that I supported your policy of sanctions on SPDC. If you are not short sighted, you could still read the Burma Digest’s strong condemnation of TOTAL in recent issues. It is funny that those who play with fire and burnt sometimes blamed the fire. Recently one of the ASEAN PM complaint that their state owned oil company suffered some losses because of the sanctions in the host countries they operate. Then why did they foolishly decided to follow their greed to buy the shares of TOTAL and invested in Myanmar/Burma oil exploration? They should now redeem themselves by supporting the US, UK and EU led pressure on Myanmar Generals for the rapid democratization.

So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc moving along the road and some of them settled in our Shwe Bama Village as we are located along their high way through out the history.

Dear Nan, do you now accept the concept that our village was and still is a highway from west Ko Kala’s village to Ko Ta Yoke’s village in the north. People from Northwest of Ko Kala’s village came to our village through Ko Ya Khine’s village. Since 500 BC Hindu Orrisa village colonists had migrated towards Southeast and settled in lower part of our Shwe Bama village. Later other migrant villagers from the Andhra Dynasty from Ko Kala’s village similarly migrated to our village in 180 BC. Some took the long march on land and then some had sailed here.

Even U Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) another came from Ko Kala’s village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group.

Daw Daw Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

(i) One came down from above like Daw Daw Shan,

(ii) and another from U Kala’s village tract , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Ko Ta Laings originated from the Talingana village of Ko Kala’s village tract and arrived to lower Shwe Bama village part, met and married with Daw Daw Mon’s children, who came down from Ko Yu Nan’s village, spreads through our village up to Ko Thai, Ko Laos and Ko Cam Bodia’s villages.

They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc. You see Nan, our Shwe Bama spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language. But our Shwe Bama writing language was from U Ka Lar’s village, Brami Script we took not from our native Daw Daw Mon but her cousin U Mon resided in U Thai Land’s village.

I am revealing this to you so that my dear Nan could accept our whole Shwe Bama villagers as the same family. Instead of dividing into numerous weak small countries we could even plan for the Future Federal Union of Burma working with ASEAN+++ formula, I proposed to you in my first letter sent together with my Valentine Music DVD.

Dear Nan, when I wrote in formal style, you complained that it was very dull, not attractive, you have to skip some lines and paragraphs, and you admitted that you even fell asleep before finishing my letter.

Now what? When Daw Khin Myo Chit wrote “The Heroes of Pagan” historians said she was playing with the history books like a child with a crayon. Now if you accuse me of attempting to imitate her, I would be glad and would felt honoured and reply with pride, “Thank you with my pleasure.” But I have to admit that my English could not even touch her toes’ level. And in the Story of Myanmar told in pictures by the famous historian Dr Than Tun, he had attempted to simplify the Burmese History.

Dear Nan, you have to understand me that I used to and need to quote the famous personalities frequently because I have an inferiority complex. I am afraid you would not be serious if I cannot support my words or the style of writing with the world accepted great persons’ works. I have to use them at least as an excuse for my deeds or words. You know I am just a graduate and were forced to waste my precious time with my business matters but you had already got two post graduate degrees, a Master and a PhD. So I hope my darling Nan is not sneering at my letter as a show off. Please kindly let me continue to enjoy with my false sense of grandeur by quoting those famous persons.

You see Nan, with the growing age and fading memory, I used to sway away from my primary target of answer your question.

The recent discovery of the Genetic DNA researchers’ claim of the finding of the Chinese to be migrated from Africa or “Out of Africa theory” may reveal the longer and winding trail of our great ancestors. From Africa to China and then continue to Burma. If we consider the origin of the Southern Indians from Africa and Arian Migration from the north or tall blue or brown eyed and fair people proved to be genetically related to east Europeans, some of our ancestors had endlessly marched quite a long distance.

Actually if I am allowed d to sum up the above: U Pyu, U Kan Yan and U Thet were my ancestors. Most of the U Kan Yan’s descendants stayed along Chin Dwin River and between Chindwin and Irrawady rivers. As I had stated above, few groups of villagers came down from northern Ko Yu Nan’s village, one of them went and established Daw Tibet’s village. One group went further west to Ko Ya Khines village and some went further into Ko Kala’s territory. One group stayed along our mother Irrawady and formed my ancestors. One group stayed in Ko Ka Chin’s village. Actually Ko Ka Yin, Daw Mon and almost all our ethnic brother villagers came down the same path.

Dear Nan, no wonder your great grandmother Daw Daw Shan was the elder sister of Ko Thai and Ko Laos’ great grandfathers. Because of the same language and culture you even cruelly planned to divorce me and go and marry with one of them. I know, I know, you just wanted to hurt me because you were angry with me and never really intended to do so.

Dear Nan, because of that, there are larger number of cousins of Ko Ka Chin , Ko Chin and Ko Na Ga in Ko Ti Bet’s village and Ko Kala’s village than in Shwe Bama village. And there are a lot more of Ko Ka Yin and Daw Mon’s relatives in Ko Thai, Ko Cam Bodia’s villages.

Dear Nan, it is too late tonight to continue my letter as you know, I need to wake up early to prepare to go and work intime.

Your loving hubby

(Ko Tin Nwe)


Migration history of Burma or Myanmar Ethnic Races

Migration history of 

 Burma or Myanmar

Ethnic Races 

Southeast Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity.

Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: the Asian mainland, and island arcs and archipelagoes to the east and southeast. The mainland section consists of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam; the population of which are primarily Tai peoples and Austroasiatic peoples; the dominant religion is Buddhism, followed by Islam. The maritime section consists of Brunei, East Timor,[1] Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Austronesian peoples predominate in this region; the dominant religion is Islam, followed by Christianity.

Southeast Asia frequently refers to the area consisting of the following, although in general and certain specific usage, the area it refers to can be narrower or broader.

  1.  Brunei
  2.  Cambodia
  3.  Indonesia
  4.  Laos
  5.  Malaysia
  6.  Myanmar
  7.  Philippines
  8.  Singapore
  9.  Thailand
  10.  East Timor
  11.  Vietnam

Ethnic groups

See also: Austronesian people, Chinese ethnic groups, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Filipino people, Malays (ethnic group), Negrito, Tai peoples, and Southeast Asian American

According to a recent Stanford genetic study, the Southeast Asian population is far from being homogeneous.

Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-speaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, European, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The Philippines has Asia’s largest Eurasian (mixed ancestry), American and Amerasian population, and is continuously growing.

There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southeast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as Thailand and the Philippines. Indonesia and Malaysia also has

Note: I am trying to rewrite the history of Myanmar/Burma.  Actually I had already done this indirectly in Burma Digest with the pseudonym, Bo Aung Din’s Compassionate letters to Nan, also known by some as Dear Nan letters. I hereby try to break those letters into separate articles representing the major ethnic races of Burma. Readers should read my Evolution of Myanmar Muslims (and excerpts, extracted from Wiki Talk Page- Burmese Indians, put in as comments) , Islam in Myanmar, Burmese Indians, Panthays, General Aung San’s Acceptance of migrants as brethrens, Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar together with comments.

Dear Nan,

Thank you for your surprised phone call early Sunday morning. It was not only a surprise for me; you were also surprised that I had already got out from bed early.  

Yes dear, only when you are away, I know more about your values and appreciate your daily house works which I am doing now. Actually I was surprised, because you had already read my latest letter that I just sent through Burma Digest this week.

But I was shocked when you told me that you still love me, but could not trust me fully yet! 

You want me to answer three questions.

Yes! three most important questions by a Shan woman for a Bama man to answer.

Dear Nan, you already knew that I am fond of reading and I had learned a lot from the fables and fairy tales since I was young.

I am used to various types of three wise questions and answers. Three tricky questions, three most important questions disguised in many forms from the numerous stories.

And I already knew the answers to your three most important questions and even wish to reply instantly on the phone, but you requested for an official written reply in black and white on paper.

1. What are the basic facts about the Human Rights? What is the “Role of Minorities in Democracy”? How do we protect the minorities’ rights from tyranny of majority.

2. What do “Good Governance” means? Describe the basic principles.

3. What is the origin of Shan, Ethnic Minorities and Burma? That is the history or roots of our ancestors.

Dear Nan, from your questions, I understand your untold hidden agenda to make a new deal, matrimonial or nuptial contract for our reunion. You wanted to make sure of my own concepts, understandings of our future reunion. I could understand your feelings of do not want to just follow the emotions to rush into a deal.

You are right Nan, you must know whether I really understand, respect and value your companion. Love only is not enough; we must have mutual respect, meaningful discourse in future disagreements and after all my understanding in Human Rights, tolerance on different opinions is important for others.

But don’t worry dear; Although I intend to start writing the answers to you as a serious official, history document, I now know that it will be very dull. So instead of answering your questions directly. I will try to switch to my lighter form of writing style to the answers for your question regarding the origin of Shan, Ethnic Minorities, Minority Religious groups, mixed blooded people, newest migrants and Burma or Myanmar history, may be rightly labled as the roots of our ancestors.

Dear darling,

Kindly allow me to answer using our village peoples’ migration format. It may be more appropriate and appeared informal as I am writing it to you, my love and my estranged wife.

Burmese Animal Farm, part 3 (in Burmese)


Kyaw Aung said _

               Not bad!

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution, 4 (in Burmese)

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution, 5 (in Burmese)

Translated by Ohn Kyaw Myint

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution, 6 (in Burmese)

Idealist said _

I like that article very much. It should become a book. We have to have clear views about what we are doing and how will we get that. We have to be clear what we are doing and assess our own progress. There should be a group or an umbrella organization which can play on the level ground with other competitor. A wise or wise leaders who can stimulate and direct the force effectively. There should be high moral standards and critical thinking. I am sure opposition has public support but need a charismatic leaders who can actually stimulate and lead the country. And a dream and a plan. It is inevitable that some change will happen sooner or later. The thing is are we going to dictate the future or are we letting other forces to dictate our future.
The schemes in the article are very good. It should be made available to people in every corner of Burma.
We are willing to create a democratic government so it is not so important who will be in government. Everybody will have a chance to try to involve in politics freely from that point onwards. It is also important how to protect our forces. if anyone stand on our side and failed, we should guarantee their security. Even with the enemies, we should give amnesty for them.

Let’s show our hatred to SPDC (in English)

Let’s show our hatred to SPDC

For everything there is a season,
And a time for every matter under heaven:
A time to be born, and a time to die;
A time to plant, and a time to pluck up what is planted;
A time to kill, and a time to heal;
A time to break down, and a time to build up;
A time to weep, and a time to laugh;
A time to mourn, and a time to dance;
A time to throw away stones, and a time to gather stones together;
A time to embrace, And a time to refrain from embracing;
A time to seek, and a time to lose;
A time to keep, and a time to throw away;
A time to tear, and a time to sew;
A time to keep silence, and a time to speak;
A time to love, and a time to hate,
A time for war, and a time for peace.

(Ecclesiastes 3:1-8)

We all know that many of our opposition members are talking about civil disobedience and looking forward to see a miracle to happen on 666. Professor Dr. Salai Tun Than had bravely called the start of the battle. We have to support and help him.

The started revolution fire of Dr. Salai Tun Than must not die!

In civil disobedience, we need to choose methods to deliberately break some SPDC laws. Some of the easy less risky nonviolent actions we could choose are:

  1. Material defiance (This will be explained in detail in the later part of this article.)
  2. slow-downs
  3. deliberate inefficiencies
  4. non-cooperation of civil servants
  5. political non-cooperation
  6. assistance to persecuted people
  7. refusal of collaboration
  8. maintenance of autonomy of independent organizations and institutions
  9. go slows
  10. blockades
  11. Women and girls refuse to make friend with the SPDC soldiers and collaborators.

This is the time to show our hatred and disapproval to the illegal rulers of our country. Showing our hatred to SPDC and cohorts is another option for us in civil disobedience campaign. It is disgraceful to be associated with the SPDC government. Myanmar/Burma needs self consciences people that hate the cruel government. We all have an obligation to devote our life to fighting for justice, but we also have a responsibility not to give injustice our practical support by keeping quiet, remained submissive, obedient, loyal and subservient.

Philosopher-cum-thinker John Saul in his book, ‘The Unconscious Civilization’ wrote: “Conformism, loyalty and silence are so admired and rewarded.” Yes those keep quiet could be rewarded for their well behaviour or decorum. They could get some left-overs after the SPDC Cohorts’ big feast. Hatred in our heart and mind is not very effective although it is better than loving to cooperate as the collaborators hoping to get a chance to lick the left over bones!

Nowadays the popular saying is “To walk the talk” but I hereby wish to state that “We need to walk our THOUGHTS”. We are already talking about starting a civil disobedience. We should plan and consider various methods as a “diversity of tactics”. To be effective, tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account SPDC and Burmese political and cultural circumstances, and we need to plan different tactical approaches as part of a larger plan or strategy to overthrown them.

Nonviolence civil disobedience is good during the colonial days but it tends to give very slow results or used to achieve political changes much later only. And we all know that Colonial Masters were gentlemen, respect the Human Rights and there was the Rule of Law then. SPDC thugs are inhumane, never respect Human Rights and they rule by the law of jungle. They even fail to observe the International Law of engagement, in the Ethnic Minority areas, which is the guiding principle of each and every war. For the SPDC, might is always right and power and law come out from the barrel of the gun only. Worse of all is even that the law of the jungle coming out of the SPDC guns are ever changing according to their whims and fancies.

During times of war, hatred becomes quite respectable, even though it has to masquerade often under the guise of patriotism. (Howard Thurman)

Some of our readers may think that as my name is Shwe Ba, I am advocating the violent methods of Shwe Ba movies as there were even a popular catch phrase for the old Shwe Ba’s films was ‘Shwe Ba ah they cha’ and ‘Shwe Ba_ah sa daw nar myi’ at first Shwe Ba had to suffer at first in the hands of villains but at last Shwe Ba always win. (My friend Bo Aung Din already explained about this in his Compassionate letters to Nan.)

Without something to hate, we should lose the very spring of thought and action. (William Hazlitt)

Don’t be afraid to go out on a limb. That’s where the fruit is. (H. Jackson Browne)

Security is mostly a superstition. It does not exist in nature, nor do the children of men as a whole experience it. Avoiding danger is no safer in the long run than outright exposure. Life is either a daring adventure or nothing. (Helen Keller)

With courage you will dare to take risks, have the strength to be compassionate, and the wisdom to be humble. Courage is the foundation of integrity. (Keshavan Nair)

So I hereby wish to propose one method of civil disobedience to show our hatred to the SPDC and cohorts. This is defined as material defiance under nonviolence civil disobedience.

A. Target the following persons and properties:

1.       SPDC army vehicles.

2.       Police cars.

3.       Kyant Phut and SPDC Government affiliated organizations’ vehicles.

4.       SPDC propaganda sign boards around the country.

B. What to do? Try to vandalize or deface or spoil or ruin or damage or dent or scratch or disfigure or mutilate or graze or sabotage them by any of the following means.

1.       Throw dirty water or mud.

2.       Throw old engine oil.

3.       Throw animal blood.

4.       Throw eggs, better if rotten.

5.       Throw tomato, better if rotten.

6.       Not very nice to write but if dare to do, throw waste or organic waste or even shits packages or urine packages.

C. Those who are brave enough, target any SPDC soldier, police, Kyant Phut or their relatives and do the above acts.

You can do it in the markets, on the roads in the town or on the rural roads or while they are guarding at the gate posts.

There may be some revenge mass punishments on the people around that area but those sabotaging acts of hatred may start the circle of hatred.

Their ammunition and firing power is too big to fight one by one as noble Knights. At least they may know that we, most of the citizens hate them and are against them. No need to be ashamed. Anyone doing these is not cowards. We all would regard those acts as very brave acts against the very powerful enemy.

There came a time when the risk to remain tight in the bud was more painful than the risk it took to blossom. (Anais Nin)

So we all citizens of Burma should not just quietly let the iron grip of SPDC squeeze and crush us. Let free the democracy to blossom with our safe civil disobedience struggle. Now SPDC is attacking relentlessly on NLD and Ethnic Minorities. “The best defence is attack”. That was a very popular saying in football. Our best defence for now is to attack back. These SPDC thugs are very brave to attack Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and NLD because they are strictly adhering to their non-violence methods.

One doesn’t discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time. (Andre Gide)

Non-poisonous snakes are not even respected by the children. If we are weak, we are always exposed to the exploitations of the bullies and thuds. See what SPDC and Kyant Phuts are doing on NLD leaders including Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. We have to prepare and strengthen our-selves physically, intellectually, economically, socially, mentally, spiritually etc.

We must always hope for the best and prepare for the worst.

If something went wrong and we failed – don’t blame others. Accept it gracefully.

There is a saying, “the success has a lot of fathers and the failure is an orphan.”

Almost all the people will deny their responsibility. We have to accept the failure with the open mind. No need to make a witch hunt or search for the scapegoat. After accepting the failure, we have to search for the real cause, without bias. What, where, when, why and how it fails.

Who is responsible is not important. Even if some-one accidentally or intentionally triggered our downfall or failure, it is very difficult to blame or change that person. Don’t be a paranoid.

It is our struggle. It is our interest to make sure that, that person could not damage our struggle, in any way. We have to make sure that, that won’t happen again. It is our responsibility to smooth out all because it is our own struggle for our success.

From all the failures and disasters, we must learn the lessons. These are blessings in disguise. Make those failures pillars for our success. Try! Try! Try! Again and again and again till we succeed. Never give up the hope. Thomas Edison had failed about five hundred thousand times before he successfully invented an electric bulb. Don’t stop trying. Think and analyze what went wrong. Correct it. Improve it. Prepare your-self. Try again.

Victory is for those dare to try again and again. Perseverance is the key-word for success.

Easy success is actually neither very sweet nor precious. Victory gained after a lot of struggles are really sweat and gratifying. Don’t forget that easy to get Iron and Copper are cheap.

Gold, Diamond and Ruby are precious because it is rare and difficult to get.

Actually power comes from within. If we all have confidence, self respect, and if strongly believe that we are not a simple weak person, but we are brave willing to work hard and ready to sacrifice, one day will surely progress, there is definitely a very bright future of crowning with the success. Inner spiritual strength is more important and always guides the outer physical power. Even if we are weak physically, inner spiritual and mental strength and power will guide, train and convert it to become powerful. 

The important thing is this: To be able at any moment to sacrifice what we are for what we could become. (Charles DuBois)

We must take some risk to get to our destination of Democratic Secular Federal Union of Burma.Even if you think my plan is some form of violence and could not accept, just read this great Philosopher’s thoughts:

“A life spent making mistakes is not only more honorable but more useful than a life spent in doing nothing.” (George Bernard Shaw)




Rahmat said _

Well done respected Mr.Shwe Ba You have discovered the first step toward victory, in other word you have solve the half of the problem and the other half would be the effective action .

As a Burmese intellectual you have perform your obligation very well . I hope all Burmese Intellectuals united, irrespective of their race and cast to bring justice, peace, stability and prosperity to the people of Burma .

Dilemmas of Revolutionaries (in English)

Dilemmas of Revolutionaries 


What is revolution? What is the aim and objective? What are the Tactics and Strategies for revolution?

Violence or nonviolence? What is the goal? What is the plan for the final push, knock-out strike or lethal last assault to grasp power? What is the plan to control the country after the revolution? What type of government and system? What could we, citizens expect? What are the plans after revolution? What do you promise for each and every actor/participant/citizen after the revolution? What are the rewards for us? How and who and how long would you rule the country after revolution? How are the statuses of each and every citizen?

Yes, we must convince ALL the people and the rest of the world with our aim, objective, goal and the proper plan to rule the country. Rules and regulations must be clearly indicated, discussed, agreed in advance. Then only we could get the full support from all the sectors.

‘Nga Myin Ngar Saing – Sagaing yok yok, Nga Hlay Ngar htoe-Pago yawk yawk’ meaning if we would do something just for the sake of doing would not achieve any meaningful thing.

Bodawpaya (1791 to 1819) give a lot of favour to U Paw Oo and one of the ministers openly complaint to His Majesty about the unfair treatments. So Bodawpaya summoned that Minister and U Paw Oo and ordered to go to Sagaing Mayor’s house to look at the new born puppies (dogs) and to report back to him. He arranged the separate audience in the open court.

When the complainant minister came back, he was asked about the number of dogs, colour of different dogs, gender etc. That minister had to go back to Sagaing many times to get the correct answers. But U Paw Oo could amazingly answer all the questions without needing to go back to Sagaing. Then only, His Majesty Bodawpaya told that Minister in front of all the audiences that His Paw Oo was different from him so he had to give more favours. So I wish to request that our revolution leaders would kindly follow the wisdom of U Paw Oo, plan and execute their task properly and wisely not on ad hock basics. Since then the Burmese saying,’ sagaing khwe kyi khine tha lo’ meaning, ‘ordered to go and see the puppies at Sagaing’ became well known.

Just because Than Shwe moved his capital to Kyet Pyae we could not just claimed victory like U Paw Oo:” “Your Majesty, can’t you see how your barge has won a decisive victory, like a fighting cock preening his feathers while the poor loser of a little canoe runs away for her dear life in the vanguard.” U Paw Oo was knowingly trying to please the king to save face.

Just mentioning about boat race, we have to keep our General Aung San’s advice not to be overconfidence and raise our oar prematurely to celebrate a victory just because we are ahead of our competitors but still away from the finish-line or goal.

Please give us the definite target, aims and objects. Give us the definite map or road map. And you should also really give us the coordinates of the map. If not some of us may row to Sagaing and some would ride up the Pagu instead of our focus point Yangon or Pyinmana. Worse senerio may be some of us may row backwards, few trying to turn to left or right while the rest of us are rowing forwards.

And we need a definite plan to proceed with our attack once we are ashore. Our think-tanks should consider all the possible issues and how to handle or address all of them. We should not brush aside any issue as minor. We should focus on all the possible issues and go in-depth. We should pursue a definite plan to tackle all the possible issues to see the best possible results. All of us cannot get all we wish for or want but must be ready to sacrifice and compromise for our common cause or victory.

Please kindly allow me to ask what follows the revolution? If we start any revolution we want to know how would our leaders plan to execute the final touches, how to take over the powers of the country and run the country with what rules and regulations. What are our rights and rewards?

We do not want the indefinite vague answers like most of the leaders including our beloved Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, answered during and just after 8888. “We need to get democracy first, your request regarding the rights of ethnic minorities and minority religions would be considered later. Don’t worry; with the democracy there would not be any problem with the human rights issues, all will be OK.”. We could understand and accept those words at that time but now there is a lot of time and we wish to get a more mature and definite answer.

We should unanimously decide to choose our leader in advance, e.g. Daw Aung San Suu Kyi as the future Prime Minister of the Interim Government or some one definitely now!. If not all the ‘leaders’ would wish and demand to become the head of the state like during the 8888 movement. There may appear some disgruntled inspiring leaders sabotaging our revolution, what we called in Burmese, ‘Min Thar gyi ma loke ya loe, pat ma gyi hto phauk’. U Nu announced himself to be the legal PM, U Aung Gyi also shifted position to support the Military but at last that leadership division was seen as a weakness and that was fully and successfully exploited by the Myanmar Military leaders.

During the later part of the 8888 uprising, instead of calling check mate and winning the game with a final move many of our demonstrators busy themselves greedily taking the pawns from People’s stores and factories. Some of us waste the time or our turn to move by overenthusiastically killing the knights, by revenge killing of MI agents. Because of these at last we won the early battles but lost the war.

We need more sophisticated method of collecting all the evidences, photos, videos of the atrocities of the Myanmar SPDC troops on the demonstrating people. Once the uprising starts, we should buy (or request) the 24 hr spy satellite photos of the major Burmese cities. We should request in advance to the foreign embassies in Burma to help collect those audio-video evidences. We should stage our people at all the landing points of planes departed from Burma to talk and request to all the tourists, travelers and aircrew members for any evidences.

As I had written last week, the capital was moved, SPDC have to defend their new capital. If the people in Rangoon or Mandalay or other costal big town started an uprising and even if the uprising opposition could declare independence in one town for one day or an hour only, we could ask help from US and UN to send troops. (We should request this kind of things in advance to the US authorities.) Finished! We could declare amnesty for all the SPDC Generals and soldiers who wish to change side. No need to even fight like in Afghanistan or Iraq. US and UN need not fight for us, just defend us. Looks like childish plan but who knows it would not work.

And last of all but not the least, what are the rewards for each and every citizen? It must be not less than the international standard Citizen and Human Right promise. And I just wish to remind that in a family, if father ordered a special privilege for himself because he is a bread earner, mother wants more because she is working like a house keeper the whole day, eldest and youngest daughters asked for special favour, the only son in the family wish for special treatment and a handicapped child also needs special attention… and if the two adopted children have to satisfy with their left-over only it would not be fair. And what is there also for normal ordinary children?

And I am sure we are writing these plans to pool our resources, dialogue to plan for our country’s future. This is the right and bold initiation and decision taken by Burma Digest. We need a pool of intelligent, wise and clever professionals like Pho Yaza who could remember the King’s question one year later and could give the right answer immediately. The King had asked for the name of the best food a year ago and one year later suddenly asked an incomplete question, “Is that alone?” And Pho Yaza replied correctly to eat with a little bit of salt.

We should prepare, discuss all the answers, could not say that we would try to cross the bridge if we arrive. We don’t want that kind of answers and those are similar in our Burmese saying, ‘Mee sin kyi-Ka myi.’

And we are divided between those who strongly advocate the non violence methods only and those who, like Chairman Mao, believe that the forceful violent methods are the only means on the way to succeed in any revolutions. But I pragmatically believe that we need a multi pronged approach. We must use the universally accepted good cop bad cop strategy.

The only important thing is that we need to consider or brain storm all the tactics, strategies and most important of all is how to execute the final lethal strike to take control of the country’s power.

We must have a common goal, destination or type of government, constitution and basic laws decided in advance. We must consider how to persuade the 400,000 strong SPDC Myanmar Military, armed groups still struggling against the SPDC and those groups that signed the peace agreement with the present government. We should consider and decide in advance how to handle them. This is more complicated than transforming of BIA to BDA after our first Independence in 1948. Although we had our Government lead by General Aung San and U Nu even before our first Independence we had failed to maintain our success. I am worried about our country’s socio-political, security and economic conditions after our second Independence.

If we consider about the multi rebels just after independence, condition of Burma at that time was even worse than present Iraq. U Nu’s government was even rightly called Rangoon Government. Mandalay and upper Burma, Meikhtila with air force base were under the rebel’s control. Deputy Commander-in-chief of Burma Army was captured by the rebels. Even Rangoon’s suburban Insein was controlled by rebels. Even if we could take over the country with our future strong army with the help of US or UN we should plan in advance to avoid repeating the same mistakes after our first Independence or to avoid the chaos of the present Iraq.

We must brain storm in advance not only for the revolution but what to do after our success or to effectively steer or guide our country immediately and for the long term progress.

Revolutions are usually staged by a larger group and radically changes the political system. Lets consider the smaller and easier type of revolutions, that is coup d’état.

Let’s consider some scenario as practical case studies:

If some one offer to stage a coup d’état and tried to contact our opposition now, how will we respond? We all understood that a coup d’état is the sudden overthrow of a government through ‘unconstitutional means’ by a part of the government and just replaces the few top leaders. (In our case, present SPDC Junta is already unconstitutional.)

It is sometimes violent or sometimes not. Coup d’état is in French, meaning “a sudden blow or strike to a state” Coup = hit, and état = state.

A coup d’état usually involves control of some active portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of a country’s armed services.

This active group usually uses the power of the existing government for its own takeover and tried to do the followings:

  1. captures leaders,
  2. seizes physical control of important government offices,
  3. control the means of main communication, and
  4. control the physical infrastructure e.g. streets, radio TV stations and power plants.

Mass street protests or popular uprisings like our 8888 movement should also be able to force the unpopular and corrupt leaders from office in a coup-like fashion e.g. General Ne Win’s BSPP Government and his successive puppet governments. This often results in a period of stability and calm, in which an unknown and uncontroversial vice president can rule the nation until new elections can be held. But Saw Maung and Than Shwe’s SLORC and SPDC continue to hang on the power in Burma.

If our opposition leaders could seized the power immediately after the 8888 uprising,  present condition would be different.

Have we planned to rapidly grasp and consolidate the power if there is any uprising now?

Breakthrough coups – In which a revolutionary army overthrows a traditional government and creates new bureaucratic elite. Breakthrough coups are generally led by non-commissioned officers (NCOs) or junior officers and only happen rarely in history. Because the coup is led by junior officers or enlisted men, it could be seen also as a mutiny.

So does any leader of opposition have any planned programme or appropriate response if some junior officers of Myanmar Military contact us?

This is not a hypothetical question. Our unsung hero Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint had once already offered his service to our NLD U Tin Oo. His reply was not an enthusiastic or encouragement or open support. He never refused nor report to higher authorities but just reminds them to be careful not to overdo their coup as it may lead to the bloody killings like in the Bangladesh coup!

So have we prepared the best answer if any one offers this kind of service to us? Have we prepared to effectively take over power to form a legitimate government? If just form a government only and if no future plans yet means we would definitely lead to the condition of present Iraq!

Veto coups – These coups occur when the army vetoes mass participation and social mobilization. In these cases the army must confront and suppress large-scale and broad-based opposition and as a result they tend to be repressive and bloody.

This was the second face of our 8888 revolution. We had just raised our hands and went back into our houses without much resistance naively hoping that Myanmar Military would keep their promise of withdrawing back into their barracks after election. I am sure we still don’t have a concrete plan to push further till we get the power in this kind of repeat situation.

Veto coups and guardian coups tend to be led by senior officers. There is also a category known as bloodless coups in which the mere threat of violence is enough to force the current government to step aside. Bloodless coups are so called because they involve no violence and thus no bloodshed. Ne Win’s ‘coup’ twice from U Nu was successful. First one was also could be called a coup as he had forced U Nu to turn over power. (U Nu’s ‘Tartay sanay thar’, Saturday born son, book in Burmese). And Ne win had staged the Veto coups after 8888 using his subordinates and stayed behind the scene as a puppet master. His main cable was General Khin Nyunt and his MIs. Bloodless coups he claimed are not true to be considered “bloodless”: as he had killed alot of people and leaders.

Let’s say Senior General Than Shwe got enlightenment and repent like his predecessors General Saw Maung and offers a guardian bloodless coups against the whole SPDC Generals, who wish to hold on the power as their legitimate inheritance rights. Do we have any plans?

Or if General Maung Aye and some few top SPDC Generals fed up with idiotic His Majesty suffering from senile dementia and Megalomania, and offer a guardian coups, do we have any plans?

What could we offer back to them? Or should we try to offer them with something which they could not resist and try persuading them to change sides?

Incentives like giving the Military rulers to act as Constitutional Monarchy or King of Burma to reign for five years each or post of five yearly Presidents should be considered. We could even consider to give the whole SPDC like the status of an upper house, selected mostly from Military as a Guardian of Burma for the long term stability but not to interfere in the daily running of the elected government. We still have no concrete plan to rule the country, even not a constitution and the condition is not yet favourable to discuss and agree to a new one. There isn’t any draft constitution as uniting power for all of us. No policy was heard from our various oppositions how we wanted to handle Burma after the fall of SPDC Junta. We Burmese people don’t have a leadership to guide us even though we had NLD and many opposition groups. Different groups demanding different conditions.

Or say, if USA or UN lead NATO or International troops decided to invade Burma and actively help us what will we do? How do we form the government? What are the plans to prevent our country’s political and security conditions deteriorating into the present state of affairs in Iraq?

So I hereby suggested restarting or rebooting our selves based on Panglon treaty and our First old constitution.

First govern the country with Interim Government. Within ten years we would draw a new constitution, and share power between all the opposition, all ethnic minority all races.

PM from NLD with all the full executive powers.

President, person proposed by Military. Veto power to control the integrity of the country.

DPM from Ethnic Minorities: Kachin, Shan, Kayin, Chin, Mon.

Each and every group leaders choose 3 persons from themselves to choose for the Cabinet Ministers, Deputy Ministers, and Parliament Secretaries positions.

To appoint the DGs and MDs all according to meritocracy.

We have to plan in advance what to do if we get the power, to form a government. We need to discuss in advance with UN US EU NATO for help and support.

We should decide to offer amnesty to all the SPDC Generals and soldiers to change to our side.

If possible we should need to define the exact type of Secular Democratic Federal Union we want. Iraq could offer US with oil. Although US denied that they had helped because of oil, we could not get support because we are too proud and wish to be on our own at the end of their help.

Now Burma got oil and gas but not much to persuade the west with this alone. Promise of long term support in geopolitics. Burma is in a very important geo-political situation between China, India and ASEAN. Yes we could give long term commitment of political and all means of Military support to USA to be able to control the whole Indian Ocean, entrance of Malacca traits by offering 100 years’ usage of Co Co Inlands. I am not asking to sell our country or to become a puppet nation. But nothing is free man! There is no free lunch. There must be give and take. If we give peanuts we could get monkeys only. If we want our whole Burma back we have to sacrifice few small islands thousands of kilometers away from our mainland. And the much needed long term promise of loyal support of USA policies. SPDC could take advantage by accusing us as selling the country by just pointing our fingers. But that is their right for propaganda warfare; we need to do what is right for all of us. After all they had given Co Co Islands and some islands for the Chinese Navy.

And what for our each and every citizen? Not less than an internationally recognized citizen’s rights. If not Kalas, Tayokes and Rohingyas could just stay away from any active struggle as after all their conditions would be same. And they know that all the politicians are universally corrupt from SPDC to our future opposition leaders. They knew that they could grease any government officers of the day with their money. For them just forget the political struggle and concentrate on economic struggle only if we could not persuade them.

I wish to propose an idea for our friends at the other extreme of political divide. After reading the Thura Maung Ree, I understand our brothers’ strong feelings but even if we just give the FRC status which is equivalent to Permanent residency or Green Card status to those Rohingyas, we are postponing only one generation only for all of them to be given full citizenship. My dear brother is just buying time only. We understand their legitimate Xenophobia but look for our country’s future. Racial prejudice must be abolished. Dear brother, what do you want to comment about the popular Burmese saying,” If we see a snake and a Arakanese, we have to kill the Arakanese first”. Sorry brother. I do not condone this. I hate this saying. I am not bluffing, my best friend is an Arakan Buddhist. I still dream about my friend, we attend same school, same university and worked in Burma in the same place. I even still dream about him although I am away from him for many years. Not only two of us were friends but both families are also close because of our friendship. We need to stop racial profiling and Racial Prejudices. For the religion if we could separate the state from all religious affairs it would be best for all of us. We know, even those profess the separation of states from churches for hundred of years could not totally get rid of themselves from the shades of their worshipping places.

And for the right of separation of the states, Ethnic Minorities must sacrifice that and made an offer to SPDC and all that they want a Federation (we should decide now, not later) and must be transparent.

Right to keep own army. SPDC and general public could not accept this. We must learn the lesson from transformation of BIA to BDA. We could retain Ethnic Minority army units under the central command.

We should push forward and support the legal action initiated by Burma Digest and Shan leaders. And we have to rethink our strategy if some of us wish to struggle the violent means. Cutting the leaves or brunches is useless. We need to cut the trunk or de-root a tree to clear it off. Fighting at the border is useless even if you could kill few thousands of SPDC soldiers. Burmese Communist party and Wa alliance had done that. If possible attempt to eliminate the top SPDC Generals but I am not promoting or supporting this but just revealing the facts only. Just bombing the railways or the present bombings in Burma is useless. Target must be top leaders, their families and their close associates only. Even attacking the Embassies is almost useless and host countries’ governments would grip tightly on all of our citizens as revenge. Target their family members shopping or traveling or doing business abroad.

Civil disobedience is another option for us.

The active refusal to obey laws, demands and commands of SPDC and local authorities without resorting to physical violence. Civil disobedience has been used in nonviolent resistance movements in India in the fight against British colonialism.

Henry David Thoreau (18490 wrote the “Resistance to Civil Government”, it stated that people should not allow governments to overrule or atrophy their consciences, and that people have a duty both to avoid doing injustice directly and to avoid allowing their acquiescence to enable the government to make them the agents of injustice.

He wrote,” That government is best which governs least. The best government is that which governs least.”

He remarked, “Government, if we need it at all, is only justified if it is helpful — but governments are typically more harmful than helpful. Democracy is no cure for this, as majorities simply by virtue of being majorities do not also gain the virtues of wisdom and justice.

There is no reason to expect that the judgment of your own conscience is inferior to the decisions of a political body or majority.

Indeed, you serve your country poorly if you do so by suppressing your conscience in favor of the law — your country needs consciences more than it needs conscienceless robots.It is disgraceful to be associated with the SPDC government. I wouldn’t be making such a big deal about this if the government just happened to be a little corrupt or unjust in the course of doing its otherwise-important work; but in fact, the government is primarily an agent of corruption and injustice.

Political philosophers have reminded that the revolution usually causes a lot of deaths and sufferings. But that cost vs. benefit calculation should not be done if the government is facilitating injustices:

We have an obligation to devote our life to fighting for justice, but you do have an obligation not to commit injustice and not to give injustice your practical support.

 Refuse to pay full taxes or donations or bribes.

But if the law is itself clearly unjust break the law. Stop paying taxes, even if this means courting imprisonment. It is quite difficult for ordinary Burmese. But according to the author, “Under a government which imprisons unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.… where the State places those who are not with her, but against her, —… Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence. A minority is powerless while it conforms to the majority; it is not even a minority then; but it is irresistible when it clogs by its whole weight. If the alternative is to keep all just men in prison, or give up if a thousands of men were not to pay their tax bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood. This is, in fact, the definition of a peaceable revolution, if any such is possible.”

It is risky to rebel in this way, as the government will retaliate. The more you have to lose, the harder it will be, which is another reason why I prefer living abroad.

At times I wonder whether it is as useless to rage against the stupidities and cruelties of SPDC government as it would be to shake my fist angrily at a tornado. “The progress from an absolute to a limited monarchy, from a limited monarchy to a democracy, is a progress toward a true respect for the individual.… Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government? Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man? There will never be a really free and enlightened State until the State comes to recognize the individual as a higher and independent power, from which all its own power and authority are derived, and treats him accordingly.”

The driving idea behind the essay of Henry David Thoreau was that of self-reliance, and how one is in morally good standing as long as they “get off another man’s back”; so you don’t have to physically fight the government, but you must not support it or have it support you (if you are against it). This essay has had a wide influence on many later practitioners of civil disobedience. In the essay, Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican-American War.

Use in Struggles against Colonialism and Occupation

Civil disobedience has served as a major tactic of nationalist movements in former colonies in Africa and Asia prior to their gaining independence. Most notably Mahatma Gandhi developed civil disobedience as an anti-colonialist tool. Gandhi said “Civil disobedience is the inherent right of a citizen to be civil, implies discipline, thought, care, and attention”. Civil disobedience was a tactic used by Polish opposition to the former communist government.

Civil Disobedience in the United States

Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., a leader of the US civil rights movement in the United States in the 1960s also adopted civil disobedience techniques, and antiwar activists both during and after the Vietnam War have done likewise.

Theories and Techniques of Civil Disobedience

In seeking an active form of civil disobedience, one may choose to deliberately break certain laws, such as by forming a peaceful blockade or occupying a facility illegally. Protesters practice this non-violent form of civil disorder with the expectation that they will be arrested, or even attacked or beaten by the authorities. Protesters often undergo training in advance on how to react to arrest or to attack, so that they will do so in a manner that quietly or limply resists without threatening the authorities.

For example, Mahatma Gandhi outlined the following rules:

  1. A civil resister (or satyagrahi) will harbour no anger.
  2. He will suffer the anger of the opponent.
  3. In so doing he will put up with assaults from the opponent, never retaliate; but he will not     submit, out of fear of punishment or the like, to any order given in anger.
  4. When any person in authority seeks to arrest a civil resister, he will voluntarily submit to the arrest, and he will not resist the attachment or removal of his own property, if any, when it is sought to be confiscated by authorities.
  5. If a civil resister has any property in his possession as a trustee, he will refuse to surrender it, even though in defending it he might lose his life. He will, however, never retaliate.
  6. Retaliation includes swearing and cursing.
  7. Therefore a civil resister will never insult his opponent, and therefore also not take part in many of the newly coined cries which are contrary to the spirit of ahimsa.
  8. A civil resister will not salute the National flag, nor will he insult it or officials.
  9. In the course of the struggle if anyone insults an official or commits an assault upon him, a civil resister will protect such official or officials from the insult or attack even at the risk of his life.

Nonviolent resistance (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) comprises the practice of applying power to achieve socio-political goals through symbolic protests, economic or political noncooperation, civil disobedience and other methods, without the use of violence. It has the guiding principle of nonviolence.

Like other strategies for social change, nonviolent action can appear in various forms and degrees. It may include, for example, such varied forms as information wars, protest art, lobbying, tax refusal, boycotts or sanctions, legal/diplomatic wrestling, material sabotage, underground railroads, principled refusal of awards/honours, picketing, vigiling, leafletting, and/or general strikes.

The “peaceful revolution” by organizing enough strikers to completely paralyze the state. With the state and corporate apparatus thus crippled, the workers would be able to re-organize society along radically different lines. This philosophy is favored by the legendary labor union

Some scholars of nonviolence, arguing that many movements have pragmatically adopted the methods of nonviolent action as an effective way to achieve social or political goals, distinguish the methods of nonviolent action from the moral stance of nonviolence or non-harm towards others.

Types of nonviolent resistance

Gene Sharp has identified 198 methods of nonviolent action which practitioners may use to defend against invasions, undermine dictatorships, block coups d’état or challenge unjust social systems.

They include:

  1. symbolic protests
  2. tax resistance
  3. hunger strikes
  4. paralysis of transportation
  5. social boycotts
  6. specific and general strikes
  7. civil disobedience
  8. economic shutdowns
  9. political non-cooperation
  10. “disappearance” under false identity
  11. economic boycotts
  12. public demonstrations
  13. slow-downs
  14. publication of banned newspapers
  15. deliberate inefficiencies
  16. assistance to persecuted people
  17. broadcasts about resistance on radio and television
  18. judicial resistance
  19. defiance by the government (e.g. George Wallace‘s “Stand in the Schoolhouse Door”)
  20. denial of legitimacy to usurpers
  21. non-cooperation of civil servants
  22. legislative delays
  23. declarations of defiance
  24. persistent continuation of old policies and laws
  25. student defiance
  26. children’s demonstrations
  27. individual and mass resignations
  28. refusal of collaboration
  29. maintenance of autonomy of independent organizations and institutions

Nonviolent resistance in colonial India

The story of nonviolent resistance in colonial India is synonymous with the story of the Non-Cooperation Movement and Mahatma Gandhi. Besides bringing about Independence, Gandhi’s nonviolence also helped to improve the status of Untouchables in Indian religion and society. In the conflicts that ensued from Independence and Partition, Gandhi is credited with keeping Calcutta and the whole eastern border of India peaceful.

Nonviolence (From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. While often used as a synonym for pacifism, since the mid 20th century the term nonviolence has come to embody a diversity of techniques for waging social conflict without the use of violence, as well as the underlying political and philosophical rationale for the use of these techniques.

As a technique for social struggle, nonviolence is most often associated with the campaign for Indian independence led by Mahatma Gandhi, and the struggle to attain civil rights for African Americans, led by Martin Luther King. The former was deeply influenced by Leo Tolstoy’s Christian anarchism ideas of nonresistance based on the Sermon on the Mount.

On November 10th, 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World.

Why nonviolence?

Most advocates of nonviolence draw their preference for nonviolence either from religious or ethical beliefs, or from a pragmatic political analysis. The first justification for nonviolence is sometimes referred to as principled or ethical nonviolence, while the second is known as pragmatic or strategic. However, it is not uncommon to find both of these dimensions present within the thinking of particular movements or individuals.

In the west, nonviolence has been used extensively by the labour, peace, environment and women’s movements. Less well known is the role that nonviolence has played and continues to play in undermining the power of repressive political regimes in the developing world and the former eastern bloc:

In 1989, thirteen nations comprising 1,695,000,000 people experienced nonviolent revolutions that succeeded beyond anyone’s wildest expectations … If we add all the countries touched by major nonviolent actions in our century (the Philippines, South Africa … the independence movement in India …) the figure reaches 3,337,400,000, a staggering 65% of humanity! All this in the teeth of the assertion, endlessly repeated that nonviolence doesn’t work in the ‘real’ world.

(Walter Wink, as quoted by Susan Ives in a 2001 talk)

How does nonviolence work?

The nonviolent approach to social struggle represents a radical departure from conventional thinking about conflict, and yet appeals to a number of common-sense notions.

Among these is the idea that the power of rulers depends on the consent of the populace. Without a bureaucracy, an army or a police force to carry out his or her wishes, the ruler is powerless. Power, nonviolence teaches us, depends on the co-operation of others. Nonviolence undermines the power of rulers through the deliberate withdrawal of this co-operation.

Also of primary significance is the notion that just means are the most likely to lead to just ends. When Gandhi said that, “the means may be likened to the seed, the end to a tree,” he expressed the philosophical kernel of what some refer to as pre-figurative politics. Proponents of nonviolence reason that the actions we take in the present inevitably re-shape the social order in like form. They would argue, for instance, that it is fundamentally irrational to use violence to achieve a peaceful society.

  1. Some proponents of nonviolence, advocate respect or love for opponents. It is this principle which is most closely associated with spiritual or religious justifications of nonviolence,
  2. as may be seen in the Sermon on the Mount when Jesus urges his followers to “love thine enemy,” in the Taoist concept of wu-wei, or effortless action,
  3. in the philosophy of the martial art Aikido,
  4. in the Buddhist principle of metta, or loving-kindness towards all beings,
  5. and in the principle of ahimsa, or non-violence toward any being, shared by Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism.
  6. Respect or love for opponents also has a pragmatic justification, in that the technique of separating the deeds from the doers allows for the possibility of the doers changing their behaviour, and perhaps their beliefs.
  7. As Martin Luther King said, “Nonviolence means avoiding not only external physical violence but also internal violence of spirit. You not only refuse to shoot a man, but you refuse to hate him.”
  8. The Christian focus on both non-violence and forgiveness of sin may have found their way into the story of Abel in the Qur’an. Liberal movements within Islam have consequently used this story to promote Islamic ideals of non-violence.
  9. Finally, the notion of Satya, or truth, is central to the Gandhian conception of nonviolence. Gandhi saw truth as something that is multifaceted and unable to be grasped in its entirety by any one individual. We all carry pieces of the truth, he believed, but we need the pieces of others’ truths in order to pursue the greater truth.

This led him to a belief in the inherent worth of dialogue with opponents, and a sincere wish to understand their drives and motivations. On a practical level, willingness to listen to another’s point of view is largely dependent on reciprocity. In order to be heard by one’s opponents, one must also be prepared to listen. (Note: SPDC Generals should read this.)

The methods of nonviolent action

  1. Hunger strikes,
  2. pickets,
  3. vigils,
  4. petitions,
  5. sit-ins,
  6. tax refusal,
  7. go slows,
  8. blockades,
  9. draft refusal and
  10. demonstrations are some of the specific techniques that have been deployed by nonviolent movements. Throughout history, these are among the nonviolent methods used by ordinary people to counter injustice or oppression or bring about progressive change.

To be effective, tactics must be carefully chosen, taking into account political and cultural circumstances, and form part of a larger plan or strategy.

Walter Wink points to Jesus Christ as an early nonviolence strategist. Many of his teachings on nonviolence are revealed to be quite sophisticated when the cultural circumstances are understood. For example, among the people he was speaking to; if by collecting debts a person drove someone indebted to him to be naked, great shame fell on the debt collector — not the naked man.

So Jesus’ suggestion – that if someone asks you for your coat you give him your clothes as well – was a way to bring shame upon the debt-collector and symbolically reverse the power relation.

This kind of creativity is typical of nonviolent movements. AristophanesLysistrata gives the fictional example of women withholding sexual favours from their husbands until war was abandoned. SPDC Generals and soldiers could help us with this tactic but I don’t think we could recruit them successfully.

A useful source of inspiration, for those seeking the best nonviolent tactics to deploy, is Gene Sharp’s list of 198 methods of nonviolent action, which includes symbolic, political, economic and physical actions.

Activist/researcher George Lakey says there are three applications of nonviolent action, for:

  1. social defense (as in protection of a neighborhood or country from outside invaders);
  2. social change (its most known form, for advocating either reform or revolutionary   changes); and
  3. third-party nonviolent intervention.

This latter has been used as a method of intervention across borders to deter attack and promote peaceful resolution of conflicts. This has met with several failures (at least on the level of deterring attack) such as the Human Shields in Iraq, but also many successes, such as the work of Project Accompaniment in Guatemala. Currently there are several non-governmental organizations working in this area, including, for example: Peace Brigades International, and the Nonviolent Peace force. The primary tactics that they employ are unarmed accompaniment and human rights observation/reporting.

Many leftist and socialist movements have hoped to mount a “peaceful revolution” by organizing enough strikers to completely paralyze it. With the state and corporate apparatus thus crippled, the workers would be able to re-organize society along radically different lines.

Living nonviolence

For many practitioners, practicing nonviolence goes deeper than withholding from violent behavior or words.

It means caring in one’s heart for everyone, even those one strongly disagrees with.

One implication of this is the necessity of caring for those who are not practicing nonviolence.


Leon Trotsky, Frantz Fanon, Subhash Chandra Bose, Chairman Mao and Malcolm X were fervent critics of nonviolence, arguing variously that violence is a necessary accompaniment to revolutionary change, or that the right to self-defense is fundamental.

In the midst of violent repression of radical African Americans in the United States during the 1960s, Black Panther member George Jackson said of the nonviolent tactics of Martin Luther King, Jr.:

“The concept of nonviolence is a false ideal. It presupposes the existence of compassion and a sense of justice on the part of one’s adversary. When this adversary has everything to lose and nothing to gain by exercising justice and compassion, his reaction can only be negative.”

Malcolm X also clashed with civil rights leaders over the issue of nonviolence, arguing that violence should not be ruled out where no other option remained:

“Concerning nonviolence, it is criminal to teach a man not to defend himself when he is the constant victim of brutal attacks.”

The efficacy of nonviolence was also challenged by anti-capitalist protestors advocating a “diversity of tactics” during street demonstrations across Europe and the US following the anti-World Trade Organization protests in Seattle, Washington in 1999.

American feminist writer D. A. Clarke, in her essay “A Woman With A Sword,” suggests that for nonviolence to be effective, it must be “practiced by those who could easily resort to force if they chose.” This argument reasons that nonviolent tactics will be of little or no use to groups that are traditionally considered incapable of violence, since nonviolence will be in keeping with people’s expectations for them and thus go unnoticed.

One of the possible reasons that such criticisms are leveled against nonviolence is that it tends to be a slow, gradual means of achieving political change, and thus the connection between action and effect is less apparent than for violence.

In addition, the most notable successes of nonviolent protests, such as the United States Civil Rights Movement, have been against comparatively liberal governments. Another possible reason is that there are many different nonviolent strategies, and selecting strategies which work in a particular situation can be difficult; hence nonviolence does not always succeed – even though the same is true for violent means of social change.

The specific criticism that nonviolence is a form of passivity can be countered by noting that successful nonviolent campaigns have often centred around actively depriving a ruling regime of financial income (as in Gandhi‘s breaking of the salt tax), or the cooperation necessary to run industrial infrastructure. In this context nonviolence can be viewed as a form of attack on the command structure of a government or regime, rather than upon its personnel.

A much-debated topic is the issue of violence against objects, as opposed to against people. Some consider that damage to property falls within the scope of nonviolent action, while others reject such actions.

Political revolutions are often characterized by violence, and vast changes in power structures that can often result in further, institutionalized, violence, as in the Russian and French revolutions (with the “Purges” and “the Terror”, respectively). A political revolution is the forcible replacement of one set of rulers with another (as happened in France and Russia), while a social revolution is the fundamental change in the social structure of a society, such as the Protestant Reformation or the Renaissance. However, blurring the line between these two categories, most political revolutions wish to carry out social revolutions, and they have basic philosophical or social underpinnings which drive them. The most common revolutions with such underpinnings in the modern world have been liberal revolutions and communist revolutions, with the occasional nationalist revolution. In contrast, a coup d’état often seeks to change nothing more than the current ruler.

Some political philosophers regard revolutions as the means of achieving their goals. Most anarchists advocate social revolution as the means of breaking down the structures of government and replacing them with non-hierarchal institutions.

Among Marxist communists, there is a split between those who supported the Soviet Union and other so-called ‘communist states‘ and those who were/are critical of those states (some even rejecting them as non-communist, see state capitalism), for example trotskyists.

Social and political revolutions are often “institutionalized” when the ideas, slogans, and personalities of the revolution continue to play a prominent role in a country’s political culture, long after the revolution’s end. As mentioned, communist nations regularly institutionalize their revolutions to legitimize the actions of their governments. Some non-communist nations, like the United States, France or Mexico also have institutionalized revolutions, and continue to celebrate the memory of their revolutionary past through holidays, artwork, songs, and other venues.

Nonviolent action can appear in various forms:

  1. It may include the information wars (like various opposition radio, TV and Internet sites),
  2. lobbying (like present successful lobbyings against TOTAL etc),
  3. boycotts or sanctions,
  4. legal/diplomatic wrestling (like Burma Digest and Shan leaders legal action at International Criminal Court), etc

So it is clear that we urgently need a think tank to brain storm to get answers for all the above questions and all other possible problems.

We could not wait or postpone or procrastinate till it is too late. There is a Burmese saying, ‘Sit Yoke hma_Hmya Chun. Moe loon hma htun cha’. We need a definite plan, road map and well defined goal before we start a revolution.



M M L said _

A brief principle with some explanations in Myanmar should be issued. Then a forum should be posted just to see how people respond.

Religion & Politics in Burmese

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution, 7 in Burmese

UN, US, EU and ASEAN must consider for the Restitution to Myanmar/Burmese Citizens


must consider

for the Restitution 

to Myanmar/Burmese Citizens

Dr San Oo Aung

During the dialogue for the democratization of our country, before forming a transitional interim government and drawing the new constitution, we definitely need a reconciliatory talks.

Now, if the SPDC Junta refuses the demands of UN, US, EU and Burmese opposition, they should be threatened with the ICC. But if they give in and start a reconciliatory process and allow Daw Aung San Suu Kyi led NLD and opposition, UN, US, EU and all the opposition should guarantee the safety of Myanmar Tatmadaw and SPDC Generals. Facts to offer as carrots to the military during reconciliatory talks_Burmese opposition esp. NLD must promise and guarantee the safety of all the SPDC Generals, soldiers, USDA, Swan Arrshin and their families.

1.      U Kyi Maung’s speech of sending Military Generals esp. General Khin Nyunt to Nuremberg had made the Generals scared to death and refused any negotiation.

2.      Daw Aung San Suu Kyi also failed to convinced the Generals. She said that she could forgive and forget but whether to take action on the perpetrators of atrocities, it is up to the victims and Burmese people. In stead of those words, she should give very strong guarantee by saying that if anyone wants to revenge the Myanmar Tatmadaw Generals and personals, she would personally defend. Even should use the words, over her dead body.

When I mentioned about the granting carpet amnesty and formation of Interim government together, some of my shortsighted comrades are angry and even accused me as SPDC admirer. They pointed about the sufferings of activists who sacrificed their lives, jailed, tortured, wounded, crippled, lost jobs etc. Instead of punishing the alleged criminals or alleged offenders we should look at the Restitution process.

1.      I just pointed out to them that if they are powerful enough and could overthrow SPDC by force, go ahead. Now we are powerless, weak and we are not in any position to impose our will on SPDC by force. If we want them to transfer the power peacefully, we must negotiate and guarantee their safety.

2.      And what is the use of hanging or punishing the dethroned dictators if we ignored the sacrificed activists. Just see Iraq. We must try to forget the incidence and give up the attempt to punish them even if we could not forgive the perpetrators.

3.      Like the no fault compensation in some insurance schemes, the State of Burma/Myanmar should compensate all the sufferers, with lump some rewards, monthly pensions, giving employment, projects, land, shop-lots, interest free loans etc.

4.      Then only it will be a win-win situation for all of us, including SPDC and Tatmadaw. After all we could not disband the 400,000 strong Myanmar Tatmadaw. Just look at what happens in Iraq. Not only the jobless ex-military could give trouble, our country’s security would be compromised. We need them to protect us from foreign aggressors and hard-line separatists to prevent the total disintegration of Burma/Myanmar.

Restitution process

In some of the developed countries’ criminal laws, there are new victim-oriented, or aims for the restitution of the victims. Its goal is to repair any hurt inflicted by the offender on the victim through state authority. It is commonly combined with other aims.

1.      Restitution process is the act of restoring to the rightful owner something that has been taken away, lost, or surrendered. You could call in any name: Reparation, compensation, damages, amends, reimbursement, recompense, indemnification, offset, quittance, redress, reparation, repayment, satisfaction, setoff, substitute, reward, repay, recompense, remunerate, repayment, refund or better call as rewards for the sacrifices for the country.

2.      The act of making good or compensating for loss, damage, or injury; indemnification.

3.      A return to or restoration of a previous state or position.

4.      Act of making good or of giving the equivalent for loss, damage, or injury.

We should avoid using any local or International (ICC) criminal law if SPDC agrees for a dialogue under auspices of UN combined with other countries, e.g. ASEAN, China and India etc. No need to formally abide by the body of law local and international, that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging, and trial of suspected offenders, and fixes punishment for convicted persons.

We all must be willing to waive the rights of indictment of any person in and affiliated to SPDC and Myanmar Military according to any Laws. (Indictment means, a written statement charging a party with the commission of a crime or other offense, drawn up by a prosecuting attorney and found and presented by a grand jury.)

But if SPDC refuses for a proper dialogue_We all have enough evidences to charge the accused, SPDC and affiliated parties and Myanmar Military. They all must be prepared to be the defendant or defendants in the criminal cases, Crimes against Humanity, Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing etc. at ICC.We could prove that there is Criminal Intent by SPDC.The doctrine of transferred intent is another nuance of criminal intent. Transferred intent occurs where one intends the harm that is actually caused, but the injury occurs to a different victim or object. For example, SPDC soldier shoot the Japanese Photojournalist “accidentally” because he thought that it was a local Burmese-Chinese.  The concept of transferred intent applies to homicide, battery, and arson. Felony murder statutes evince a special brand of transferred intent. Under a felony murder statute, any death caused in the commission of, or in an attempt to commit, a felony is murder. It is not necessary to prove that the defendant intended to kill the victim.

We all could prove the Malice of the SPDC. It is a state of mind that compels a person to deliberately cause unjustifiable injury to another person. At common law, murder was the unlawful killing of one human being by another with malice aforethought, or a predetermination to kill without legal justification or excuse.

The whole world knows and we all could show the proof of the Motive of SPDC.  As Motive is the cause or reason that induces a person to form the intent to commit a crime. It is not the same as intent. Rather, it explains why the person acted to violate the law. The knowledge that SPDC will receive the permanent dominance of Myanmar Military upon the death of the demonstrators is clearly the motive for those murders or massacres. But anyway the proof of motive is not required for the conviction of a crime. The existence of motive is immaterial to the matter of guilt when that guilt is clearly established. However, when guilt is not clearly established, the presence of motive might help to establish it. If a prosecution is based entirely on circumstantial evidence, the presence of motive may be persuasive in establishing guilt; likewise, the absence of motive might support a finding of innocence.Instead of proper apology, or an acknowledgment expressing regret or asking pardon for a fault or offense from the SPDC Generals we are getting the excuses, to explain (a fault or an offense) in the hope of being forgiven or understood. SPDC falsely hope to be freed from the crimes, as from an obligation or duty. But sadly those were even not the explanations offered to justify or obtain forgiveness, nor reason or grounds for excusing: Senior General Than Shwe and other top generals must know that Ignorance is no excuse for breaking any law, local or ICC.An excuse is essentially a defense for an individual’s conduct that is intended to mitigate the individual’s blameworthiness for a particular act or to explain why the individual acted in a specific manner.Don’t make excuses, make good.

Two wrongs don’t make a right, but they make a good excuse.” Thomas Szasz.

And oftentimes excusing of a fault doth make the fault the worse by the excuse.” William Shakespeare.  To be excused from liability means that although the defendant may have been a participant in the sequence of events leading to the prohibited outcome, no liability will attach to the particular defendant because he or she belongs to a class of person exempted from liability. In normal circumstances, this will be a policy of expediency. Hence, members of the armed forces, the police or other civil organizations may be granted a degree of immunity for causing prohibited outcomes while acting in the course of their official duties, e.g. for an assault or trespass to the person caused during a lawful arrest. But in the Cases of the Crimes against Humanity, Genocide and Ethnic Cleansing or the Massacre of peaceful demonstrators and the point-blank shoot to killing of the Japanese Photojournalist cases at the ICC the above excuses are not valid at all.But SPDC Generals are adamant, impervious to pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding. They stood firmly, often unreasonably immovable in purpose or will: They are inflexible, not easily bent; stiff or rigid. Incapable of being changed; unalterable nor unyielding in purpose, principle, or temper; immovable. They are not exorable or capable of being moved by entreaty; pitiful; tender. They are stubborn, unreasonably, often perversely unyielding; bullheaded. Or firmly resolved or determined; resolute, obstinate, characterized by unnecessary perseverance and persistent. They are difficult to treat or deal with; resistant to treatment or effort: stubborn soil; stubborn stains.

SPDC Generals should understand that they could not claim for the Diplomatic Immunity as they are not diplomats. It is for the exemption from taxation and ordinary processes of law afforded to diplomatic personnel in a foreign country only.

SPDC Generals should also understand that they could not claim for the executive privilege, exemption of the executive branch of government, or its officers, from having to give evidence, specifically, the exemption of the head of the government from disclosing information to inquiries or the judiciary. Claims of executive privilege are usually invoked to protect confidential military or diplomatic operations or to protect the private discussions and debates of the president with close aides. Efforts by various the head of the governments to gain absolute and unqualified privilege have been rejected by the International Criminal Courts, though the local remain inclined to support most claims of executive privilege. Where criminal charges are being brought against the head of the government, the claims of executive privilege are weakest.The International Court of Justice (ICJ) (also known as World Court) is the judiciary organ of the United Nations. It settles disputes submitted to it voluntarily by states (only), and gives advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by other organs of the UN, such as the General Assembly or Security Council. A recent development in international law is the International Criminal Court (ICC), the first ever permanent international criminal court, which was established to ensure that the gravest international crimes do not go unpunished. The ICC treaty was signed by 139 national governments, of which 100 ratified it into law by October 2005.Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard or the Medina standard, is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war and serious crimes. The doctrine of “command responsibility” was established by the Hague Conventions IV (1907) and X (1907). The “Yamashita standard” is based upon the precedent set by the United States Supreme Court in the case of Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita. He was prosecuted, in a still controversial trial, for atrocities committed by troops under his command in the Philippines. Yamashita was charged with “unlawfully disregarding and failing to discharge his duty as a commander to control the acts of members of his command by permitting them to commit war crimes.” The “Medina standard” is based upon the prosecution of US Army Captain Ernest Medina in connection with the My Lai Massacre during the Vietnam War. It holds that a commanding officer, being aware of a human rights violation or a war crime, will be held criminally liable when he does not take action. In The Art of War, written during the 6th BC, Sun Tzu, argued that it was a commander’s duty to ensure that his subordinates conducted themselves in a civilized manner during an armed conflict.The Hague Conventions IV (1907) was the first attempt at codifying the principle of command responsibility on a multinational level. It was not until after WWI that the Allied Powers’ Commission on the Responsibility of the Authors of the War and on the Enforcement of Penalties recommended the establishment of an international tribunal, which would try individuals for “order[ing], or, with knowledge thereof and with power to intervene, abstain[ing] from preventing or taking measures to prevent, putting an end to or repressing, violations of the laws or customs of war.”Introducing responsibility for an omission(Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945)Command responsibility is an omission mode of individual criminal liability: the superior is responsible for crimes committed by his subordinates and for failing to prevent or punish (as opposed to crimes he ordered). Following In re Yamashita courts clearly accepted that a commander’s actual knowledge of unlawful actions is sufficient to impose individual criminal responsibilityAdditional Protocol IThe first international treaty to comprehensively codify the doctrine of command responsibility was the Additional Protocol I (“AP I”) of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions of 1949. Article 86(2) states that:The fact that a breach of the Conventions or of this Protocol was committed by a subordinate does not absolve his superiors from …responsibility …

  1. if they knew, or

  2. had information which should have enabled them to conclude in the circumstances at the time,

  3. that he was committing or

  4. about to commit such a breach and

  5. if they did not take all feasible measures within their power to prevent or repress the breach.

Article 87 obliges a commander to “prevent and, where necessary, to suppress and report to competent authorities” any violation of the Conventions and of AP I.In Article 86(2) for the first time a provision would “explicitly address the knowledge factor of command responsibility.”The term “command” can be defined as_A.  De jure (legal) command, which can be both military and civilian. The determining factor here is not rank but subordination. Four structures are identified:1.      Policy command: heads of state, high-ranking government officials, monarchs

  1. Strategic command: War Cabinet, Joint Chiefs of Staff

  2. Operational command: military leadership; in Yamashita it was established that operational command responsibility cannot be ceded for the purpose of the doctrine of command responsibility – operational commanders must exercise the full potential of their authority to prevent war crimes, failure to supervise subordinates or non-assertive orders don’t exonerate the commander.

  3. Tactical command: direct command over troops on the ground

B. De facto (factual) command, which specifies effective control, as opposed to formal rank. This needs a superior-subordinate relationship. They are:

  1. Capacity to issue orders

  2. Power of influence: influence is recognized as a source of authority in the Ministries case before the US military Tribunal after World War II.

  3. Evidence stemming from distribution of tasks: the ICTY has established the Nikolic test – superior status is deduced from analysis of distribution of tasks within the unit, it applies both to operational and POW camp commanders.

Additional Protocol I and the Statutes of the ICTY, the ICTR, and the ICC makes prevention or prosecution of crimes mandatoryThe Nuremberg Charter determined the basis to prosecute people for:

  1. Crimes against humanity: murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, and other inhuman acts committed against any civilian population, before or during the war, or persecutions on political, racial or religious grounds in execution of or in connection with any crime within the jurisdiction of the Tribunal, whether or not in violation of the domestic law of the country where perpetrated.

The jurisdiction ratione personae is considered to apply to “leaders, organisers, instigators and accomplices” involved in planning and committing those crimes.Restitution process to consider for all the Myanmar/Burmese citizens abroad.

Although there are some sympathetic considerations for the Burmese/Myanmar citizens by few countries, most of us unfairly discriminated even amongst foreigners in many countries.

Except for the US and EU countries, ASEAN, China and India etc. countries wish to continue their trade ties with the SPDC Junta. In their own local countries’ laws and international laws, those who try to cover up the crimes, protect the criminals or accepting the ill-gotten property or money is illegal criminal offence, many countries are willing to continue the relations with those SPDC Criminals. And they are the ones who are punishing the Burmese/Myanmar citizens because of the acts of the successive military leaders.


Because the military government refused to sign visa free status to their citizens, esp. ASEAN governments, they denied the ordinary Myanmar/ Burmese these rights of visa free status. But with the excuse of government to government dealing, they granted visa free for the military authorities of Myanmar.

Although they (esp. ASEAN governments) signed the double taxation agreement with the military government they refused (esp. ASEAN governments) denied the rights of the Burmese citizens after Myanmar Embassies illegally taxed their citizens abroad.

We are not asking for special favors or the facilities that are reserved for your citizens only. But please kindly treat all of us with the same privileges or chances or favors you all reserved to your most favored foreigners from your most favored countries.

Why US, EU, Australia, Canada, Singapore and other developed countries could give training jobs for the SPDC selected and sent specialists but not the individual, private Myanmar/Burmese doctors, engineers etc. Especially UK, US and Singapore not only refused to recognize the Myanmar Medical degrees but also refused the privately applied individuals for the training posts but always ready to grant to the SPDC doctors.

EU especially UK Medical Council, Immigration etc. are also giving special privileges to the fellow EU countries’ workers, professionals and doctors. EU and UK should give the same privileges to the Burmese/Myanmar citizens as a special arrangement as part of the restitution process.

UK professional governing bodies such as GMC stop Burmese Medical degree recognition because the military government ignored their supervision process. And the other professional bodies and other countries such as Singapore, Hong Kong, Brunei follow the UK trend and derecognize as. All the countries are punishing Burmese/Myanmar professionals because of Myanmar Military Juntas’ action. At least you all should allow all the Burmese professionals after supervision/temporary registrations as internships (House Surgeons, House Officers etc.) for few years. ASEAN scholarships and many other training and scholarships given out by e.g. other government, semi-government and private big companies’ (PETRONAS, IJN etc.) are usually given to SPDC selected candidates.

If ASEAN wish to keep Myanmar SPDC in ASEAN, do not wish to jeopardize their cozy relation relationships, they could continue given them as G to G arrangement but they all should offer the same amount of scholarships and training posts to the private individual Burmese/Myanmar citizens.

In some of the developed countries’ criminal laws, there are new victim-oriented, or aims for the restitution of the victims. Its goal is to repair any hurt inflicted by the offender on the victim through state authority.

Please kindly allow me to request world leaders, UN, US, EU, ASEAN, Japan, Korea etc to kindly consider to help made it easier for the various Myanmar/Burmese migrants to work, study, settle or take refuge in your countries.

Singapore should give Myanmar professionals and others as the same privileges for allowing to work and practice, as those from Hong Kong, Taiwan and other western countries.  Malaysia should accept the Myanmar professionals and citizens with the same fast tract that they had accorded to their brothers, Indonesians.

We could even see a lot of Indonesian sweepers, toilet cleaners holding the Malaysian Red and Blue ICs. Some of the MPs, Ministers, Chief Ministers are also Indonesian Malaysians. Some are just second generation migrants only, e.g. the present Selangore Chief Minister. His father was reported in the Malaysian English daily to be an Indonesian migrated into Malaysia as a lorry driver! But it is very difficult even for a Burmese professional to get a PR. It is almost impossible to get the citizenship because of red tapes and conditions and requirements imposed on all others except for Indonesians.  

We all know the very special status and support given by Malaysia on Bosnia and other refugees. Talking about refugees, the western democracies are also rumoured to have secretly instructed the UNHCR to accept ONE ETHNIC MINORITY professing ONE RELIGION only. It is difficult to prove but all of us could see very clearly.

If Singapore and Malaysia wish to continue to accept Myanmar SPDC, they should seriously consider compensating Myanmar/ Burmese citizens with the special privileges they used to extend other preferred foreigners. 

At first many leaders around the world could not believe or some of them closed their eyes or look away from our country and blatantly claimed that there is no war in Myanmar, no atrocities committed on various minority religious groups and ethnic minorities. Even those practising the same religion or descended from the same ethnic groups denied or brushed off that there was no ethnic cleansing, racial and religious in Myanmar, just to easily deny a helping hand to those who migrated and requested to easy resettlement or refuge in their countries.It is a blessing in disguised that the stupid or dumb SPDC military generals decided to use force on peacefully demonstrating revered monks and the Burmese civilians. Now the SPDC’s real natured is exposed and the whole world had witness with their eyes about the cruel Myanmar Military. And it is clear that they are defiant and never give a dam care to the UN, UNSC, world political and religious leaders’ appeals.

We, Burmese expartrites, wish to look forward and prepare for the future of our whole family and our relatives.  We don’t want to look back over our shoulders with fear nor maintain the umbilical cord with the Myanmar, we left. 

As it now stands, we cannot plan for our future because of the ASEAN governments’ very strict policy of citizenship rules.  Our wish to give undivided full loyalty to our adopted new home cannot be fulfilled.We could not sponsor even our closed relatives; parents, brothers, sisters etc.

ASEAN governments should kindly reconsider this present ruling. After all, if our parents and near relatives are here, out of Myanmar, no need to send our money back home to Myanmar but need to spend in your own country!

The Myanmar Embassies around the world are so happy to collect income taxes (obviously double taxation for all the Myanmar PP holders) and all the various exuberant fees to endorse, renew and for issuing of new Passports.           

When the Malaysian government announced that they are building 3000 (three thousand) schools for the INDONESIAN MIGRANTS’ children, they put out the order that other MIGRANTS’ are not allowed to attend the government schools. This includes the legal workers, professionals and doctors working even for the Malaysian government. Even the highest pay migrant professional doctors’ salary in Malaysia is less than the ambulance driver’s salary in the west, they could not afford to send to the very expensive private schools. I am worried about the emergence of illiterate Myanmar refugees in a dozen of year from now in Malaysia, giving social problems as they are denied schooling because their parents came from Myanmar but not from INDONESIA.

And UIA or IIU (International Islamic University) had accepted Burmese students in their Medical Faculty before. But now they totally refused to accept Burmese Students in Medical course.

 The funniest and shameful thing is that the Islamic College in Malaysia tried to refuse Myanmar students (even the Muslim students) because they don’t have the agreement with the SPDC atheist government. But they are willing to accept even the Hindu students from India because Indian government signed an agreement with them. They seems to be out of touch with foreign news, even failed to watch the Al Jazeera TV channel about SPDC atheist government soldiers beating and killing of monks. I hope that the college authorities are not glued to MTV and TVB all the time and are ignorant about the ethnic cleansing and Genocide of Muslims in Myanmar/Burma.


No wander all of their OIC leaders used to shamelessly ignore the plights of discriminated downtrodden minority Muslims from Myanmar/Burma, Kashmir, Chechnya, Xingan, Yunnan, and from all over the world but KEEP ON DENOUNCING ISRAEL and US. And KEEP ON SUPPORTING PALESTINES and IRAQ uselessly as parrots. 

General Aung San’s Acceptance of migrants as brethren

General Aung San’s Acceptance of migrants as brethren

“I want to address the Indians and Chinese residing in this country. We have no bitterness, no ill will for them, or for that matter for any race and nationality in the world. If they choose to join us, we will welcome them as our own brethren. The welfare of all people of this country irrespective of race or religion has always been the one purpose that I have set out to fulfill. In fact it is my life’s mission.”
I recognize both the virtues and limitations of pure nationalism, I love its virtues, I don’t allow myself to be blinded by its limitations, though I knew that it is not easy for the great majority of any nation to get over these limitations. In so far as nationalism encourages us to love our people and love others. In so far as nationalism inculcates in us a sense of national and social justice which calls upon us to fight any system that is oppressive or tyrannical both in our country and the world, there I am completely with nationalism.
I believe in the inherent right of a people to revolt against any tyranny that people may have over them. History has amply demonstrated the right of a people to its own freedom, and that once it is denied to them, even in the case of the peoples who belong to the same stock. There is therefore nothing wrong in the aspirations of a nation if it wants to regain the freedom that is its birthright and attempts to have it. Every nation in the world must be free not only externally (i.e., free from any foreign rule) but also internally.
We cannot confine the definition of a nationality to the narrow bounds of race, religion, etc. Nations are extending the rights of their respective communities even to others who may not belong to them except by their mere residence amongst them and their determination to live and be with them. I am glad to know that you regard yourselves as nationals of this country. So far as I am concerned, I am perfectly prepared to embrace you as my own brothers and sisters.

Reverend Sanghas! You have a tremendous role to play. This is the highest politics which you can do for your country and people. Go amongst our people, preach the doctrine of unity and love; carry the message of higher freedom to every nook and corner of the country, freedom to religious worship, freedom to preach and spread the Dharma anywhere and anytime, freedom from fear, ignorance, superstition, etc., teach our people to rely upon themselves and re-construct themselves materially, spiritually and otherwise. You have these and many more noble tasks before you.

Every student of social and political science knows very well that such slogans as race, religion, language do not alone constitute nationalism. There are one or more races in almost every country. Nowadays, we have different religions being embraced by members of the same nationality.
What then constitutes nationalism? The main factor is the having to lead together one common life sharing joys and sorrows, developing common interests and one or more common things like racial or linguistic communities, fostering common traditions of having been and being one which give us a consciousness of oneness and necessity of that oneness.
Race, religion, and language are thus by themselves not primary factors which go to the making of a nation but the historic necessity of having to lead common life together that is the pivotal principle of nationality and nationalism.
Nowadays, with the increasing mutual intercourse of nations, there is such a provision in many of the constitutions of the world for naturalization of foreigners. But it is in history that opportunist political leadership taking advantage of the strong national sentiments of the people may try to exploit the nationalism of the people for their selfish individual or group interests. We must be careful of such exploitation of nationalism. For then racial strives and bitterness will be fomented and fostered among us by interested parties in order to divert our attention from the main objective.
Some of us have been going still about the same old way of ‘dirty’ politics. But is politics really ‘dirty’. It is not politics which is dirty, but rather the persons who choose to dirty it are dirty.

Some of them can be read in Bo Gyoke’s speeches.

See my article in Burma Digest also.  

Jessicah Curtis

Reprint from, July 24, 2007 (DVB)—There have been some fantastic campaigns launched in the past five years or so to curb the discrimination Burmese migrants face when relocating to other countries.

Refugees, economic migrants and those seeking an education or a new life in a third country from Burma are often the targets of racism, psychological and physical abuse and social persecution. Thankfully, organisations such as the MAP Foundation are working to try and address these issues.

But the acceptance of migrants should go both ways and people travelling to Burma from other countries to seek a better life for their families should be treated with the same respect we demand for Burmese migrants leaving.

Unfortunately, this is often not the case. I can’t count the amount of times I have been told that the Chinese, Indians, Bangladeshis and Rohingyas (outrageously still referred to as Kalas in every day conversations) are not welcome in Burma.

These comments are particularly concerning when they come from people living in Thailand or those who have had the chance at a new life in the US or Europe (Note: added by SOA:and from a very racist Rakhine prof. in Japan. May be he should be kicked out from Japan. As there were reports that Daw Suu was coached by him, we are worried about Daw Suu’s opinion on the late migrants into Burma. Early migrants; Pyu, Kanyan, Thet etc are already well established in Myanmar. That racist Rakhine prof. was part of that early migrant mixed with Marghs or Buddhist Bengladeshis migrated into Rakhine) because, surely, they should respect the desire for the best of opportunities life has to offer.

Despite the fact that the political, economic, security and social conditions in most parts of Burma are despicable, for some people life in Burma presents opportunities that cannot be found elsewhere. Let’s start with Indian migrants as an example. Many came to Burma in the 19th century when the economic conditions in the country were far better than they were in India. These migrants, along with many of the Chinese immigrants who came at roughly the same time, made an important contribution to Burma’s economy and have become as much a part of the social fabric of the country as anyone else. But they are still shunned in the streets of Rangoon if their skin is too dark or their jobs considered too menial. Their children are often abused, taunted and turned away from school. No one wants to do business with a ‘Kala’ let alone talk to or make friends with one. This is quite clearly outrageous, as is the military’s refusal to consider Rohingyas citizens of Burma despite the fact that many families have lived in the country for generations. Even people who can not accept the term ‘Rohingya’ should at least respect the need for these people to be accepted in the country they have called home for decades. Racism exists in every country but with more than one million Burmese people living, working and studying in Thailand alone, it can’t be too much to expect that the rights of other migrants be appreciated.

Perhaps we should start printing MAP’s ‘No migrant is illegal’ t-shirts inside Burma and see what kind of response we get. No doubt Burma’s ethnic Chinese, Bangla, Indian and Thai citizens would appreciate a break from the derogatory comments and discriminatory policies they are subjected to on a daily basis.

As a Burmese Muslim, I sympathised Rohingyas and had supported and helped them personally and through my contacts in NGOs and Government official friends. But as they wish to be different from the rest of Burmese Muslims, I tried to leave them alone, to be able to reap their fruits of their struggle themselves. I hereby selected some letters in “Let’s Talk” page of DVB regarding Rohingya just to see the different points of views on all the mixed blooded people and Muslims in Burma.


What’s in a name?

Debate has raged for years over whether or not Muslim ‘Rohingyas’ have a genuine claim to status as one of Burma’s many ethnic groups. Even academics and historians cannot agree over whether evidence points to ancient Rohingya roots in Arakan State or whether they are simply migrants from the Sub-continent who have been in Burma for less than a century.  But since there is no consensus on the issue based on historic data, it might be time to ask the question of whether the ancient history of their presence in Arakan State matters or not.  What do you think? Do you accept Rohingyas as a Burmese ethnic group? Does it matter how many centuries or generations they have lived in the country? Should they be accepted as Burmese regardless of their ancestry? Since the status of Rohingyas continues to be such a divisive issue for many Burmese people, how do you think the debate on the issue can move forward from its current stalemate?

 Let’s talk! DVB 

To all and special to Shin Shin(Thailand), I gree with u ,Rohingya’s face were not Burmese,so could we decide Burma can live people only Burmese Face? If so could we fair?  What about Burmese in abroad(currently those Burmese had the right residence status and citizenship rights in their respective countries)What about Chinese face people living in Burma?  I am not accept Rohingya as Burma’s ethnic groups but totally accepted they are Burma nationality.

Ko Maung (Singapore)

To the Singaporean residents who have answered this question — if you proposed deportation on the basis of DNA in Burma, what would you propose happen to all residents of Singapore, including yourselves?

In the history of the nation state it has never been the norm that nationality be dependent on ethnicity. And I hope you feel that that everyone should work to prevent the past tragic consequences of making ethnicity a precondition for exclusion of individuals from participation in a nation s society.

This was the case in Germany during the Nazi regime, and the effect was to impoverish the German nation, and to drive talented individuals capable of helping their nation to neighbouring countries. Which was to those states great benefit. Or is this perhaps the intention of your argument — to strengthen Burma s neighbours?

Simon (Belgium)

In an “Ideal World” everyone, regardless of its color, race, culture or religion should be able to live, peacefully, alongside each other. The only problem is…..after sometime, people have tendency to segregate among the communities, which results in misunderstandings and hostilities. When such things happened only the “educated and wise” can understand the distructive nature of violence against fellow members of community. Poverty and illiteracy, fanned by religious extremity , creates more violence and terror among communities. Therefore, we have to be very careful and learn lessons from South of Thailand, Sri Lanka, Middle East and Philippines etc.

Nay Nwe Oo (Myanmar)

Even thousands of refugees from Burma have been granted citizenship and permission to settle in different countries. Why not Muslim in Myanmar? Weather they are from under the ocean or above the sky, we all know that they are human. Universal Declaration of Human Right was signed not just for the us, but for them too.


Peter peter (Norway )

If someone said NO, what about the Wa who look like Chinese. The relation of SPDC with Chinese is better than it with Bangladesh and its relation is like father and son. kyaw kyaw (Thailand)No more 20 century. We have to remember that the world is changing very fast. As my point of view, no matter what religious, race or color should be equal. No discrimination please!! I always heard on Rohingya about Direct discrimination occurs because of their racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation.  

Lu thar Chin Sanar pa!  

With Mitta,

May Zin Moe (USA)

It will be sad story for Burma if we say Rohingya should be sent to Bangladesh or they are not Burmese or Arakanese because they are muslim or they looks Indian. If we say so, we should call ourselves hypocrates.

Zaw Zaw (India)

Should we decide the fate of Rohingya on their face, colour and religious belief?. If yes, then what about white Amercan, White Australian?. They should go to Europe.

Maung Lay (Burma)

No borders of any countries in this world is devided according to the people face or religion. It is geographic demarcation. Myanmar Border with China has alot of Chinese face looks people so as border with India or Thailand similar faces to the otherside of border. All those areas people, we accepted as nationality of Myanmar. So as border with Bangladesh we have people like Bengali. This is common in every border regions of all countries in the world. We have to accept the realities. We simply cannot do discrimination due to their religious beliefs. We are in 21st century. Why only issue arises with those Rohingyas? I think we just discriminate them to play a political game with the Rakhine Bhuddists.

 Maung Maung (Myanmar)

China Olympic Games and Repression

Repression continues in China, one year before Olympic

Repression continues in China, one year before Olympic Games
The Reporters Without Borders list of nine things the Chinese authorities must do before the Beijing Olympic Games:
Reporters Without Borders also supports the eight demands of the Collectif Chine JO 2008 (China 2008 Olympics Collective), an alliance of nine human rights organisations based in France:
Reporters Without Borders wrote to IOC Jacques Rogge in June 2007

Repression continues in China,

one year before Olympic Games

When the International Olympic Committee assigned the 2008 summer Olympic Games to Beijing on 13 July 2001, the Chinese police were intensifying a crackdown on subversive elements, including Internet users and journalists. Six years later, nothing has changed. But despite the absence of any significant progress in free speech and human rights in China, the IOC’s members continue to turn a deaf ear to repeated appeals from international organisations that condemn the scale of the repression.

From the outset, Reporters Without Borders has been opposed to holding the Olympic Games to Beijing. Now, a year before the opening ceremony, it is clear the Chinese government still sees the media and Internet as strategic sectors that cannot be left to the “hostile forces” denounced by President Hu Jintao. The departments of propaganda and public security and the cyber-police, all conservative bastions, implement censorship with scrupulous care.

At least 30 journalists and 50 Internet users are currently detained in China. Some of them since the 1980s. The government blocks access to thousands for news websites. It jams the Chinese, Tibetan and Uyghur-language programmes of 10 international radio stations. After focusing on websites and chat forums, the authorities are now concentrating on blogs and video-sharing sites. China’s blog services incorporate all the filters that block keywords considered “subversive” by the censors. The law severely punishes “divulging state secrets,” “subversion” and “defamation” – charges that are regularly used to silence the most outspoken critics. Although the rules for foreign journalists have been relaxed, it is still impossible for the international media to employ Chinese journalists or to move about freely in Tibet and Xinjiang.

Read more


And continue to read these


Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

Pictures of the campaign

See photos of the operations carried out in Beijing, Paris, New York…

Media downloads

Download the “Beijing 2008” campaign graphic
Download the “Beijing 2008” web banner

in this country

15.10 – China
Reporters Without Borders activists rally in front of Olympic museum in Lausanne as Chinese Communist Party’s 17th congress opens
15.09 – China
New York Times researcher Zhao Yan freed on completing jail term
14.09 – China
Arrests and incidents involving foreign journalists show government is not keeping Olympic Games promises
31.08 – China
Congress passes law censoring disaster coverage
30.08 – China
Calling for lawsuit’s dismissal, Yahoo! says it is “political and diplomatic issue”

in the annual report

China – Annual report 2007