So we hereby want to summarize all our requests into the following points. A.      Basically at least we, all the Muslims in Burma/Myanma, want to request the right to possess the following documents: 

  1. Birth Certificates

  2. National Registration Cards.

  3. Passports.

  4. Family Registration Cards. 

B.      We, all the Muslims in Burma/Myanma, want to request the following basic rights:  

  1. Right of unrestricted internal travel in the whole Myanmar/Burma. 

  2. Right to travel abroad according to the current government regulations on all Myanmars/Burmese. 

  3. Equal access to education at all the levels including postgraduate studies abroad, according to meritocracy. 

  4. Equal rights to all the government jobs and promotions according to meritocracy. 

  5. Equal rights to settle and work in any part of Myanmar/Burma. 

  6. Equal rights to serve and promotion in armed forces, Police, immigration, Ministry of Foreign affairs. 

  7. Freedom of religion, worship, religious publications, building and repairing of Mosques, religious schools etc. 

  8. Right to participate and contest in the national and regional politics.  

  9. Right to hold the political and administrative posts in various level of government and its’ agencies.  

C.      And we, all the Muslims in Burma/Myanma, want to request the protection of all our Minority Rights and Human Rights according to the United Nations’ standard and Internationally accepted norms.  And our last request is not to just refuse our requests by simply just saying that the Muslims in Myanmar/Burma are not citizens of Myanmar/Burma but recent foreign migrants only. We had already presented the undeniable historical facts of long history of all the Muslims of Burma/Myanmar. We could trace our ancestors well in to the first millennium and now we are even in the third millennium. And our youngest brothers-in-Islam migrated more than half a century ago into Myanmar because we gained Independence on 4th. January 1948 and migration stopped much more earlier than that.

So it is unfair and gross injustice have been committed if the Muslims in Myammar are labelled as foreigners or new guest citizens.

And we must not forget the fact that the “Indian subcontinent Burmese Muslims” who maintained the umbilical cord intact with the Indian subcontinent had returned for good after General Ne Win had “driven them out” in 1964 with nationalisation of all their business, property and demonetisations. Despite the Universal Declaration’s Denunciation of discrimination against minorities some kind of discrimination is almost always seen in many countries including Myanmar. We have to respect the majority rules in all kinds of governments, including the democracy governments. But the majority must respect and protect the rights of the minority.  Even in democracy, there are limits on the concepts of the majority rule, to prevent tyranny of the majority. Majority must rule with the big heart by persuasion, understanding and kindness, but should never coerce the minority with force, threat, cruelty, violence, exploitation and abuse of power or racial riots. Although the population of the Myanmar Muslims increased during the British rule of Burma because of new waves of Indian sub continent Muslim Immigration. This sharply reduced since 1941 because of Indo-Burman Immigration agreement, and totally stopped after Burma (Myanmar) gained independence in Jan.1948. So Myanmar Muslims are at least staying in Myanmar from 50 years and some of them are staying for more than 1000 years already. Myanmar Muslims are descendants of Arabs, Persians, Turks, Moores, Indian-Muslims, Pakistanis, Pathans, Bengalis, Chinese Muslims and Malays intermarried with local Burmese and many ethnic Myanmar groups such as: Rakhine, Shan, Karen, Mon etc. Muslims arrived Burma as travellers, adventurers, pioneers, sailors, Military Personals (voluntary and mercenary), and some of them as prisoners of wars. Some take refuge (from wars, Monsoon storms and weather, shipwreck and some for other various unforeseen circumstances). And some of them are victims of forced slavery. Some of them are professionals and skilled personals such as advisors to the kings and at various ranks of administration. Some are port-authorities and mayors and traditional medicine men. Some of them are good at various vocational skills, culture arts etc. Mixed marriages, intermarriages and assimilation process of throwing away of almost all their foreign languages, foreign dresses and foreign culture slowly shaped them in to Ethnic Myanmar/Burmese Muslim group of today. But we had drawn a line in the ongoing process of assimilation. That line of limit is our religion, Islam. As practising Muslims we could not go beyond the limit of tolerance of Islamic principles. So Myanmar Muslims threw away Urdu, Bengali, Chinese, Hindi and all other foreign languages. Even Arabic is learned just to read Holy Koran and for prayers. Myanmar Muslims speaks Myanmar as our mother tongue, wear Myanmar dress and even have an official Myanmar name as well as Islamic Arabic name. Because we could not compromise our faith in Islam in matters such as: only eating halal foods and drinks, marriage, divorce, inheritance, and other customs which heavily depend on Islam e.g. circumcision, funeral and burial rituals etc. So Myanmar Muslims could not assimilate homogeneously as Chinese, Hindus and others, except for those who convert or renounced Islam. Complete Assimilation of a minority group always needs a compromise of their tradition, their culture and some of their rights. So in view of the present political condition, kindly allow us to present some advice to all the persons and groups involved in the present political arena. 

Peace and prosperity always come together.

There will be no development, progress nor prosperity if there is no peace.  War or any fighting will even destroy what we have already achieved.  Enough is enough.  It is already half a century that the Second World War had finished.  But our country is still plagued with civil wars and infighting.  It had destroyed a lot of properties, human lives and wasted valuable manpower. If we have a chance to use all these and the defense budgets from all the opposing sides, our beloved motherland will be on par with all other Asean tigers.

Wars, fighting, angers, revenge and all kind of the violence are prohibited by all the religions including Buddhism.  There may be some exception as self-defense or holy war but most of us are misusing and are trying to give various excuses to justify our deeds.

There is a saying that the “VICTORY” is an illusion for the fools and the philosophers only.  No one could absolutely win the battles and wars.  Both sides lost in some other way.  Our fifty years’ civil and political war attested this.

Lord Buddha was against all kinds of aggression.The mildest form of this, a mere anger would burn our own heart and self.   Forgive, forget, peace and cooperation with mutual trust and friendship should be the answer to all the problems of our beloved country, Mynnmar (Burma). There must be a compromise, a give and take policy to reach a peaceful settlement.  Prosper thy neighbour.  No need to kill destroy nor bankrupt the neighbours, other Citizens or other races. Procrastination is the thief of time.  Please start the peace and reconciliation talk with the people, opposition parties, especially with the NLD, ethnic minorities, minority religious groups and armed rebels.  You can fool some people for some time. But could not trick the whole world all the time with lame excuses of drawing a new constitution or need to prevent the disintegration of the country.             Please stop discrimination, persecution and ethnic cleansing of Ethnic minorities and other religious groups. Even the powerful Nazi Germany, Slavs, White South Africa and all others had failed in the world history in crushing the relatively very weak minorities.  Those Ethnic cleansing, Religious persecution and prosecution and discriminations are even becoming a blessing in disguise for all of us now.  Because of suppression, Jews migrated and progressed enormously.  Then Palestanians follow their success.             Burmese migrants including Burmese Muslims migrants are now in a better position, better educated, better trained and some of them even became powerful and rich in the new host countries.  Some of their children have even married to the families of the host government members. One of them is now even holding a cabinet minister post in a middle-east country. Please stop the selfishness. Always looking for the benefits and dominance for my army, my party, my ethnic group, my religion etc. Greedy selfish concept of : I must lead, I must govern, I must dominate and I must hold the power etc. is not right. We all must work together, cooperate and unite for our country.  Please look at our own history. General Aung San and U Nu trusted U Razak. He never betrayed their trust.  He had even looked after the interest of the fellow Burmese Buddhists. He had supported the separation of Burma from India. He had denounced the separation of Pakistan from India. U Khin Maung Latt, U Nu’s Minister supported the law protecting the Burmese women against the interest of Muslims in Burma. U Razak, U Rashid, U Khin Maung Latt, Hajima Daw Pu, Saya Chair (Ne Win’s trusted Muslim, who was appointed as the Head of election Commission), Colonel Tin Soe (General Ne Win’s Revolution Council Member) were so loyal to their governments. Even most of the Muslims regarded and accused them to have sold off the interest of the Muslims for their self-benefits.  I am not judging them.  Just wanted to mention their loyalty only. Please stop looking down on us, Muslims of Myanmer (Burma) as foreigners or migrants not worthy of trust. Please look at the Shwe Byin brothers. Just because they had refused to contribute bricks to build the Pagoda, Anawrttha give the order to punish them, but Kyansittha executed them. 

Please stop doing the same treatment and perceptions, persecutions on us, Muslims in Myanmar (Burma). 

Yes! Even if the authorities punish us we will still continue to refuse to obey the orders if they are against our religion, ISLAM.

But please trust us, we will even sacrifice for our beloved country, Myanmar, Burma, like that same Shwe Byin brothers. Please don’t forget that they had sacrificed their lives to penetrate the very powerful inner defense and innermost security and drawn lines on the forehead of the Chinese king, Utibwa. If Burmese troops have to fight a traditional battle on the ground they were sure to lost. Successful penetration of the most inner circle cracked the morale of the Chinese king, Utibwa and chilled up to“his backbone with fear”, leading to peace agreement. 

So, please allows us, Muslims in Myanmar, to serve the country as same as Shwe Byin brothers.  We promise to even risk our lives to draw lines on the forehead of the enemy kings. 

But don’t just simply suspect, persecute and prosecute us. We also love our country, Myanmar, Burma.Redemption and reconciliation is never late. Do not breed the hatred.  Stop blowing the wind on the fire of hatred.  Do not cook the pressure to increase so that it will be out of control and burst.  This is the best time for redemption.  This is the time the Myanmar military has almost absolute control of the whole situation in Myanmar.  The ball is on your side.  The pendulum will definitely swing to the opposite side in the near future.  Next time around the People will be very difficult to control because of the pent up pressures and would not be easily controlled like in 1998.  At the present condition, if Senior General Than Shwe or other Myanmar military leaders started the National Reconciliation process, all of us, actually the whole country, will definitely forgive and forget all the past.  Now with the NLD and its leaders, Daw Aung San Su Kyi, U Aung Shwe, U Tin Oo and others are around, and could definitely control the people, especially the extremists.  Please reed the book of Daw Aung San Su Kyi’s discussion with Allan Climent. Even that book alone could convince us that we can trust the NLD and Daw Su.  Sure they are sincere.  They are not cheating nor bluffing, just to get the power.  After reading this book only, I believe and trust them.  Then only, I am sure that NLD and the present leaders could form a government with a sincere gentleman face.  NLD with Daw Aung San Su Kyi, representatives from all the armed rebels, ethnic minorities and religious group should be invited to participate in the new ”Coalition Caretaker Government”.  As the present Myanmar Military have an expertise and experience of running the government for decades, all should cooperate for the benefit of the mother country. No one could deny that there were definitely some excesses done by the present authorities.  It is a nature for those who had suffered would want to demand for the justice and because of that same reason also, those dictators who had perpetrated the injustice have every reason for the fear of reven­ge. Present Military may want to cling on the power to protect their interest. There must be a give and take from all sides. The opposition, from NLD to rebels and including all the people of Myanmar (Burma) must simply accept the nonspecific apology, if announce by the Military leaders.  Full stop.  No more.  There must be no witch-hunt or any legal action nor any revenge. We must agree this and give a very strong promise to the present leaders.  There must be no investigation at all for the property of the military leaders.   The people who had suffered, imprisoned, tortured, died, lost job, lost the properties should be allowed to claim compensation from the new caretaker government only. No one of the Myanmar military leaders should be called to testify, condemn, try in court or punish in any way at all against their will. Definitely, there must be some investigations initiated from their claims but we must guarantee for the complete immunity of any form of punishment to all the leaders.  I want to make a point again.  We must learn from the present and the past but these are not very important when compare to the future. 

We must accept that for the future of our country, our children, we must try to forgive and forget all our sufferings. 

We must sacrifice now and must compromise to get an early agreement.  Daw Su advised us to overcome our fear.  But it is also very important to try to help our opposition of their legitimate fear.  Mutual trust is needed to eliminate all the fears.  I think it is the time for us to help the other side reduce the fear.  Once they give up the power, or share the power with us, if there is the possibility of starting an investigation against them, they would not relinquish their power.  It is natural that they have to protect themselves. We have to praise the Shah of Iran, Suharto of Indonesia and President Marcos of Philippines for the giving up the power without resisting up to the end. If they just continue to defend themselves up to the end, there would be more lost of life and more sufferings on the respective people.  Our Myanmar (all citizens of Burma) should declare and show that we are more farsighted, mature and we would not resort to any kind of retaliation like the people of Iran, Indonesian, Peru, Argentina and Philippines.  I am not telling that they were wrong.  They may be right but they had clearly started some shock waves to all the dictators.  Now all of the dictators are scared of retaliation and witch-hunt followed by law suites if they relinquish their power. We must be fair to both sides. 

If the dictators could not be overthrown easily like in our country, and if they agree to transfer or share the power, we should not punish them for doing so.  We have to reward them with the unconditioned amnesty. 

At least they have helped shortened the sufferings of the people. And I hereby want to point out one important thing.  Love of the mother country or patriotism.  We could not monopolize it. And it is not right to claim by one party only that they are the ones who love the country.  And should not suspect, claim or accuse that their enemies or their opposition have no love for the country.  No one with the right mind could deny that all the parties concern love the country in their own ways. We should not claim that General Ne Win and the successive military governments did not love the country.  And they also should not doubt the NLD leaders including Daw Su’s love for the country.  Even those armed rebels also love the country.  They had sacrificed their entire homes, family lives and the whole civilization for the love of the motherland.  It is not right to suspect or accuse or question the other people’s love for the nation. 

If we really love our country, please show proof by sacrificing our present positions, compromise and let us work together for our country. And please stop thinking that we, Muslims in Myanmar, have no patriotism. 

We, Muslims in Myanmar(Burma) also love our mother land.  Please trust us, allow us to work and contribute in the reconstruction of our country. As the present military government may need concrete assurances of safety, and as they agree to share the power without the oppositions’ real powerful removal, we should consider giving the ministry of Home Affairs and Defense Ministry to them.  We should even consider giving the President’s post to one of the present military leaders to oversee and control the new government to safeguard the integrity of the Nation.

Prime Minister post should be given to Daw Aung San Su Kyi of NLD.  Deputy Prime Minister post must be chosen from the ethnic minorities eg.  Shan, Kachin and Karen.  This Caretaker government should rule, rebuilt and develop the country for ten years without any election.  After five years only they should consider for the local Municipal council elections.

No one should rule the country more than ten years. If we all compromised and work together, with the help of all the people inside and outside the country and definitely with all the possible investment and help from all the foreign countries, I am sure our country will develop and catch up with others very rapidly.  Please stop all the suspicions, discriminations, accusations and hatreds.  Please stop the desire to revenge.  If we love each other and our country, trust and work together nothing is impossible. We need mutual understanding and mutual trust. Especially as all of us need to forgive, trust and work together with the Present military government.  And at the same time, the military leaders must trust the NLD, the oppositions, including the People in exile, students, armed rebels, ethnic minor­ities and all the other religious groups including all the Muslims in Myanmar.  Let us look at the future, progress, goals and march forward together with mutual love, trust and respect. Please recognize and accept our Myanmar (Burmese) Muslims’ participation in building our country.  Please do not shut us out. Today our country has reached a crit­ical state where we must accept to love, trust and cooperate to save our beloved country or perish to doom.  There is actually no other alternative.  We have fight for half a century without success.  Our country only suffered because of our fighting. We all love our country in our own way.  The way we love and the system we choose were different. But now all of us have accepted that Democracy and market economy is the only way to rebuild our country. Why should we quarrel any more? We all must sit together to formulate the fair and just laws to protect all of us..                            I  

Rights and moral conducts of the Muslims

Dear original authors,


I had copied and taken down notes from various internet sites, books, articles from newspapers about Islam for about 20 years.  My greatest weakness is that I failed to record the references properly. 

So there may be numerous mistakes, omissions or failure to mention at all, in acknowledging or citing the original source and authors in this series of Islamic articles.  

Kindly forgive me that as I am not an expert in Islamic studies, all my articles are not my original research, translations nor presentations.

I am just trying to compile, edit into gist and is trying to present AGAIN some of my brothers-in-Islam’s good works. 

Dr Zafar Shah@ San Oo Aung 

Honesty in Monetary Dealings

Uprightness and honesty in monetary dealings forms a vital part of the fundamental teachings of Islam.

The Qur’an as well as the Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) are emphatic that;

” a true Muslim is one who is honest and upright in business and other monetary transactions; keeps his word and fulfils his promises, shuns fraud and avoids deceit, encroaches not upon the rights of others and abstains from wrongful litigation, does not give false evidence and abstains from making dishonest money as from usury or graft.

In short, all manner of deceit and dishonesty in business is prohibited in Islam.  

 Social Conduct and Mutual Relations


Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Social conduct, good manners and respect for the rights of each other, form an important part of Islamic teachings.

One can become a good and true Muslim when one observes the social code of Islam. The rules and regulations governing the modes and manners of behaviour between man and man and society, as laid down by Islam is very important for a Muslim.

1.Rights of neighbours:

The Qur’an calls upon us to be_

  1.  good and courteous to our neighbours.

  2. It has commanded us to maintain the best of conduct towards

  3. our parents,

  4. brothers

  5. and sisters

  6. and towards other near relatives.

A Tradition of the Prophet (pbuh) reads:

“He shall not go to Heaven for whose mischief his neighbours do not feel secure.”

Islam conferred special rights for_

  1. the weaker

  2. and the poorer sections of society

  3. and needy persons.

  4. It is the duty of all well-to-do people to look after those people, including non-Muslims.

Justice is an integral part of Islamic ethics.

2. Rights of parents:

       In Islam, the rights of parents have been described as next only to the rights of God, as clearly stated in the Qur’an.

3.  Rights of children:

      Islam has laid an equal stress on the rights of children on parents also.

Apart from the responsibility of parents_

  1. to feed

  2. and clothe their children,

  3. their moral

  4. and religious education

  5. and upbringing

are also very important in Islam.

4. Rights of husband and wife.     

The Prophet used to attach profound importance to the harmony of married life among Muslims.

He urged Muslim husbands and wives

  1. to keep each other happy
  2. and to attend to each other’s needs
  3. and interest with loving care.

5. Rights of relatives:

      In the Qur’an, we are told_

  1. to be kind to our kinsmen

  2. and whoever disregards

  3. and pays no heed to the bonds of kinship

has been condemned as a transgressor and sinner of the worst order.

The holy Prophet (pbuh) has said:

  1. “If a near relative treats you indifferently and ignores the bond of relationship,

  2. do not turn your back on him

  3. but keep on discharging, on your part, the obligations of relationship towards him.”

6.  Rights of the old on the young and of the young on the old:

      It is a general principle of Islamic social behaviour_

  1. that everyone should respect his elders.

  2. Those who are older are required to treat those who are younger to them

  • with kindness
  • and affection,
  • even if there be no relationship between them.

7.   Rights of Muslims on each other:

      Further, there is_

  1. a special claim of Muslims on each other,

  2. the common bond of Islam.

Says the Prophet (pbuh):

  1. “Every Muslim is a Muslim’s brother.

  2.  He should neither harm him himself

  3. nor leave him alone

  4. (help him and to protect him).

Whoever among you will fulfil the need of his brother, God will take it upon Himself to fulfil his needs, and a Muslim who will remove the distress of a Muslim brother will, in return, find a distress of his removed by God on the Day of Requital, and anyone who will hide the shame of a Muslim, his sins will be hidden by God on the Last Day.”

“Do not bear a grudge or enmity against each other, do not be jealous of each other, and do not indulge in backbiting.” “Live like brothers and the servants of One God. It is not allowed for a Muslim to cease to be on talking terms with another Muslim for more than three days.” “The life, honour and property of a Muslim are sacred for another.”  

 8. Good Manners and Noble Qualities

Good manners and noble qualities of mind and character enjoy a place of crucial importance in the structure of Islamic teachings. Moral evolution and uplift was one of the main objects for which the sacred Prophet (pbuh) was raised up. The Prophet himself has said:

“I have been sent down by God to teach moral virtues and to evolve them to highest perfection.”  (1) “The best of your are those who possess the best of manners.” (2) “No sin is more detestable to God than bad manners.”

Some More Important Virtues to cultivate all good and noble moral and social qualities and to avoid everything that is mean or wicked.

1) Truthfulness

Truthfulness is a matter of such supreme consequence in Islam that, in addition to speaking the truth always, a Muslim is exhorted also to keep company only with those that are truthful.

Says the Prophet (pbuh):

“He who wishes to love God and His Apostle, or wishes God and His Apostle to love him, must take care to speak nothing but the truth whenever he speaks.”

2) Fulfilling Promises

It is also a part of truthfulness that when a promise is made, it should be fulfilled. The Qur’an and the Traditions are very clear on this point. Our faith demands of us never to go back on our pledged word.

3) Trustworthiness

Closely allied to truthfulness is the quality of trustworthiness.

Here is a Tradition of the holy Prophet (pbuh) on this point:

“Look not alone at anyone’s prayers and fasts to decide about his spiritual excellence .

You should also see that he is truthful when he speaks, restores honestly what he has received in trust to whom it is due, and remains righteous in times of adversity and suffering.”

4) Justice

Justice is an integral part of Islamic ethics. In Islam, we are commanded to be just and fair not only towards our own people or co-religionists, but also towards others even if they be the enemies of our life, property or faith.

5) Compassion and Forgiveness

To feel pity on a fellow human being in distress, to be compassionately drawn towards him, to bring him succour, and to pardon the guilty and the defaulter are virtues that are valued very highly in Islam. Take this Tradition, for instance:

“God will have mercy upon them that are merciful. Treat kindly the dwellers of the earth, He who dwells in the heavens will treat you kindly.” We ought to be kind and compassionate towards friend and foe alike and to all the creatures that exist on the earth.

It is reported from the Prophet (pbuh) that once a person who was travelling by road saw a dog licking wet earth in the agony of thirst. The traveller was moved by the spectacle and gave water to the dog to drink. This simple service of the man to the thirsting dog pleased God so much that He blessed him with salvation.

6) Tenderness

Tenderness in monetary dealings, and in all other fields of one’s activity, and the readiness to oblige and put others at ease are all virtues of the highest order in the Islamic pattern of morality.

7) Self Restraint

Tolerance, affability, self-restraint, and the ability to control one’s temper and overlook what is unpleasant and disagreeable, are qualities that Islam wants everyone to cultivate.

8 ) Gentleness of Speech

Gentleness of speech is a religious virtue in Islam and rudeness a sin. The Qur’an declares : “Speak fair to the people.”

We have it from the Prophet:

“To speak politely is piety and a kind of charity.” “To indulge in intemperate language and in harsh behaviour is to perpetuate an injustice and the house of injustice is Hell.”

In Islam, we are commanded to be just and fair not only towards our own people or co-religionists, but also towards our enemies.

Tolerance, affability, self-restraint, and the ability to control one’s temper and overlook what is unpleasant and disagreeable, are qualities of good Muslims.

Humility is a virtue, a distinguishing feature of the moral and spiritual proof of courage and firmness.


 Courage and Fortitude

The Muslim must be meek and humble but firm like a rock and allows neither fear nor weakness to come near him where faith or truth or justice is at stake.

There occur periods of hardship and adversity, sometimes there is want, disease, enemies harass us, and so forth. In spite of those thousand trials and calamities we should bear them with courage and fortitude, remain firm and should not waver from our principles.

There is the assurance of the Qur’an for them:

“For God loves those who are patient and persevering” (11:153). The holy Prophet (pbuh) has said:

“Patience is one half of Faith.”

Contrarily, impatience and cowardice are the most lamentable of evils against which the Prophet (pbuh) used to beg God for refuge in his prayers. “God is not regardful of your fine visages or your wealth. He is regardful only of your hearts and intentions.” The idea of the above tradition is that God will judge and requite solely on the basis of our motives and intentions.”

11) Sincerity

Sincerity is the life and soul of the entire moral edifice of Islam.

All our deeds and actions should solely be for the sake of God. Apart form it, there must be no other desire, motive or intention behind whatever we do.

States the Prophet (pbuh):

“He who loves or hates, offers favours or withholds them, and whatever he does, does so for the sake of God, he perfects his faith.” The Gist of Islam: The Heart of the Matter

Ch 4: Rights of enemy soldiers and non-combatants at war

Ch 4: Rights of enemy soldiers

and non-combatants at war


The actual codification of the ‘international law’ in war began in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  1. All forms of barbarity
  2. and savagery were perpetrated in war,
  3. and the rights of those at war were-
  • not even recognized,
  • let alone respected, before that period.

Law of War and Peace in Islam:

The rules which have been framed by Islam to make war civilized and humane, are in the nature of law, because_

  1. they are the injunctions of God
  2. and His Prophet
  3. which are followed by Muslims in all circumstances,
  4. irrespective of the behaviour of the enemy. 

 The Rights of the Non-Combatants:

Islam has first drawn a clear line of distinction between

  1. the combatants
  2. and the non-combatants of the enemy country.
  3. As far as the non-combatant population is concerned such as
  • women,

  • children,

  • the old

  • and the infirm, etc.,

the instructions of the Prophet are as follows:

“Do not kill any old person, any child or any woman” (Abu Dawud).

“Do not kill the monks in monasteries” or “Do not kill the people who are sitting in places of worship” (Musnad of Ibn Hanbal).

The Rights of the Combatants:

1. Torture with Fire

In the hadith there is a saying of the Prophet that: “Punishment by fire does not behove anyone except the Master of the Fire” (Abu Dawud). No one should be burnt alive.

2. Protection of the Wounded

“Do not attack a wounded person”-thus said the Prophet. This means that_

  • the wounded soldiers who are not fit to fight,

  • nor actually fighting,

  • ]should not be attacked.

3. The Prisoner of War Should not be Slain

No prisoner should be put to the sword”, a very clear and unequivocal instruction given by the Prophet (S).

4. No one Should be Tied to be Killed

“The Prophet has prohibited the killing of anyone_

  •  who is tied

  • or is in captivity.”

5. No Looting and Destruction in the Enemy’s Country

Muslims have also been instructed by the Prophet that_

  1. if they should enter the enemy’s territory,

  2. they should not indulge in_

  • pillage

  • or plunder

  • nor destroy the residential areas,

  • nor touch the property of anyone

  • except those who are fighting with them.

It has been narrated in the hadith: “The Prophet has prohibited the believers from loot and plunder” (al-Bukhari; Abu Dawud). His injunction is:

“The loot is no more lawful than the carrion” (Abu Dawud).

Abu Bakr al-Siddiq used to instruct the soldiers while sending them to war,

“Do not destroy_

  1. the villages
  2. and towns,
  3. do not spoil the cultivated fields
  4. and gardens,
  5. and do not slaughter the cattle.”

6. Sanctity of Property

The Muslims have also been prohibited from_

  • taking anything,

  • without paying for it,

from the general public of a conquered country.

If in a war the Muslim army_

  • occupies an area of the enemy country,

  • and is encamped there,

it does not have the right to use the things belonging to the people without their consent.

7. Sanctity of a Dead Body

Islam has categorically prohibited its followers from_

  • disgracing
  • or mutilating the corpses

of their enemies as was practised in Arabia before the advent of Islam.

It has been said in the hadith:

“The Prophet has prohibited us from mutilating the corpses of the enemies”

(al- Bukhari; AbC Dawud).

8. Return of Corpses of the Enemy

In the Battle of Ahzab_

  • a very renowned
  • and redoubtable warrior of the enemy was killed
  • and his body fell down in the trench which the Muslims had dug for the defence of Medina.
  1. The unbelievers presented ten thousand dinars to the Prophet
  2. and requested that the dead body of their fallen warrior may be handed over to them.

The Prophet replied_
“I do not sell dead bodies. You can take away the corpse of your fallen comrade.”

9. Prohibition of Breach of Treaties

Islam has strictly prohibited treachery.

One of the instructions that the Prophet used to give to the Muslim warriors while sending them to the battlefront was:

“Do not be guilty of breach of faith.”

This order has been repeated_

  • in the Holy Quran
  • and the hadith again and again,
  1. that if the enemy acts treacherously let him do so,
  2. you should never go back on your promise.
  3. The Prophet declared that:
  4. “We cannot break the agreement”.

10. Rules About Declaration of War

It has been laid down in the Holy Quran: Muslims have been prohibited from_

  1. opening hostilities against their enemies
  2. without properly declaring war against them,
  3. unless of course, the adversary has already started aggression against them.

Otherwise the Quran has clearly given the injunction to Muslims that_

  1. they should intimate to their enemies that no treaty exists between them,
  2. and they are at war with them.
This is a brief sketch of those rights which fourteen hundred years ago Islam gave to man, to those who were at war with each other and to the citizens of its state.
Acknowledgment: This article was down-loaded from_ http://www.islamworld.net/hr.txt, make a gist and reformatted.

Ch 3:11. The Right to Basic Necessities of Life

Ch 3:11. The Right to Basic Necessities of Life  

Islam has recognised the right of the needy people that help and assistance will be provided for them.

“And in their wealth there is acknowledged right for the needy and the destitute” (51:19).

In this verse,

  1. the Quran has not only conferred a right on every man who asks for assistance in the wealth of the Muslims,
  2. but has also laid down that if a Muslim comes to know that a certain man is without the basic necessities of life,
  3. then irrespective of the fact whether he asks for assistance or not,
  4. it is his duty to reach him and give all the help that he can extend.
  5. For this purpose Islam has not depended only on the help and charity that is given voluntarily,
  6. but has made compulsory charity, zakat
  • as the third pillar of Islam,
  • next only to profession of faith
  • and worship of God through holding regular prayers.

The Prophet has clearly instructed in this respect that:

“It will be taken from their rich and given to those in the community in need”

(al-Bukhari and Muslim).



In addition to this, it has also been declared that the Islamic State should support those who have nobody to support them.

The Prophet has said:

“The Head of state is the guardian of him, who has nobody to support him”


(Abu Dawud, al-Tirmidhi).

The word wali which has been used by the Prophet is a very comprehensive word and has a wide range of meanings.

  1. If there is an orphan
  2. or an aged man,
  3. if there is a crippled
  4. or unemployed person,
  5. if one is invalid
  6. or poor
  7. and has no one else to support him
  8. or help him,
  • then it is the duty
  • and the responsibility of the state
  • to support
  • and assist him.

If a dead man has no guardian or heir, then it is the duty of the state to arrange for his proper burial.

In short the state has been entrusted with the duty and responsibility of looking after all those who need help and assistance.

A truly Islamic State is therefore

  • a truly welfare state
  • which will be the guardian
  • and protector of all those in need.





the third pillar of Islam

Excerpt from Islam in a Nutshell by Dr. M. Hamidullah

Zakat, almsgiving, is the third pillar of Islam. The term zakat was used in the Qur’an in a number of verses. It means “growth” and “purifying”. [123]

In other words, one must purify one’s wealth by giving away something from the surplus for the benefit of society. Zakat was levied as a tax on the Muslims. Zakat is to be used for certain purposes which are determined by the Qur’an.

Alms are for the poor (al-fuqara) and the needy (al-masakin) and those employed to administer the funds; for those whose hearts have been (recently) reconciled to the Truth; for those in bondage and in debt; in the cause of God; and for the wayfarer. (Thus it is) ordained by God, and God is full of knowledge and wisdom. [124]This tax was considered a right– a right of the poor and an obligation of the wealthy. Islam not only calls on the rich to pay this tax, from their hoarded income, but it also prohibits usury–in fact, interest of any kind. [126]

One should also add that the second caliph, ‘Umar, ruled that the poor among the non-Muslims also have a right to receive zakat. [127]

Zakat must be paid sincerely and in a spirit of selflessness. If one’s motives are mixed or worldly, then one’s charity is useless in the eyes of God. In this regard, the Qur’an gives a stern warning:

O ye who believe! Cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury–like those who spend their substance to be seen of men, but believe neither in God nor the Last Day. [128]

Ch 3:8 Conscience, Conviction, 9 Religious Sentiments, 10 Imprisonment

Ch 3:8 Conscience, Conviction,

9 Religious Sentiments, 10 Imprisonment  

Ch 3:8. Freedom of Conscience, Conviction  

Islam also gives the right to freedom of conscience and conviction to its citizens in an Islamic State.

The Holy Quran has laid down the injunction:

“There should be no coercion in the matter of faith” (2:256).

  1. No force will be applied in order to compel them to accept Islam.
  2. Whoever accepts it he does so by his own choice.
  3. Muslims will welcome such a convert to Islam with open arms and admit him to their community with equal rights and privileges.
  4. But if somebody does not accept Islam,
  • Muslims will have to recognise and respect his decision,
  • and no moral,
  •  social or
  • political pressure

will be put on him to change his mind.  

Ch 3:9. Protection of Religious Sentiments 

Along with the freedom of conviction and freedom of conscience, Islam has given the right to the individual that his religious sentiments will be given due respect and nothing will be said or done which may encroach upon this right.

It has been ordained by God in the Holy Quran:

“Do not abuse those they appeal to instead of God” (6:108).

  1. These instructions are not only limited to idols and deities,
  2. but they also apply to the leaders
  3. or national heroes of the people.
  4. If a group of people holds a conviction which according to you is wrong,
  • and holds certain persons in high esteem which according to you is not deserved by them,
  • then it will not be justified in Islam that you use abusive language for them
  • and thus injure their feelings.

Islam does not prohibit people from holding debate and discussion on religious matters, but it wants that these discussions should be conducted in decency.

“Do not argue with the people of the Book unless it is in the politest manner” (29:46)-says the Quran.

This order is not merely limited to the people of the Scriptures, but applies with equal force to those following other faiths.

 Ch 3:10. Protection from Arbitrary Imprisonment

Islam also recognises the right of the individual that he will not be arrested or imprisoned for the offences of others.

The Holy Quran has laid down this principle clearly:

“No bearer of burdens shall be made to bear the burden of another” (6:164).

Islam believes in personal responsibility.

We ourselves are responsible for our acts, and the consequence of our actions cannot be transferred to someone else.