Myanmar government planning for another episode of Anti-Muslim riots

Myanmar government

planning for another episode

of Anti-Muslim riots  


Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities. -Voltaire

Those who can make you believe absurdities can make you commit atrocities. -Voltaire


Anti-Muslim Riots in Bago/Pegu

Anti-Muslim Riots in Bago/Pegu





Dear Brother,

I hope you can share the following news which is the part of a deliberate plan of the Military Junta of Burma to use its long term policy of using religious hatred to create the political environment that may benefit the Military Junta of Burma to stay in Power Forever.
Please prevent hatred against any race or religion and create the unity and harmony among all the races and religions of the people of Burma.

Continue reading

Responsible Thai generals must be punished for torturing and killing of Imam

Responsible Thai generals must be punished

for torturing and killing of Imam

BANGKOK, Jan 11 – The death of an imam while in army custody last year will present Thailand’s new government with its first test of whether it can deliver justice in the country’s troubled southern provinces.


On Christmas Day, a court in Narathiwat ruled that 56-year-old imam Yapa Kaseng was tortured and killed while being interrogated by soldiers in March.

The body of the Muslim community leader bore evidence of blunt force trauma, including rib fractures. His lungs were punctured, and his body was covered with bruises, and had abrasions on the back.

The death of the imam has gone down as a landmark abuse case. Rarely has anyone been held accountable for deaths in custody a long-held complaint of locals as well as non-governmental organisations and watchdog groups like the New York-based Human Rights Watch (HRW).

Continue reading

Singapore dictators supported Myanmar Military dictators and rejected visa extension of six Burmese Citizens

Singapore dictators

supported Myanmar Military dictators

and rejected visa extension of six Burmese Citizens


Saturday,23 August,2008(from Mizzima)

New Delhi – Singapore government has denied renewal of visas of six Burmese citizens and has forced three of them to leave the country since July without giving any reasons, Burmese activists, who called themselves as Burmese Patriots, on Friday.

The activists, who held a press briefing on Friday, call on the Singaporean government to provide proper reasons for the Immigration and Checkpoints Authority (ICA) and Ministry of Manpower’s denial of the renewal of visas by six Burmese citizens.

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Answer ASEAN leaders, which of the following points you do not agree?

Answer ASEAN leaders,

which of the following points you do not agree?


What Western values are you afraid of ASEAN DICTATORS?


SPDC FM said that Daw Suu could be kept in detention because their law says the limit is six years.

Don’t forget that Myanmar SPDC law for MURDER, corruption and RAPE etc included jail and death sentences. So why the Depayin MASSACRE MASTERMIND Than Shwe was not arrested or jailed or punished to death.


The selective persecution is the problem. According to the ASEAN VALUES, not all the citizens are equal under the law. May be I am wrong. All the citizens are equal under the law but Military Junta and Dictators are above the law.


The main problem of the ASEAN is they have no respect for the Human Rights and also there is no RULE OF LAW. They all RULE BY LAW, of course with their own interpretation.


In conclusion there is usually NO GOOD GOVERNANCE in most of the ASEAN countries.


Answer ASEAN leaders, which of the following points you do not agree?




Article 1 Human dignity


Human dignity is inviolable. It must be respected and protected.


Article 2 Right to life


1. Everyone has the right to life.

2. No one shall be condemned to the death penalty, or executed.

Continue reading

Let Us Now Praise Coups


By Paul Collier

Sunday, June 22, 2008; Page B03

OXFORD, England The government of Zimbabwe recently ordered foreign aid groups to halt their operations within its borders, thereby blocking the food aid that the United Nations funnels through such organizations from getting to the country’s starving people. Last month, the government of Burma issued a similar ban. Of course, when we say “the government of Zimbabwe,” what we really mean is President Robert Mugabe, just as “the government of Burma” these days means Senior Gen. Than Shwe, the leader of the ruling junta. In justifying the bans, each ruler harrumphed that outsiders should not be allowed to tell his nation what to do. But the real obstacle blocking international food aid is not the principle of national sovereignty; it is the insistence of dictators on being left to call their own shots. Mugabe decided that his citizens were better dead than fed; his nation had no part in the decision.

Continue reading

King-Obama’s dream comes true but Oh! Burma is still having Nightmares

King-Obama’s dream comes true


Oh! Burma is still having Nightmares


Congratulations Mr Obama for fulfilling the dreams of King or Martin Luther King Jr. We hereby wish that you could benevolently choose Mrs Hillary Clinton to be your Deputy running mate in the coming election.

For Oh! Burma, (or OLD BURMA) we are continuing the unfinished nightmare started by General Ne Win. We hope that there would be a blessing in disguise for our Burmese people. The present cyclone victims’ continuous suffering, SPDC’s blockage, hijacking and siphoning of the International aids combined with economic hardship because of SPDC’s mismanagement and global inflation/recession would fuel the dissatisfaction of Burmese and lead to another final revolt against SPDC and Myanm Military rulers.


nightmare1.jpgAs Mr McCain is the long time friend of Burma and we trusted he would be willing to help Burmese people if we need, we wish to request Mr Obama not to look at the other side and pretend you never see the plight and sufferings of Burmese people. Please don’t leave us, Burma alone Mr Obama.

 Extracts from Dean Johns’ article | Jun 4, 08 in Malaysiakini

  Continue reading

Burma’s Dictators and the Fear of Purgatory

                              SUPERSTITIOUS DICTATORS

By Jürgen Kremb

There is no place in the world where politicians are as superstitious as they are in Burma and its Asian neighbors. They use the services of astrologists, monks and miracle-healers. Nevertheless, religious groups have repeatedly contributed to the collapse of despots and the tyrant dictators don’t flinch at the idea of killing monks.

At some point in the summer of 2005, the head of Burma’s junta, Than Shwe, called in his chief astrologer. The general had followed the advice of the fortune teller a few months previously and built a new capital in the highlands. He had been told this was the only way to hold onto power. Now the general wanted to know what would be the best date to make the move. Continue reading

Power crazy military dictators (Poem in Burmese)

Power crazy military dictators




































China Olympic Games and Repression

China Olympic Games and Repression

Repression continues in China, before Olympic

Myanmar democracy activists urge

Olympics boycott


Myanmar democracy activists called Monday on people across the world to boycott televised coverage of this summer’s Olympics in Beijing, in protest at China’s support for the ruling military junta.

The 88 Generation Students group, which includes some of the country’s top pro-democracy leaders, also urged viewers against buying any merchandise linked to the Games.

The Olympics are set to open on August 8, the 20th anniversary of a pro-democracy uprising led by students in Myanmar.

The military, which has ruled the country formerly known as Burma since 1962, opened fire on the crowds, killing an estimated 3,000 people.

Leaders of the uprising were handed lengthy prison sentences, but when released they formed the 88 Generation Student group.

The group began new protests in August last year, harnessing public anger at a surprise hike in fuel prices that left many unable to afford even meagre bus fares to work.

Many of the leaders were again arrested, but Buddhist monks took over the protest movement, which swelled into the biggest anti-government uprising since 1988.

In a statement issued by leaders now in hiding, the group called “for citizens around the world to pressure the government of China to withdraw its unilateral support of the Burmese military junta and to boycott the 2008 Beijing Olympics.”

“China is a major trade partner, major arms supplier and major defender of the junta in the international arena,” it said.

“The military junta in Burma is still in power to this day, despite strong and continuous resistance by the people of Burma, because of China’s support.”

The group said that instead of supporting the regime, China should help to facilitate a national dialogue among the military and opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi, who has spent 12 of the last 18 years under house arrest.

The military last week announced that it had completed drafting a new constitution that it plans to bring to a referendum in May. The document would bar Aung San Suu Kyi, a Nobel peace prize winner, from running in elections now slated for 2010.


Repression continues in China, one year before Olympic Games
The Reporters Without Borders list of nine things the Chinese authorities must do before the Beijing Olympic Games:
Reporters Without Borders also supports the eight demands of the Collectif Chine JO 2008 (China 2008 Olympics Collective), an alliance of nine human rights organisations based in France:
Reporters Without Borders wrote to IOC Jacques Rogge in June 2007

Repression continues in China,

before Olympic Games

When the International Olympic Committee assigned the 2008 summer Olympic Games to Beijing on 13 July 2001, the Chinese police were intensifying a crackdown on subversive elements, including Internet users and journalists. Six years later, nothing has changed. But despite the absence of any significant progress in free speech and human rights in China, the IOC’s members continue to turn a deaf ear to repeated appeals from international organisations that condemn the scale of the repression.

From the outset, Reporters Without Borders has been opposed to holding the Olympic Games to Beijing. Now, a year before the opening ceremony, it is clear the Chinese government still sees the media and Internet as strategic sectors that cannot be left to the “hostile forces” denounced by President Hu Jintao. The departments of propaganda and public security and the cyber-police, all conservative bastions, implement censorship with scrupulous care.

At least 30 journalists and 50 Internet users are currently detained in China. Some of them since the 1980s. The government blocks access to thousands for news websites. It jams the Chinese, Tibetan and Uyghur-language programmes of 10 international radio stations. After focusing on websites and chat forums, the authorities are now concentrating on blogs and video-sharing sites. China’s blog services incorporate all the filters that block keywords considered “subversive” by the censors. The law severely punishes “divulging state secrets,” “subversion” and “defamation” – charges that are regularly used to silence the most outspoken critics. Although the rules for foreign journalists have been relaxed, it is still impossible for the international media to employ Chinese journalists or to move about freely in Tibet and Xinjiang.

Read more

And continue to read these


Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

Support the international campaign by signing this petition that will be sent to Liu Qi, the president of the Beijing Organising Committee for the Games and secretary of the Beijing municipal committee of the Communist Party of China

Pictures of the campaign

See photos of the operations carried out in Beijing, Paris, New York…

Media downloads

Download the “Beijing 2008” campaign graphic
Download the “Beijing 2008” web banner

in this country

15.10 – China
Reporters Without Borders activists rally in front of Olympic museum in Lausanne as Chinese Communist Party’s 17th congress opens
15.09 – China
New York Times researcher Zhao Yan freed on completing jail term
14.09 – China
Arrests and incidents involving foreign journalists show government is not keeping Olympic Games promises
31.08 – China
Congress passes law censoring disaster coverage
30.08 – China
Calling for lawsuit’s dismissal, Yahoo! says it is “political and diplomatic issue”

in the annual report

China – Annual report 2007

Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity,

Boycott China Olympic


This blogger cut and pasted the original slogan ” British difficulty, is Burmese opportunity” which was a famous nationalist slogan during the British Colonial revolution.

This blogger feels that the time is over due to start the campaign to boycott the Chinese Olympic as Chinese Communist Government has avoided its responsibility as a communist party to support the oppressed Burmese People against the Imperialist Military Junta.

International community sees China as a new emerging superpower, which is able to play a pivotal role to solve the problem in country like North Korea and Sudan. Chinese Communist Government who has planned the Olympic , spent billions of Dollars for preparation, and for mega sports facilities for their up coming National Event.

At the same time, Chinese communist authority must be very nervous for any negative effect towards the ” Chinese Olympic” which will be a prestigious event for the Modern China. This event will be remembered in the history of China as its legacy.

Since Chinese Communist Government has blind eyes and deaf ears towards the 50 Million Burmese people’s voice, we should make Chinese Communist Government difficult and Shameful for supporting the world’s worse regime ” Military Junta of Burma”.

To Burmese freedom fighters, this is the time we should start the slogan

” Chinese Difficulty is Burmese opportunity”

This is the auspicious time , to start a campaign for boycotting the Chinese Olympic.

Sit Mone

In order to get a Win- win solution deal in our Dialogue with SPDC

In order to get a

Win- win solution deal

in our Dialogue with SPDC


Dr San Oo Aung

Dialogue is defined as the intention to seek mutual understanding and mutual accommodation on an issue or situation through inquiry and learning leading that can lead to consensus in decision-making.

The World Summit for Social Development was held at Copenhagen in 1995 to forge agreement on social challenges and responses to them. It chose social integration as one of three themes, together with poverty eradication and employment creation.

Member States made commitments to promote social integration to create a society for all”, through fostering inclusive societies that are stable, safe and just and that are based on the promotion and protection of all human rights, as well as on non-discrimination, tolerance, respect for diversity, equality of opportunity, solidarity, security, and participation of all people, including disadvantaged and vulnerable groups and persons.

The 24th Special Session of the General Assembly resolved to strengthen the effectiveness of organizations and mechanisms working for the prevention and peaceful resolution of conflicts, and to increase the capability of relevant United Nations bodies to promote social integration in post conflict situations. Efforts to facilitate people’s full participation, and foster mutual understanding and accommodation through participatory dialogue, are ever more needed now to build a safe, stable and just society for all, and achieve sustainable development and peace.

In order to get a Win-Win solution deal in our Dialogue with the SPDC the Negotiations must be aimed in finding a fair compromise.

We need to sacrifice some of our selfishness, have a Chetana for our country’s future and all must make sure not to insult or dent the ego of the other side.

If we look back to 2001-2004, so called Tan Sri Razali Ismail facilitated dialogue, General Khin Nyunt was a big shot from the SPDC side as he was the S1, PM and the head of very powerful Military Intelligence. But it could not pull it self further from the confidence building stage and totally abandoned when General Khin Nyunt was deposed and thrown into detention and Razali was totally banned by refusing to issue his reentry visa.

The powerful negotiator General Khin Nyunt and UNSG’s representative Razal’s failed even with the dangling USD billion carrot from World Bank because one side think that they are powerful and just tried to use the dialogue as a means to fool the world leaders, reduce the mounting pressure for change and for buying time only.

But when we look at the other highly emphasized or hyped dialogues as Arab Israel Camp David negotiations, high powered facilitators like US Presidents, Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton even used multi billion rewards for both sides, both side leaders were even awarded with Noble Peace Prizes but the real peace is still like a Mirage in the desert. 

I hope that the article in the Myanmar Ahlin, warning the UN not to interfere in the internal affairs of Myanmar and Myanmar would not tolerate the infringement of its sovereignty was just a showoff to safe SPDC’s face. Even UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon was almost fooled because of lack of experience and because he could not understand the witty street-smart SPDC’s psyche, propaganda and twisting of the tongue. 

As Daw Aung San Suu Kyi was allowed to meet her party leaders, I hope that it is the dawn of democracy and reconciliation in our country, leading to the great leap forward to take over its neighbors and ASEAN nations. Please may you all kindly allow me give my TWO CENTS’ worth of advice:  

A. To all the parties_ 

  1. NLD and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. (I hope they will represent all the Ethnic Minorities and religious minorities)

  2. SPDC Generals.

  3. Facilitators from United Nations headed by Dr Ibrahim Gambari, assisted by resident UN officials, directly reporting to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon.

  B. On the conflict Resolution 

In any conflicts or disagreement in our country, we should consider having to deal with people as individuals and with problems in a systematic manner. But all the interested parties can also help to solve their problems or conflicts if they understand that they can take initiatives to deal with conflicts before they require outside intervention. We must not only think what we want selfishly. We need to consider from our opponents’ side and the present reality or socio-political condition of our country and the outside world.

The following is a list of actions which should or should not be taken when there is conflict. Useful tips are as follows: Do’s and Don’ts of Conflict Resolution.


  1. View the present ‘conflict’ as a natural occurrence

  2. Address the conflict quickly, does not just postpone the decision or dialogue.

  3. Seek first to understand the whole problem by looking from all point of views, then only we should try to convince our opponents so that they accept our point of view or in other way try to be understood us by others.

  4. Listen actively to fully understand the other side’s views and standings interestingly or if possible, sympathetically. And try to find the solution for their alleged grievances, sufferings and requests.

  5. Ask open-ended questions but not the questions which could be answered with blunt yes or no, which usually would be on the other side of your standing. Open-ended questions would give the detailed grey scale view instead of just sharp black and white answer.

  6. Identify issues, interests and feelings that are dividing the two sides.

  7. Acknowledge emotions and sufferings of others as if they are valid

  8. Focus on the problem, not the person. Don’t try to attack personally. Don’t try to blocked out or shut-off any one or any party.

  9. Be open to creative solutions

  10. Clarify areas of agreement, note down and try to follow up with action.

  11. Seek assistance from all the sectors, parties that can assist you


  1. Don’t avoid or postpone or procrastinate to discuss to solve the conflict, otherwise it will escalate into bigger disasters.

  2. Don’t assume, judge or blame the others prematurely or if possible never commit this crime.

  3. Don’t disregard other party’s interests

  4. Don’t attack the speaker, from other party or the facilitator.

  5. Don’t interrupt the speaker, let the other party speak as much as he likes and try to listen with interest and enthusiasm.  

  6. Don’t allow emotions to override the discussion.

  7. Don’t focus on personality traits that cannot be changed

  8. Don’t impose personal values and beliefs on others

  9. Don’t assume your intended message is understood without explaining thoroughly.

  10. Don’t try to force or pressure to impose an unfair, unjust agreement.

We need crucial negotiation skill, strategies, tools and techniques to effectively handle this negotiation which involves the greatest political conflict of our country.

  1. We need to be able to negotiate better deals and contracts;

  2. We need to be able to get a quick improved results for all of us;

  3. We need to be able to deal with difficult negotiators;

  4. We need to be able to improve relationships;

  5. We need to be able to adjust our negotiation style for different situations;

  6. We need to be able to create a strong negotiating position (even if we think we are in a weak position, we must keep in mind that most of the people, UN and almost the hole world is supporting us );

  7. We need to become better leaders and team-builders;

  8. We need to be clever enough to avoid being cheated; and

  9. We need to be able to conduct negotiations with confidence.

If we feel that SPDC and Myanmar Tatmadaw is continually taking advantage of us or if we seem to have to fight our corner aggressively, or ally with others, to win the democracy and human rights etc. and we need to struggle a lot to get what we want from Myanmar Tatmadaw and yet we may need their help to stabilize our country later.

If so, we may need to brush up our win-win negotiation skills. We need to be able to reach a fair compromise in this Negotiation so that the results would be the Win-Win for all.

Effective negotiation helps us to resolve situations like this where what want, FULL DEMOCRACY, conflicts with what SPDC and Myanmar Tatmadaw wants, NOT A DEMOCRACY BUT the MILITARY’S TOTAL DOMINENCE FOREVER.  

The aim of win-win negotiation is to find a solution that is acceptable to both parties, and leaves both parties feeling that they’ve won, in some way, after the event. There are different styles of negotiation, depending on circumstances.  

  1. If we do not expect to deal with Myanmar Tatmadaw ever again and we do not need their goodwill, then it may be appropriate to “play hardball”, seeking to win a negotiation while the other person loses out. Many people go through this when they buy or sell a house – this is why house-buying can be such a confrontational and unpleasant experience.

  2. Similarly, where there is a great deal at stake in a negotiation, then it may be appropriate to prepare in detail and legitimate “gamesmanship” to gain advantage. Anyone who has been involved with large sales negotiations will be familiar with this.

  3. Neither of these approaches is usually much good for resolving disputes with people with whom you have an ongoing relationship:

  4. If one person plays hardball, then this disadvantages the other person – this may, quite fairly, lead to reprisal later.

  5. Likewise, using tricks and exploitation during a negotiation can undermine trust and damage teamwork.

  6. Although a manipulative person may not get caught out if negotiation is infrequent, this is not the case when people work together routinely.

  7. At this point, honesty and openness are almost always the best policies.

 Preparing for a successful negotiation… 
  1. As the scale of the disagreement between SPDC and Myanmar Tatmadaw vs Daw Aung San Suu Kyi led NLD and oppositions’ is quite huge, we need a lot of preparation for conducting a successful negotiation.

  2. We should purposely show our graciousness by letting them Tatmadaw what they want for small disagreements. We should not waste time for small matters with excessive preparation and heated negotiations as it can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because, just as it strengthens our position on the small points, it can weaken the other person’s and pushing to fight back all the time to safe their face.

  3. However, if we need to resolve a major disagreement, or on principle or majour policy, then we must make sure to prepare thoroughly and fight with full force.

We must think about the following points before we start negotiating:

(a)    Goals: what do we want to get out of the negotiation? What do we think the SPDC wants? 
(b)   Trades: What do we and the SPDC have that we can trade? Their power of control of the country as the government and our support by the people and the world leaders esp. the western democratic countries. These are the facts that each has that the other wants. We should work out to trade these. 
 (c)    Alternatives: if we don’t reach agreement with the SPDC, what alternatives do we have? Are these good or bad? How much does it matter if we do not reach agreement? Failure to reach an agreement may cut all of us out of future opportunities. And what alternatives might the SPDC have?
 (d)   Relationships: what is the history of the relationship? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation? How will we handle these? 
 (e)    Expected outcomes: what outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation? What has the outcome been in the past, and what precedents have been set? 
 (f)     The consequences: what are the consequences for all of us of winning or losing this negotiation? What are the consequences for the SPDC and military? 
 (g)    Power: who has what power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn’t reached? We must understand that SPDC and Myanmar Military have the governing power to deliver to all of us.
 (h)    Possible solutions: based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be? For a negotiation to be ‘win-win’, both parties should feel positive about the negotiation once it’s over. This helps people keep good working relationships afterwards.

This governs the style of the negotiation – histrionics and displays of emotion are clearly inappropriate because they undermine the rational basis of the negotiation and because they bring a manipulative aspect to them.  

Despite this, emotion can be an important subject of discussion because people’s emotional needs must fairly be met. If emotion is not discussed where it needs to be, then the agreement reached can be unsatisfactory and temporary. Be as detached as possible when discussing your own emotions – perhaps discuss them as if they belong to someone else.

The negotiation must be a careful exploration of our position and the SPDC’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives us both as much of what we want as possible.

People’s positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear – the other person may have very different goals from the ones you expect!

In the present situation, we could find that the SPDC wants what we are prepared to trade, and that we are also prepared to give what the SPDC wants.

But this is not the absolute truth as SPDC must give away its total dominance. Then it is fair for the SPDC to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so – the scale of this compensation must be good enough for them. Ultimately, both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win.

We should not consider we win- SPDC lose negotiation as we may need Myanmar Military to continue protect us from the inside and outside aggressors. We need them to protect the total disintegration of our country.  Equally, we must expect that if they need to fulfill some part of a deal in which you have “won,” they may be uncooperative and legalistic about the way they do this.

The form of meeting

A meeting usually means everyone is together in the same room at the same time and this is the major situation in which facilitation is practiced. With the introduction of modern telecommunications the field has grown to embrace other forms of meetings:-

  • Same time same place – the traditional meeting in a room with all parties present.

  • Same time different place – the teleconference with either all parties on separate telephones or some in separate rooms with speaker phone connection. The internet chat also falls in this category.

 I hope that this is the dawn of democracy and reconciliation in our country, leading to the great leap forward to take over our neighbors and ASEAN nations.

Let’s exploit our strategic position between the two greatest civilizations

  Let’s exploit our strategic position

between the two

greatest civilizations

Dear Nan, our village or Shwe Myae is actually the virtual highway link between the villages in the south and their origin Ko Yu Nan’s village in northern part. Ko Indo Nesia, Daw Ma Lay traveled through our village in 2500 BC and 500 BC.

And those villagers on the numerous Islands up to U Au’s and Daw Zee Lans’ place, now we called Ko Poly Nisian also thought to have came down the same road.

Many of our cousin brothers like U Ka Yin (Pha Thi) and Daw Mon even came down earlier than Daw Shan from far north of Ko Ta Yoke village. U U Bamas and other cousin brothers of Tibet-Bama family villagers also came down from above. You and your half brother Ko Thai, Ko Laos and Ko Kam Bodia also came down from Ko Yu Nan’s village.

In the official Thailand History books, they even claim that all of the above came down from Ko Ta Yoke place through Ko Yu Nan’s village and even Daw Tibet had made an almost U turn and climbed beck onto the Tibet High Lands.

Those came down from north were met by the travelers from Ko Kala’s village. They came down from northwest. There was an old silk road from U Ta Yoke village at north-east to U Kala’s village at south-west. And that high way was in our Shwe Bama land.

Later they built the Burma Road which linked Burma and China. Its terminals are Kunming in China and Lashio in Burma. The road is about 1,130 kilometres long and runs through rough mountain country. This remarkable engineering achievement was built by 200,000 Chinese labouers during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and completed by 1938. It had a strategic role in World War II, where the Allied Powers used the Burma Road to transport war supplies to China. Supplies would be landed at Rangoon and moved by rail to Lashio, where the road started in Burma. In charge of the Operation was General Merrill and General Stillwell. At that time, Burma was a colony of the United Kingdom.

When the Japanese overran sections of the Burma Road the Allies flew supplies over the Hump and built the Ledo Road, also later known as the Stillwell Road. Ledo Road was built from Ledo in Assam into the Hukawng Valley as an alternative to the Burma Road, which had been closed by the Japanese. It was completed in January 1945 and was renamed Stilwell Road by Chiang Kai-shek.

(From the Wikipedia encyclopedia.)

Now China and India are negotiating with Shwe Bama villagers to build a modern high way liking their villages through our land. Recently Ko Ka Lar’s village chairman U Mus Lim went to Shwe Bama and signed an agreement to lay natural gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of our village to Ko Ka Lar’s village. And there is already an agreement to connect the gas pipe line from Ko Ya Khine’s part of the village to Ko Yu Nan’s village. So these high ways and pipelines would become the renaissance of our forefather’s migration.

Dear Nan, why are you very sensitive, I am just mentioning the coincidences but not supporting those pipe-lines. You already know that I supported your policy of sanctions on SPDC. If you are not short sighted, you could still read the Burma Digest’s strong condemnation of TOTAL in recent issues. It is funny that those who play with fire and burnt sometimes blamed the fire. Recently one of the ASEAN PM complaint that their state owned oil company suffered some losses because of the sanctions in the host countries they operate. Then why did they foolishly decided to follow their greed to buy the shares of TOTAL and invested in Myanmar/Burma oil exploration? They should now redeem themselves by supporting the US, UK and EU led pressure on Myanmar Generals for the rapid democratization.

So there were a lot of travelers, migrants, victims of disasters and famine, war refugees and etc moving along the road and some of them settled in our Shwe Bama Village as we are located along their high way through out the history.

Dear Nan, do you now accept the concept that our village was and still is a highway from west Ko Kala’s village to Ko Ta Yoke’s village in the north. People from Northwest of Ko Kala’s village came to our village through Ko Ya Khine’s village. Since 500 BC Hindu Orrisa village colonists had migrated towards Southeast and settled in lower part of our Shwe Bama village. Later other migrant villagers from the Andhra Dynasty from Ko Kala’s village similarly migrated to our village in 180 BC. Some took the long march on land and then some had sailed here.

Even U Pyu, one of the three founding brothers of Shwe Bama village was believed to be mixture of three groups;

(i) one local inhabitant since Stone Age, Bronze Age and Iron Age,

(ii) another came from Ko Kala’s village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism along with their cultures and literatures successively

(iii) and the another group believed to came down from north, Tibeto-Burman group.

Daw Daw Mon was also rumoured to have two groups of ancestors:

(i) One came down from above like Daw Daw Shan,

(ii) and another from U Kala’s village tract , Orrisa village and Talingna village bringing in Hinduism and Buddhism to our land. Ko Ta Laings originated from the Talingana village of Ko Kala’s village tract and arrived to lower Shwe Bama village part, met and married with Daw Daw Mon’s children, who came down from Ko Yu Nan’s village, spreads through our village up to Ko Thai, Ko Laos and Ko Cam Bodia’s villages.

They give us the Buddhism arts, culture, literature etc. You see Nan, our Shwe Bama spoken language was from Tibeto-Burman family and there are a lot of similarities with Chinese spoken language. But our Shwe Bama writing language was from U Ka Lar’s village, Brami Script we took not from our native Daw Daw Mon but her cousin U Mon resided in U Thai Land’s village.

I am revealing this to you so that my dear Nan could accept our whole Shwe Bama villagers as the same family. Instead of dividing into numerous weak small countries we could even plan for the Future Federal Union of Burma working with ASEAN+++ formula, I proposed to you in my first letter sent together with my Valentine Music DVD.

Dear Nan, when I wrote in formal style, you complained that it was very dull, not attractive, you have to skip some lines and paragraphs, and you admitted that you even fell asleep before finishing my letter.

Now what? When Daw Khin Myo Chit wrote “The Heroes of Pagan” historians said she was playing with the history books like a child with a crayon. Now if you accuse me of attempting to imitate her, I would be glad and would felt honoured and reply with pride, “Thank you with my pleasure.” But I have to admit that my English could not even touch her toes’ level. And in the Story of Myanmar told in pictures by the famous historian Dr Than Tun, he had attempted to simplify the Burmese History.

Dear Nan, you have to understand me that I used to and need to quote the famous personalities frequently because I have an inferiority complex. I am afraid you would not be serious if I cannot support my words or the style of writing with the world accepted great persons’ works. I have to use them at least as an excuse for my deeds or words. You know I am just a graduate and were forced to waste my precious time with my business matters but you had already got two post graduate degrees, a Master and a PhD. So I hope my darling Nan is not sneering at my letter as a show off. Please kindly let me continue to enjoy with my false sense of grandeur by quoting those famous persons.

You see Nan, with the growing age and fading memory, I used to sway away from my primary target of answer your question.

The recent discovery of the Genetic DNA researchers’ claim of the finding of the Chinese to be migrated from Africa or “Out of Africa theory” may reveal the longer and winding trail of our great ancestors. From Africa to China and then continue to Burma. If we consider the origin of the Southern Indians from Africa and Arian Migration from the north or tall blue or brown eyed and fair people proved to be genetically related to east Europeans, some of our ancestors had endlessly marched quite a long distance.

Actually if I am allowed d to sum up the above: U Pyu, U Kan Yan and U Thet were my ancestors. Most of the U Kan Yan’s descendants stayed along Chin Dwin River and between Chindwin and Irrawady rivers. As I had stated above, few groups of villagers came down from northern Ko Yu Nan’s village, one of them went and established Daw Tibet’s village. One group went further west to Ko Ya Khines village and some went further into Ko Kala’s territory. One group stayed along our mother Irrawady and formed my ancestors. One group stayed in Ko Ka Chin’s village. Actually Ko Ka Yin, Daw Mon and almost all our ethnic brother villagers came down the same path.

Dear Nan, no wonder your great grandmother Daw Daw Shan was the elder sister of Ko Thai and Ko Laos’ great grandfathers. Because of the same language and culture you even cruelly planned to divorce me and go and marry with one of them. I know, I know, you just wanted to hurt me because you were angry with me and never really intended to do so.

Dear Nan, because of that, there are larger number of cousins of Ko Ka Chin , Ko Chin and Ko Na Ga in Ko Ti Bet’s village and Ko Kala’s village than in Shwe Bama village. And there are a lot more of Ko Ka Yin and Daw Mon’s relatives in Ko Thai, Ko Cam Bodia’s villages.

Dear Nan, it is too late tonight to continue my letter as you know, I need to wake up early to prepare to go and work intime.

Your loving hubby

(Ko Tin Nwe)


Migration history of Burma or Myanmar Ethnic Races

Migration history of 

 Burma or Myanmar

Ethnic Races 

Southeast Asia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India and north of Australia. The region lies on the intersection of geological plates, with heavy seismic and volcanic activity.

Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions: the Asian mainland, and island arcs and archipelagoes to the east and southeast. The mainland section consists of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam; the population of which are primarily Tai peoples and Austroasiatic peoples; the dominant religion is Buddhism, followed by Islam. The maritime section consists of Brunei, East Timor,[1] Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Singapore. Austronesian peoples predominate in this region; the dominant religion is Islam, followed by Christianity.

Southeast Asia frequently refers to the area consisting of the following, although in general and certain specific usage, the area it refers to can be narrower or broader.

  1.  Brunei
  2.  Cambodia
  3.  Indonesia
  4.  Laos
  5.  Malaysia
  6.  Myanmar
  7.  Philippines
  8.  Singapore
  9.  Thailand
  10.  East Timor
  11.  Vietnam

Ethnic groups

See also: Austronesian people, Chinese ethnic groups, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Filipino people, Malays (ethnic group), Negrito, Tai peoples, and Southeast Asian American

According to a recent Stanford genetic study, the Southeast Asian population is far from being homogeneous.

Although primarily descendants of Austronesian, Tai, and Mon-Khmer-speaking immigrants who migrated from Southern China during the Bronze Age and Iron Age, there are overlays of Arab, Chinese, Indian, European, Polynesian and Melanesian genes. The Philippines has Asia’s largest Eurasian (mixed ancestry), American and Amerasian population, and is continuously growing.

There are also large pockets of intermarriage between indigenous Southeast Asians and those of Chinese descent. They form a substantial part of everyday life in countries such as Thailand and the Philippines. Indonesia and Malaysia also has

Note: I am trying to rewrite the history of Myanmar/Burma.  Actually I had already done this indirectly in Burma Digest with the pseudonym, Bo Aung Din’s Compassionate letters to Nan, also known by some as Dear Nan letters. I hereby try to break those letters into separate articles representing the major ethnic races of Burma. Readers should read my Evolution of Myanmar Muslims (and excerpts, extracted from Wiki Talk Page- Burmese Indians, put in as comments) , Islam in Myanmar, Burmese Indians, Panthays, General Aung San’s Acceptance of migrants as brethrens, Persecution of Muslims in Myanmar together with comments.

Dear Nan,

Thank you for your surprised phone call early Sunday morning. It was not only a surprise for me; you were also surprised that I had already got out from bed early.  

Yes dear, only when you are away, I know more about your values and appreciate your daily house works which I am doing now. Actually I was surprised, because you had already read my latest letter that I just sent through Burma Digest this week.

But I was shocked when you told me that you still love me, but could not trust me fully yet! 

You want me to answer three questions.

Yes! three most important questions by a Shan woman for a Bama man to answer.

Dear Nan, you already knew that I am fond of reading and I had learned a lot from the fables and fairy tales since I was young.

I am used to various types of three wise questions and answers. Three tricky questions, three most important questions disguised in many forms from the numerous stories.

And I already knew the answers to your three most important questions and even wish to reply instantly on the phone, but you requested for an official written reply in black and white on paper.

1. What are the basic facts about the Human Rights? What is the “Role of Minorities in Democracy”? How do we protect the minorities’ rights from tyranny of majority.

2. What do “Good Governance” means? Describe the basic principles.

3. What is the origin of Shan, Ethnic Minorities and Burma? That is the history or roots of our ancestors.

Dear Nan, from your questions, I understand your untold hidden agenda to make a new deal, matrimonial or nuptial contract for our reunion. You wanted to make sure of my own concepts, understandings of our future reunion. I could understand your feelings of do not want to just follow the emotions to rush into a deal.

You are right Nan, you must know whether I really understand, respect and value your companion. Love only is not enough; we must have mutual respect, meaningful discourse in future disagreements and after all my understanding in Human Rights, tolerance on different opinions is important for others.

But don’t worry dear; Although I intend to start writing the answers to you as a serious official, history document, I now know that it will be very dull. So instead of answering your questions directly. I will try to switch to my lighter form of writing style to the answers for your question regarding the origin of Shan, Ethnic Minorities, Minority Religious groups, mixed blooded people, newest migrants and Burma or Myanmar history, may be rightly labled as the roots of our ancestors.

Dear darling,

Kindly allow me to answer using our village peoples’ migration format. It may be more appropriate and appeared informal as I am writing it to you, my love and my estranged wife.

Myanmar Childsoldiers need Your Honours! Dr Gambari and Prof. Pinherio

Myanmar Childsoldiers need Your Honours!

Dr Gambari and Prof. Pinherio

_By Dr San Oo Aung


Dear Dr Ibrahim Agboola Gambari and Prof. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro,

Please do not ignore the plights of our Child Soldiers. Please just do not look at the other side and pretend that you never seen or heard about us. Please may you two do not close one eye and just do the diplomatic works that you are assigned by United Nations.

Dear Dr Ibrahim Agboola Gambari, as you had studied at the Columbia University, New York and completed both of your M.A. and his Ph.D in International Relations, please do not be too diplomatic, soft, polite, smile and always follow the diplomatic protocol all the times in dealing with cunning SPDC Generals. You must be bold enough, decisive, and must show the tough generals that you are empowered with full authority given by UNSC and UNSG.

Dear Prof. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro, on 12 February 2003, even the United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan appointed you as the independent expert to lead a global study on violence against children, to provide an in-depth picture of the prevalence, nature and causes of violence against children.

So we hope that you are an expert and know all about The Convention on the Rights of the Child, which emphasizes children’s rights to physical and personal integrity, and outlines States parties obligations to protect them from “all forms of physical or mental violence”, including sexual and other forms of exploitation, abduction, armed conflict, and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Thousands of children are killed and wounded each year as a direct result of fighting while millions more suffer indirectly from malnutrition and disease, according to the report released on 17 October 2007, by the Special Representative of United Nations.

Despite troubling numbers regarding the tens of millions of children displaced and out of school because of conflicts, the report notes significant advancements made in the last 10 years to protect children from war crimes, unlawful recruitment and sexual violence. Among those advancements is the adoption of new international laws and standards to prevent the recruitment and use of children in armed conflicts.

“We have created the frameworks,” said your successor, Ms. Coomaraswamy. “Now it’s time for implementation.” . . . many believe their Governments do not do enough to honour or enforce the international agreements and conventions they have signed.

Ms. Johnson of UNICEF said progress had been made on legal instruments, but the reality on the ground still showed the need to use them more efficiently and to have a more rigorous response. She joined the other members of the panel in calling for more effective implementation of international standards and norms to end impunity for violations against children . . .

Please read all at

The report, by the Special Representative of the UN Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict and UNICEF, . . . notes that advances have been made in protecting children from war crimes such as unlawful recruitment by armed forces and groups and sexual violence. It also urges the international community to take concrete actions to stop abuses of children in armed conflict.

Over the past decade, conflict has impacted children more brutally than ever. They are victims of strikes against schools and of abductions aimed at forcing them to serve as combatants, sex slaves or servants. And in conflict zones their vulnerability is often greatly increased because violence claims their first line of defense – their parents.

“Threats to children caught in conflict are increasing,” said UNICEF Executive Director Ann M. Veneman. “They are no longer just caught in the crossfire. They are increasingly the intended targets of violence, abuse and exploitation, victims of myriad armed groups that prey on civilians.” But the damage that war wreaks on children’s lives is not limited to attacks by combatants. Malnutrition, disease, displacement and poverty also threaten them.

The report urges all UN member states to fulfill their responsibilities to children, by providing them with access to basic services like education, health, nutrition, water and sanitation. “The needs of children must be prioritized before, during and after conflict. They must be part of all peace-making and peace-building processes,” said Ms. Coomaraswamy.

Other key recommendations include a call to end impunity for those responsible for heinous crimes against children. This means ensuring prosecution of war crimes and adherence to relevant international norms, many of which have been established since the original Machel study was published.

Ten years ago, the original landmark Machel study alerted the world to the brutal realities faced by children recruited by armed groups and on the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war.

Some important achievements in this regard are:

  1. the first prosecutions by international tribunals,

  2. the commitment of the Security Council (a) to monitor and (b) address the issues and

  3. the adoption of new international laws and standards.

These include:

  1. Optional Protocol of the Convention of the Rights of the Child on the Involvement of Children in Armed Conflict and

  2. the Paris Principles

to prevent the unlawful recruitment and use of children.

However helping children recover from the trauma caused by their experiences and ensuring their long term reintegration into their communities remains a considerable challenge.

We hope that two of you are aware of this recent press release by UN on, MYANMAR: Press Conference of the Special Representative –

Since March 2007, Myanmar has been put on the agenda of the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict. That means that we have to set up a monitoring and reporting mechanism in the country to monitor grave violations against children in armed conflict.

These violations are:

1. Killing or maiming of children;

2. Recruiting or using child soldiers;

3. Attacks against schools or hospitals;

4. Rape or other grave sexual violence against children;

5. Abduction of children;

6. Denial of humanitarian access for children.

You could revised the above in full at_

The UN Special Representative on Children and Armed Conflict, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, concluded her five day visit to Myanmar within the framework of Security Council Resolution 1612 (2005), monitoring the six grave violations committed against children during conflict. The report of the Secretary General on the situation of Children and Armed Conflict in Myanmar will be examined by the Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict in November 2007.

But when Asahi Shimbun asked: “You are not connected, but will Mr. Gambari be coming here?”

Ms. Radhika Coomarasamy, who assumed the position of Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Children and Armed Conflict answered: “Mr. Gambari has the far more difficult task of dealing with the political issues. I have to deal with children and on children, most people like to cooperate.”

Yomiuri Shimbun: “Did the authorities explain to you about the political developments and the seven step road map, National Convention…?”

SRSG: “No, we did not discuss any political…they did not discuss the political arrangements with me.”

So two of you should not fail to question and press the Myanmar Military Government on this important Child soldiers issues. You two should also discuss about this issue when you two meet the members of the civil society and children affected by conflict and try to ensure greater protection for the child soldiers.

We hope that two of you thoroughly know, The Committee on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by its State parties. It also monitors implementation of two optional protocols to the Convention, on involvement of children in armed conflict and on sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography.

Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflict, adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution A/RES/54/263 of 25 May 2000 and entry into force 12 February 2002 , has clearly stated the followings:

  1. Disturbed by the harmful and widespread impact of armed conflict on children and the long-term consequences it has for durable peace, security and development,

  2. Condemning the targeting of children in situations of armed conflict and direct attacks on objects protected under international law, including places that generally have a significant presence of children, such as schools and hospitals,

  3. Noting the adoption of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, in particular, the inclusion therein as a war crime, of conscripting or enlisting children under the age of 15 years or using them to participate actively in hostilities in both international and non-international armed conflicts.

  4. Noting that article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child specifies that, for the purposes of that Convention, a child means every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier,

  5. Convinced that an optional protocol to the Convention that raises the age of possible recruitment of persons into armed forces and their participation in hostilities will contribute effectively to the implementation of the principle that the best interests of the child are to be a primary consideration in all actions concerning children,

  6. Noting that the twenty-sixth International Conference of the Red Cross and Red Crescent in December 1995 recommended, inter alia, that parties to conflict take every feasible step to ensure that children below the age of 18 years do not take part in hostilities,

  7. Welcoming the unanimous adoption, in June 1999, of International Labour Organization Convention No. 182 on the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, which prohibits, inter alia, forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict,

  8. Condemning with the gravest concern the recruitment, training and use within and across national borders of children in hostilities by armed groups distinct from the armed forces of a State, and recognizing the responsibility of those who recruit, train and use children in this regard,

  9. Recalling the obligation of each party to an armed conflict to abide by the provisions of international humanitarian law,

  10. Mindful of the necessity of taking into consideration the economic, social and political root causes of the involvement of children in armed conflicts,

  11. Convinced of the need to strengthen international cooperation in the implementation of the present Protocol, as well as the physical and psychosocial rehabilitation and social reintegration of children who are victims of armed conflict.

Article 1

States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that members of their armed forces who have not attained the age of 18 years do not take a direct part in hostilities.

Article 2

States Parties shall ensure that persons who have not attained the age of 18 years are not compulsorily recruited into their armed forces.

Article 3

1. States Parties shall raise in years the minimum age for the voluntary recruitment of persons into their national armed forces from that set out in article 38, paragraph 3, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, taking account of the principles contained in that article and recognizing that under the Convention persons under the age of 18 years are entitled to special protection.

2. Each State Party shall deposit a binding declaration upon ratification of or accession to the present Protocol that sets forth the minimum age at which it will permit voluntary recruitment into its national armed forces and a description of the safeguards it has adopted to ensure that such recruitment is not forced or coerced.

3. States Parties that permit voluntary recruitment into their national armed forces under the age of 18 years shall maintain safeguards to ensure, as a minimum, that:

(a) Such recruitment is genuinely voluntary;

(b) Such recruitment is carried out with the informed consent of the person’s parents or legal guardians;

(c) Such persons are fully informed of the duties involved in such military service;

(d) Such persons provide reliable proof of age prior to acceptance into national military service.

Article 6

3. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons within their jurisdiction recruited or used in hostilities contrary to the present Protocol are demobilized or otherwise released from service. States Parties shall, when necessary, accord to such persons all appropriate assistance for their physical and psychological recovery and their social reintegration.

Article 7

1. States Parties shall cooperate in the implementation of the present Protocol, including in the prevention of any activity contrary thereto and in the rehabilitation and social reintegration of persons who are victims of acts contrary thereto, including through technical cooperation and financial assistance. Such assistance and cooperation will be undertaken in consultation with the States Parties concerned and the relevant international organizations.

2. States Parties in a position to do so shall provide such assistance through existing multilateral, bilateral or other programmes or, inter alia, through a voluntary fund established in accordance with the rules of the General Assembly.

According to Amnesty International, 300,000 children under the age of eighteen are currently participating in armed conflicts in more than thirty different countries on nearly every continent.

Myanmar is unique in the region, as the only country where government armed forces forcibly recruit and use children between the ages of 12 and 18. (Amnesty International)

While most child soldiers are in their teens, some are as young as seven years old. Children have been used as spies, as spotters, observers, message-carriers, and even as human shields, servants or to lay or clear landmines.

1. Children are uniquely vulnerable to military recruitment because of their emotional and physical immaturity. They are easily manipulated and can be drawn into violence that they are too young to resist or understand.

2. Technological advances in weaponry and the proliferation of small arms have contributed to the increased use of child soldiers. Lightweight automatic weapons are simple to operate, often easily accessible, and can be used by children as easily as adults.

3. Children are most likely to become child soldiers if _

a. they are poor,

b. separated from their families,

c. displaced from their homes,

d. living in a combat zone or

e. have limited access to education.

f. Orphans and

g. refugees are particularly vulnerable to recruitment.

4. Many children join armed groups because of_

a. economic or

b. social pressure, or because

c. children believe that the group will offer food or security.

d. Others are forcibly recruited, “press-ganged” or

e. abducted by armed groups.

“Myanmar army preys on children;

using threats, intimidation and often violence to force young boys to become soldiers. To be a boy in Myanmar today means facing the constant risk of being picked up off the street, forced to commit atrocities against villagers, and never seeing your family again,”….. Jo Becker Advocacy Director of the Children’s Rights Division at Human Rights Watch.

“Myanmar has the largest number of child soldiers in the world and the number is growing”, Human Rights Watch said, “The overwhelming majority of Myanmar child soldiers are found in the national army, which forcibly recruits children as young as 11, although armed opposition groups use child soldiers as well.”

See (

Throughout Myanmar, children as young as eleven are being forcibly recruited into Myanma Tatmadaw. Whether with or without their parents’ knowledge or consent, they are sent to military training camps where they are routinely beaten, and brutally punished if they try to escape.

See (

“Myanmar has a poor human rights record, but its record on child soldiers is the worst in the world,” said Jo Becker, advocacy director of the Children’s Rights Division at Human Rights Watch.

According to the accounts of former soldiers interviewed by Human Rights Watch, 20 percent or more of Myanmar Tatmadaw’s 400,000 active duty soldiers may be children under the age of 18. There may be as many as 70,000 soldiers under the age of 18 in Myanmar Amy.

The 220-page report, “My Gun was as Tall as Me: Child Soldiers in Burma,” is the most comprehensive study of child soldiers in Myanmar. Drawing on interviews with more than three dozen current and former child soldiers.

Recruiters for Myanmar army_

  1. frequently apprehend boys at train and bus stations, markets and other public places,

  2. threatening them with jail if they refuse to join the army.

  3. The boys are given no opportunity to contact their families, and

  4. are sent to camps

  5. where they undergo weapons training,

  6. are routinely beaten,

  7. and brutally punished if they try to escape.

Human Rights Watch received several accounts of boys who were beaten to death after trying to run away.

Once deployed, boys as young as 12 _

  1. engage in combat against opposition groups,

  2. and are forced to commit human rights abuses against civilians,

  3. including rounding up villagers for forced labor,

  4. burning villages,

  5. and carrying out executions.

Human Rights Watch interviewed two boys, ages 13 and 15 at the time, who belonged to units that massacred a group of 15 women and children in Shan State in early 2001.

To counter their reluctance, the children are dulled by forcing them to commit brutalities and to take drugs like marijuana, amphetamines and “brown-brown” that inhibit guilt and fear.

Propaganda, revenge and fear of being left alone influence children to “voluntarily” stay in the army. Children have been both participants in and victims of atrocities.

Often recruited or abducted to join armies, many of these children some younger than 10 years old – have witnessed or taken part in acts of unbelievable violence, often against their own families or communities. Such children are exposed to the worst dangers and the most horrible suffering, both psychological and physical. What is more, they are easily manipulated and encouraged to commit grievous acts, which they are often unable to comprehend.

Children who are used as soldiers are robbed of their childhood and are often subjected to extreme brutality.

Physically vulnerable and easily intimidated, children typically make obedient soldiers.

1. Many are abducted or

2. recruited by force,

3. and often compelled to follow orders under threat of death.

4. Others join armed groups out of desperation.

5. As society breaks down during conflict,

6. leaving children no access to school,

7. driving them from their homes,

8. or separating them from family members,

9. many children perceive armed groups as their best chance for survival.

10. Others seek escape from poverty

11. or join military forces to avenge family members who have been killed.

The government of Myanmar continues to recruit large numbers of children into its army, many by force, despite its promises to stop this internationally-condemned practice, says a new report issued by Human Rights Education Institute of Burma (HREIB).

HREIB researchers conducted extensive interviews with more than 50 child recruits who fled to the Thai border for its report,

“Despite Promises: Child Soldiers in Myanmar Armed Forces.

Most of the children said they were coerced and deceived to join the army and suffer its horrible conditions in training camps and dangers of injury and death on the battlefield fighting insurgents.

Other children said they joined the military because of economic hardships and social pressures, conditions that make children in Burma easy targets for government recruiters.

The HREIB interviews show that child recruitment continues at an alarming rate even after the government, under international pressure, created a high-level committee that promised to handle the problem.

The “Committee for Prevention of Military Recruitment of Under-age Children” was formed in January 2004 after the U.N. Secretary-General reported to the U.N. Security Council that Myanmar was violating international laws prohibiting the recruitment and use of children as soldiers.

“This committee has done little to protect children from being recruited into the military,” says Aung Myo Min, the director of HREIB and the lead author of the new report.

“Neither does the committee take any serious action on complaints from family members of children currently serving in the armed forces.”

“By continuing to use and recruit children into the army and by failing to demobilize child combatants, the SPDC is in violation of the United Nations’ Convention on the Rights of the Child,” he says.

HREIB calls on the SPDC government to immediately carry out its stated policy of prohibiting the recruitment of children and to punish those who violate this policy.

The SPDC government must play a central role in disarming, demobilizing, and rehabilitating former child soldiers and should invite assistance from international humanitarian organizations for the effort. In 2002 the SPDC claimed that the army was comprised entirely of volunteers aged eighteen and older. In May 2002, the Permanent Mission of the Union of Myanmar to the UN stated that: “the Government prohibits the enlisting of recruits under the lawful age [of 18 years]. The under age are not allowed to apply for recruitment. Action is taken on any infringement of the Regulation under the Defence Services Act.”

In January 2003, The Washington Post conducted an investigation along the Thai-Burma border and interviewed several former soldiers recruited as children. Reports emerged of children being kidnapped by soldiers while on their way home from school, at ports, bus terminals, and train stations.

In June 2003, the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions (ICFTU) reported recruitment of children as young as eleven or twelve, based on eyewitness accounts by refugees in Northern Thailand.

The Human Rights Watch in 2002. reported that the new recruits were typically sent to one of two large recruitment holding centres near Yangon and Mandalay.

Reports by former soldiers sent to the centres over the past four years indicated that approximately 35 to 45 per cent of new recruits were under the age of eighteen and 15 to 20 per cent were under the age of fifteen.

The youngest recruits were between eleven and thirteen.

Demobilization and child protection programs

There were no disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programs available for child soldiers in Myanmar or neighbouring countries. Children suspected of desertion were

  1. subjected to beatings,

  2. long prison terms,

  3. forced re-recruitment, or in some cases,

  4. summary

  5. execution.


1. The UN Security Council should treat the continued recruitment and use of child soldiers in Myanmar as a matter of high priority; and should consider taking appropriate steps to ensure that such recruitment and use is halted.

2. The Myanmar government should take immediate steps to end the forced and voluntary recruitment of children into the armed forces.

3. The government should permit either UN observers, or independent human rights monitors to visit Myanmar and observe recruitment practices within the armed forces.

4. The government should begin a dialogue with UNICEF and other appropriate UN agencies to establish DDR programs for child soldiers from both government and opposition forces.

5. DDR programs should take into account the specific needs of girls, former child soldiers who have attained the age of majority, and other vulnerable youth.

6. The government should ratify the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on children in armed conflict and declare a commitment to a “straight-18” standard for recruitment.

7. In cooperation with the ICRC, UNICEF, and nongovernmental organizations, conduct trainings in international humanitarian law and the rights of children for all soldiers, including officers and recruiters.

8. Educational programs and vocational training, and encourage children and their families to utilize such opportunities. Nongovernmental Organizations must support vocational and educational programs, particularly along border areas, including accelerated educational programs for displaced children, child soldiers, and others who missed out on a primary education or whose education has been interrupted.

9. Provide counseling and other assistance to help rehabilitate and reintegrate former child soldiers.

10. Encourage opposition groups and the SPDC not to recruit children under the age of eighteen.

11. Need to debrief them, as they are usually brain washed to regard all non-burman ethnics as enemies.

12. We all need to regard any child soldier running away from border posts into neighbouring countries as refugees, not as deserters. International community, NGOs and UNSG must pressure or order the UNHCR to accept this basic concept.

13. UNHCR must provide a safe heaven for them. 14. UNHCR must work with WHO, UNICEF and NGOs to rehabilitate and resettle them.

15. UNHCR must work with WHO, UNICEF and NGOs to re-educate them.

16. As the SPDC had ignored the dozens of UNGA resolutions and Human Rights reports of various authorities, UNSC must vote to pressure SPDC to stop using child soldiers.

So, we hereby strongly requested to Dr Ibrahim Agboola Gambari and Prof. Paulo Sérgio Pinheiro not to ignore our Child Soldier issue, to investigate and highlight the plights of the Myanmar Child Soldiers while performing your primary duties assigned by the UN, in Myanmar.

Thanking Your Honours,

Yours Humbly,


(Dr San Oo Aung)

On behalf of Child Soldiers

Myanmar Tatmadaw


Burmese Animal Farm, part 3 (in Burmese)


Kyaw Aung said _

               Not bad!