What’s up UNHCR?

What’s up UNHCR?

We could not blame Christian dominant UNHCR and the donor western Christian countries for failing to assist non – Christian people of Burma/Myanmar with full enthusiasm when all the Muslim countries and Buddhist countries failed to even lift a finger to help Burmese/Myanmar refugees and people.

One Rohingya named, Altaff is a handicapped person. He suffered from ?Motor Neurone disease while staying here in Malaysia. UNHCR/NGO white lady doctor told him mercilessly that he could not be cured for life and WRONGLY accused him as hereditary disease.

One of those white ladies refused to help a Burmese refugee with blood in the urine, but the worse part is, she shouted rudely that he is not going to die tomorrow, does not need the urgent help. But that poor refugee was admitted to a government hospital next day on his own and sadly passed away within few days.

And another Burmese Buddhist lady with Toxic Multinodular goitre, with the proof of blood and ultrasound results, was told by the RUDE WHITE LADY DOCTOR from UNHCR that she could not die the next day or next month. She could even wait for a year and given the medicines and sent back.

The patient throw away the UNHCR afflated NGO Clinic medicine, went to the private hospital, the specialist look at the obvious MNG, glanced at the blood, Ultrasound reports and decided immediately but correctly that she needed operation. But as the prices are high, she went to the government hospital, seen a professor/specialist, done further tests and given her date for operation.

We later heard the rumours that UNHCR and those doctors were taught by some refugees the ways of how to scold the refugees and how to use delaying tactics to get under-table “donations”.

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 1 (in Burmese)


Aung Myint Kyi said _

I like your idea because we do not need to mention violence or non – violence which  one is better when we perform for democracy in Burma . Thank you for reminding all revolutionist so that  they can make less mistake. I agree that pre-thinking is the best for future.

Thiha said _

I’d like to suggest that to all revolutionist. There’s not important to WHO’S RIGHT but WHAT’S RIGHT.
Then we could get what we should do. Even we’re different race or religion but that’s doesn’t matter what we are. We should realize that what we are looking for. Our GOAL’S TOO.  We’re only ONE NATION. We shouldn’t compare to each other but compare to Internationally. Nowdays our nation’s very poor in the region. That’s nobody can deny. Please think about what we should do, please don’t think about what I can do. I agree that pre-thinking is the best for future.

Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 2 (in Burmese)


Ko said _

               That is the best idea.

Thiha said _

I’m thank U to BURMA DIGEST Organization for our younger generation can know about our country’s past. Then we couldn’t mistake twice and shouldn’t again as well.


Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 3 (IN BURMESE)

Disheartening views of Mr Paolo Sergio Pinheiro

Disheartening views of Mr Paolo Sergio Pinheiro

In Burma, UN Envoy Sees Saffron But

No Revolution, No Kiev in Myanmar

Byline: Matthew Russell Lee of Inner City Press at the UN: News Analysis

UNITED NATIONS, October 24 — “It’s saffron, but not a revolution,” the UN human rights envoy to Burma, Paolo Sergio Pinheiro, told Inner City Press on Wednesday. Mr. Pinheiro said Yangon “is not Kiev, and its not East Berlin… there will be no Orange Revolution.” Triggering Pinheiro’s six-minute explanation was Inner City Press’ request for clarification of Pinheiro’s quote to Portuguese news agency Lusa, that “I would not qualify the protests as a popular uprising and I see no possibility that they will precipitate a change of regime.” Video here, (note: if cannot get a redirection to the UN webcast, please click below at Read more place and or go to http://www.innercitypress.com/pinheiro102407.html to see the video)  from Minute 11:28.

Other reporters reviewed Pinheiro’s candor as rare at the UN; some thought it inappropriate that a UN expert would say that protesters being clubbed in the street then arrested have no chance of bringing about change.


Read more




We are all Burmese in our heart

We are all Burmese in our heart


I hope that you and some of the Burmese Digest readers could recalled my name in association with my best friend Ko Tin New (Bo Aung Din). He had mentioned a few times about me in his a dozen Compassionate letters to Nan. As he had mentioned, my grandfather was a Burmese Muslim and married to a pure Burmese girl, Ko Tin Nwe’s grand Aunt that is the sister of Ko Tin Nwe’s grandfather. As he had mentioned, she was disowned by her father because she married a so called a ‘Kala’.

Actually the ‘Kala’ she married was the Burmese Muslim, the son of the royal body guard of Nyaung Yan Prince. Yes! I am not bluffing. His family was famous for the loyalty and braveness and was descendents of Afghanistan warriors at first came to Burma as mercenaries. And they were already regarded as loyal subjects of the Burmese kings or in other words Burmese Citizens. They are completely burmanized except for their religion. They loved to be called Burmese Muslims and successive Burmese Kings had already recognized them as Burmese Muslims and as their loyal subjects/citizens and even given them the relevant lands designated with their jobs.

In old royal capital Mandalay, we could still see the two ‘A Myauk Tans’ meaning Cannon or large artillery men’s quarters. ‘Myin Win’ horse-men’s quarters, ‘Sin Kywone’ meaning Elephant keepers, ‘Ko Yan Daw Win’ meaning Royal Body Guards’ quarters etc still fully occupied by their descendents Burmese Muslims with respectively named Mosques. As Ko Tin Nwe wrote, Oh Bo Mosque was donated by King Mindon, all the teak pillars were meant for the Royal Palace but those that could not go into their respected holes in time according to the astrologers were discarded and donated to build the Mosque. Chinese Muslim Mosque’s land was also donated by King Mindon and he also donated the hostel in Mecca for his Burmese Muslim subjects.

Mandalay was founded on Monday, the 23rd May 1859. But King Mindôn passed away on the 1st of October 1878 at the age of sixty-four. King Thibaw (1878-1885) took the throne illegally or by a palace coup. It was near the end of King Mindôn’s illness, which lasted about two months that, the Alaè-nandaw Queen plotted the maneuverings to make Thibaw Prince to get the throne. She was the daughter of King Bagyidaw (1819-1837), by his Chief Queen. She became very powerful after the death of the Chief Queen Nanmadawpaya in November 1876.  The rightful Heir-Apparent, the Kanaung Prince was murdered in the rebellion of 1866.

King Mindôn was undecided and hesitated to choose a new successor but put three of the best trusted and elderly Princes as Regents viz: Mekkhara, the Thônzè and the Nyaung Yan Princes.

Alè-nandaw Queen tried successfully to block them from becoming Eing shae min or Crown Prince. She plotted with palace officials to place Prince Thibaw on the throne, her second daughter Supayalat’s lover.

She practically isolated King Mindôn and give orders, as if it were by the King’s orders. The

Princes were summoned to the Palace and arrested. The princes Nyaung Ok and the Nyaung Yan managed to escape. They run into the French ‘Embassy’, now No 10th. State High School or formerly known as Than Dae’ School. His bodyguards including my great grandfather escaped into lower Burma and some of them settled in Taungoo.

King Mindon learned about the plot and ordered the Princes to be released. Kin Wun Mingyi and the Supreme Court (Hlut-daw) were persuaded to believe that King Mindôn’s wished to appoint Prince Thibaw as an Eing shae min and to marry Supayalat. Other Princes were re-arrested. When King Mindôn passed away, just after the funeral, young inexperience and naive Prince Thibaw was proclaimed King. He was the son of the almost unknown or least powerful Laungshe Queen. The Salin Princess, eldest daughter of Mindôn Min, who was the Princess reserved according to an old custom, to be the Queen of the next King, became a nun. Thibaw married the two sisters Supayagyi and Supayalat. The elder, Supayagyi, should be the chief queen, but Supayalat forced her to live a life of retirement in the Palace.

On February 1879, the interned Princes, together with some Princesses, a Queen and some notables, altogether over 70 persons, were murdered. Another greater massacre took place in 1884. About 300 remaining members of the Royal Family, who had escaped in 1879, were cruelly butchered.

So my great grand father luckily escaped the massacres. His daughter-in-law, pure Burmese lady who converted to Islam and was disowned by her family for the crime of marrying a ‘Kala’ was widowed soon and was very poor but she managed to give all of her children good education. Eldest son became a famous Head Master and he is my father. And she was very proud to see, before she departed, that more than two dozens of her grandchildren got the university degrees including many doctors and engineers. The rest is history.

But now only Myanmar Military rulers are labeling us as guest citizens, ‘Kala’ or mixed blooded persons or not pure citizens. That, however, could not make us, or people like us, to become non Burmese Citizens. We are Burmese citizens no matter how some might disagree, or wish otherwise or decreed by force. Whether mixed blooded or not is not important in the eyes of the whole world but SPDC could not deny our right of 100% pure Burmese citizenship!

We, and all the other persons like us, not just those Indians, Chinese, Bengalis or Pakistanis although we are undeniably mixed blooded immigrants’ children or descendants of immigrants, but we are now full Burmese Citizens. No matter what some like SPDC racists or their cohorts might say contrary.

Our great grand parents and all the ancestors were loyal citizens of Burma and all of them were and are holding the Burmese National Registration Cards or ‘Ah Myo Thar Mhat Pone Tin Cards’. My brothers and sisters’ family members are holding those Burmese National Registration Cards but now the SPDC Apartheid Régime had ordered to issue the differently formatted cards for their younger children. It is curious when the parents and elder brothers and sisters are the same citizens as our Burmese Buddhists at least on paper but now only their youngest children are blatantly or brazenly discriminated as different from others and their own elder siblings.

This racial discrimination is practiced on not only Muslims but on Chinese and Hindis. SPDC National Registration officers decreed that if any one is not pure Burmese Buddhist, could not claim to be pure blood and all the Burmese Muslims must be recorded as mixed blooded persons. Whether correct or not, know or not, must be enlisted as mixed blooded Indian, Pakistan or Bengali. So it is blatant Racial Discrimination or openly practicing Apartheid practice of SPDC Junta.

My nephews and nieces are forced to begin their journey of life differently from their elder siblings and face the reality of the unfair world.  We believe that no one has that right to practice the issuing of Apartheid certificate or new type of Registration different from other citizens to us. By doing so, SPDC is clearly starting to commit a Genocide offence.

Our children are entitled to their dreams and should not encounter any disappointments even before they started their tender lives. We wonder how that single document would change their dreams or what would be their vision of their world or Myanmar excluding them or shutting out all of them from all the opportunities. It is our children’s turning points of their lives. SPDC ruthlessly had shown them who they are, why and how they are not welcomed in Burma/Myanmar. Most importantly, SPDC have shown our children a real rejection. In waking to this realization, we suddenly understand that SPDC have already failed all our children’s future. As our children journey into an uncertain future, they will struggle and grapple with their sense of their rightful place in this Myanmar nation.

The constant emphasis on differences by the narrow minded SPDC apartheid racists who could not see value in these children prevent them from being seen, seeing themselves, as anything other than Burmese Citizens. And so SPDC Junta’s dancing with shadows continues, to their pied-piper song of unity and integration in single race and religion, to the beat of their war drums, changing Burma into a Myanmar world of so much bigotry and hatred. Our young children’s every early moments would be yet under another hammer blow, tempering or compromising their fantastic visions into listless and endless compromise under SPDC and cohorts.

Our country’s diversity makes us who we are and what we are today, that cannot be emphasized enough. And though we Burmese Muslims may each resonate differently, harmonizing only at some points in time and never universally, that is we are completely burmanized culturally but differ in religion only but I am sure when we dream we dream as Burmese only because we know Burmese, we love Burmese, and Burmese only is in our heart and mind.

Successive Burmese Kings had accepted us as their loyal subjects or citizens, after Independence U Nu’s government had accepted us. And General Aung San had even promised us: “I want to address the Indians and Chinese residing in this country. We have no bitterness, no ill will for them, or for that matter for any race and nationality in the world. If they choose to join us, we will welcome them as our own brethren. The welfare of all people of this country irrespective of race or religion has always been the one purpose that I have set out to fulfill. In fact it is my life’s mission.”

But sadly those illegitimate illegal SPDC Régime is practicing Apartheid committing the Genocide on all of us. 

I could guarantee to all of our Burmese friends that we are all Burmese in our heart and we have no intention or imagination to even support the foreign countries believed to be the homeland of our ancient ancestors even if Burma is at war with them!

Please give back our children at least a chance to dream. Please do not shut off their future.

Ko Tin Maung


Thein said _

SPDC blocks  the knowledge of our generation. So better sent this history to the whole Myanmar people.

Myanmar Refugee/Migrant pilot Project Proposal I

Proposal to set up

 Myanmar Refugee/Migrant pilot Project

as A test case to settle  I







  1. Summary

  2. Diaspora

  3. Traditional ineffective process

  4. Analysis of problems arising from present system

  5. Almost impossible to improve Burma/Myanmar’s political situation

  6. Our proposal

  7. Possible benefits to all parties




A.  Summary



To solve the Burmese/Myanmar refugee problem, and illegal or undocumented labour problem, as well as to solve similar refugee problems around the world, UNHCR, UN and Host Governments should look at this problem from an out-of-the-box, unorthodox angle.


  1. Request UNHCR to issue Certificate of Identity in lieu of International Passports for all refugees all over the world, and in particular, to start this pilot project with Burmese Refugees and Burmese illegal immigrants without much differentiation or discrimination whether they are political or economic migrants.

  2. UNHCR should open vocational training and language training centres according to the demand for manpower.

  3. UNHCR should form a manpower training, management and supply company and negotiate with multinational companies and countries around the world to which to ultimately export this trained manpower.




B.  Diaspora 


This is the recently popularised word describing the phenomenon of dispersal of people, to describe the basic process, pattern, cause and effects of migrations of people. 


The dispersed people may be categorised as follows: 


1.      Professional and investor migration


2.      Documented labour migration


3.      Refugees and asylum seekers


4.      Undocumented or illegal immigrants


5.      Various economic migrants 


According to the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, “a refugee is a person, who owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality, and is unable to or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country”.  


However, none of Burma’s immediate neighbours are parties to the (1951 Refugee) Convention, nor have they ever officially recognized the refugees.  


In addition, this definition even fails to include the internally displaced persons. 


It is very difficult to clearly differentiate the real refugees from the so-called economic migrants.  There is a very thin and faint line between these two categories.  


With the present situation in Burma, we have to think whether we really can or need to clearly differentiate them.  We should consider and see this from a holistic viewpoint, not only in Burma but also in other countries where similar widespread socio-economic problems originated in political conditions which are difficult to resolve.  



C.  Traditional INEFFECTIVE process


1.      Asylum seekers are put into refugee camps that are managed by host governments and UNHCR.


2.     After a long wait for the interviews and some investigations, the refugees are issued with Refugee certificates.

3.    The authorities search for third countries in which to send and settle the refugees.  These countries are only willing to accept a limit ed number of refugees. 


4.      In cases where the present refugees entered illegally, request the host country to convert them into a legal work force.


5.      Repatriate or re-settle refugees back int o their country of origin, after prolonged negotiations or after the conflict has been controlled.  Continuously support and monitor their conditions there. 


(a) These measures help part of the problems but are very slow and time-consuming, which result in  frustration and anger from the refugees as well as from the host countries. 


        We should not forget that the Palestinians are still in the UNHCR camps after 50 long years and although UNHCR had to spend a lot of money, the condition of the refugees in those camps is deplorable.  Burmese refugee camps near the Thai-Burma and Bangladesh-Burma borders are in worse conditions and refugees are not happy with their status. 

(b)   UNHCR is slow to accept, register, interview and process applicants for settlement in third countries. 


(c)   Host countries are reluctant to allow the UNHCR protected persons to stay and work freely in their countries before resettlement in a third country, for the following reasons: 


i.                     They fear that those UNHCR card-holders would permanently stay in the host country.


ii.                   Thei r citizens, especially the Labour Unions, are against allowing the illegals or refugees to work in their country.  They would not be able to compete with the refugees who are willing to do 3D jobs with low salaries. 


(d)   In Malaysia, Thailand and Burma’s western neighbour countries, UNHCR has stopped new registrations at the present time.  


(e)   Without the UNHCR Card, Malaysian government enforcement agencies refuse to recognize the refugee status of the refugees and arrest them as illegal immigrants.  Presently, the Malaysian government accepts the UNHCR Cards but they could change their acceptance criteria later, once UNHCR freely issues them without follow-up programmes to quickly resettle the refugees in third countries.  The Dilemma now is that the Malaysian authorities are willing to accept UNHCR registration but UNHCR has stopped all new registrations.  UNHCR seems to have problems getting third countries that are willing to accept refugees and grant them full rights. 


(f)    There are about one million refugees, asylum seekers and illegal workers in


        Burma’s neighbouring countries and elsewhere:


·        In Malaysia, 15,000 Rohingyas, 5,000 Chins and 20,000 Burmese Muslims


·        In Thailand, 400,000 Shans, Mons, and Karens


·        In Bangladesh, 120,000 – 220,000 Rohingyas and other races


·        In India, 50,000 Chins and other races


·        There are a lot of illegal immigrants from Burma around the world, e.g. Japan, Korea, Taiwan, USA, Australia, Europe and also in the abovementioned neighbours. Host governments do not seem very eager to settle the refugee problems so that they could continue putting pressure on the origin or source country.  Arabs seem to keep the Palestinians as refugees to put pressure on Israel and to leverage world opinion.  (This is only my personal view and even if it is right, there  are many people who agree with that idea.)



        Ethnic and religious links seem to play little or no part in the negotiations when considering the re-settlement of Burmese refugees.   Refugees like the Burma’s Shans in Thailand (who are known as Thai Yai, meaning Big T hai) are likewise cold-shouldered by the hosts.  Thais do not wish to keep their ethnically similar Buddhist brothers, Shans, Mons and Karens. (There are Buddhist and Christian Karens.)  Some historians have commented that Thais seem to have a hidden agenda in keeping their cousins, some of whom are rebels, as a buffer against their strong Burmese enemy.  This has been going on for few centuries. 


        Chins in India are related to the Mizorams and Rohingyas (who are closely related to Chittagonians) in Bangladesh, and Burmese Muslims in Malaysia also are facing the same problems with their ethnic and religious “brothers”. 


(g)   Because of all these problems, it was no wonder that at the meeting organized  among Altsean-Burma, Burma Border Consortium, Burma Issues, Forum Asia, Jesuit Refugee Service and Non-Violence International, which coincided with the visit to Pang Tractor refugee camp in Maehongson by Rev Jesse Jackson, the scathing remarks of Sunai Phasuk from The Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (better known as Forum Asia) were made: 


“UN High Commissioner on Refugees is doing little to protect its charges.”  


Dr Mark Tamthai of Thailand’s National Security Council (NSC) supported Sunai Phasuk’s attack. 


        Ms Kirsten Young from the UNHCR’s Bangkok regional office lamely replied that “refugee protection is mainly state responsibility.”  



D.       analysis of Problems arising from the pr esent system 


1.     UNHCR has to take time for the interviews and to undertake investigations to certify that the person is a real refugee or a person of concern.  It is not easy to differentiate the real refugees from economic migrants.  As almost the whole population of Burma is suffering under the cruel, autocratic Junta, we hope it is not necessary to differentiate between these two categories because the line between them is very thin.  If we do away with this differentiation, the resettlement process will be faster.  We all know that it would open the floodgates and tremendously increase the exodus of the people from Burma.  I will give my views and answer later in this proposal. 


2.     UNHCR has to search for a third party/country which is willing to accept asylum seekers as full-fledged refugees with all the rights including their welfare and citizenship etc. 


3.     Host countries are not happy if UNHCR just issues a lot of certificates but fail to follow up with quick repatriation of all the refugees to a third country.  They are worried that those UNHCR recognized refugees would stay on indefinitely in their country and they would ultimately have to accept their offspring and descendents as their citizens.  Before that, there may also be a lot of social, political, economic problems arising from the refugees.  To highlight a few: competing in the labour market with locals, intermarriage with locals, burden on locals’ health, housing, and infrastructure, and some increase in criminal activities. 


4.    4.   Refugees are not happy with the almost endless delays for each and every step of the above process.  They are angry and frustrated with the constant “harassments” of raids, detention, deportation and terrible conditions in the various detention centres.  Not only are the living conditions bad, there is no proper planning for language and vocational training there.  There is not much hope for their children’s future education and development.  

5.     Refugees accepting re-settlement in third countries have limited fund allocations and face an almost strict quota of accepted persons. In democracies,  host countries have to consider the sensitivities of their voters. 


We all know that the above facts prove that we have to change the present status quo.  Then we have to think about ways to improve the socio-economic changes in Burma/Myanmar or consider a “Regime Change”.  This is also not practical and an almost impossible task in the near future.  We would like to explain this in the following section.



E.        Almost impossible to improve Burma/Myanmar’S POLITICAL SITUATION 


First of all, we have to accept that we cannot do anything to improve the political conditions in Burma.


  1. No country is willing to wage a war for a “REGIME CHANGE” in Burma/Myanmar.  If not for the 9-11 tragedy and the bad experience of expensive, bitter, and protracted rebellions in Iraq, there would be hope for more aggressive action by the US in Burma.


  1. China India and ASEAN countries, especially Thailand are not only on the J unta’s side but are also protecting them from the West’s economic sanctions and political attacks.

    • We still remember the days after the 1967 anti-Chinese riots and the killing of thousands of Chinese in Yangon.  Communist China gave full support to the Burmese Communist Party.  There were rumours, surely over-exaggerated, that 100,000 Red Army soldiers “deserte d” the Chinese Army, wore the new Wa rebel uniforms, and joined the Burma Communist compatriots. They failed to dislodge the Junta.


    • India’s few decades of support to the pro-democracy forces also failed.


    • It was reported in the Burmese newspapers that Burma’s last democratically elected Prime Minister U Nu had decided to return to Burma after abandoning his Government in exile in Thailand.  The Burmese newspapers alleged that the neighbour’s Deputy Defence Minister offered full financial and military support if U Nu agreed to allow Shan State to join their country after independence.  This may be also have been a lie to drum up the nationalist spirit of Burmans to support the unpopular Military government.


Important Note: we are not revealing or repeating the above rumours and unfounded allegations to accuse any country, nor do we even wish to know the truth.  (Some of us may even wish for this kind of external help nowadays.)  We only wish to prove that even under these adverse conditions, there was no successful regime change.  Further, with the present reversal of conditions of switching supports by all Burma’s neighbours, it is almost impossible to topple the Junta.


  1. The Burmese people’s popular uprising on 8th. August 1988, famously dubbed the 8888 movement, and subsequent election victory of NLD also could not do more than dent the international image of the Junta.


  1. ASEAN’s constructive engagement, USA and EU led economic sanctions, and UN Secretary General Kofi Anan’s representative Tan Sri Razali Ismail’s attempts also failed badly.


  1. Even if NLD got the chance to f orm a government and democracy prevails, the Ethnic Minority and minority Religions would continue to suffer the discriminations of their Big Brother, the Burman Buddhists.


  1. Even if all transferring of power could be smooth and rapid, it would take at least a generation to change the habits and mindsets of the government and private sector employees, and to rebuild the economic infrastructure to be on par with that of the developing neighbours’.

    7,   Myanmar’s crippling economy and stifled demands for political and economic reforms will fuel more racial violence in the near future.  The Military government may incite racial and religious hatred in order to take advantage and profit from the riots.  Both sides will promote this with their own agendas.  The Government will try to divert the attention of the people’s hatred and anger directed to them.  They need a scapegoat for their economic and political failures.  It will succeed as this divide-and-rule policy is a well-tested and effective policy. In addition, it will also show all the minorities that the government is their protector.  At the same time, the government can prove that they were needed to unite the country and for the maintenance of internal peace.  The bogeyman is needed to drum up support for them and all the people are coerced to unite behind the Military leaders. The anti-migrant policy, anti-foreigner policy, foreign threats, Communists and western countries’ imperialist plots, and danger of racial and religious riots, are used effectively and successfully by numerous dictators all over the world.


  1. Most of the governments around the world never try to understand the very reasons many Burmese Citizens of all races and religions wish to leave their country in the first instance.  To state a few:


·        Racial and religious discriminatory policies that suck the life out of minority ethnic and religious groups, sometimes amounting to ethnic cleansings.  


·        Cruel and lawless Military dictators’ oppressive and ever changing unjust laws, created according to their whims and fancies. 


·        The lopsided military-appointed eunuch judiciary who is always loyal and obedient to the Military rulers.


      Widespread corruption, abuse of power and absence of accountability at each and every level of the government machinery.



·        The police also ignore the rule of law but rule by the law, ordered by their army masters.



·        Dozens of local armed militia groups signed peace treaty with the army, and the still active Ethnic Minority rebels at the Burma borders are also crushing the people from other side.



·        There may be not an obvious war but there are internal conflicts or rebellions as well as a lot of internally displaced persons in Burma.



·        Numerous restrictions on the people’s daily life, travel, investments, trade, monetary policy, transport of goods, import/export, religion, education, etc. are pushing the people to their limits. 



9.            As long as there is no respect for the RIGHTS OF ETHNIC MINORITIES AND DISCRIMINATIONS against the minority religions, there is no hope of stopping people leaving Myanmar.  Mary Robinson, High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997-2002) wrote: “… today’s human rights violations are the causes of tomorrow’s conflicts.”


On December 10, 1948 the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted and proclaimed THE UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples a nd all nations.


 On the 50th Anniversary of this Declaration, UN Security General Kofi Annan said:   


   “Human Rights are foreign to no culture and native to all Nations.  It is a mirror that at once flatters us and shames us, that bears witness to a record of progress for parts of humanity while revealing a history and reality of horrors for others.” 


“It was never the people who complained of the universality of human rights, nor did the people consider human rights as a Western or Northern imposition.  It was often their leaders who did so.”           


After looking at the above quotations, real conditions in Burma/Myanmar and the people’s plight, we do not need to give any further evidence to convince the reader that there are a lot of problems going on in Burma/Myanmar that are almost impossible to solve or change, and no one can prevent the people’s flight out of the country.


         SHWE BA (To be continued next week)