Distributism, a better system than Capitalism and Socialism

 

Distributism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Distributism, also known as distributionism and distributivism, is a third-way economic philosophy formulated by such Roman Catholicthinkers as G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc to apply the principles of Catholic Social Teaching articulated by the Roman Catholic Church, especially in Pope Leo XIII’s encyclical Rerum Novarum[1] and more expansively explained by Pope Pius XI’s encyclical Quadragesimo Anno[2] According to distributism, the ownership of the means of production should be spread as widely as possible among the general populace, rather than being centralized under the control of the state (socialism) or wealthy private individuals (capitalism). A summary of distributism is found in Chesterton’s statement: “Too much capitalism does not mean too many capitalists, but too few capitalists.”[3]

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Cyclone Nargis, according to the Wikipedia

Cyclone Nargis, according to the Wikipedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Cyclone Nargis (JTWC designation: 01B, also known as Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Nargis) was a strong tropical cyclone that caused the deadliest natural disaster in the recorded history of Burma (also known as Myanmar). The cyclone made landfall in the country on May 2, 2008, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 34,273 fatalities with a further 27,838 people still missing. However, Labutta Township alone was reported to have 80,000 dead and some have estimated the death toll may be well over 100,000. The official Red Cross estimate is between 68,833 and 127,990 people killed.

Nargis is the deadliest named cyclone in the North Indian Ocean Basin, as well as the second deadliest named cyclone of all time, behind Typhoon Nina. Including unnamed storms, Nargis is the 8th deadliest cyclone of all time. Nargis was the first tropical cyclone to strike the country since Cyclone Mala made landfall in 2006.

Yellow flower.JPG

The cyclone name “Nargis” (نرگس, IPA: næɵr-ɡɵs),

is a Persian and Urdu word meaning daffodil.

The first named storm of the 2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season, Nargis developed on April 27 in the central area of Bay of Bengal. Initially it tracked slowly northwestward and, encountering favorable conditions, it quickly strengthened. Dry air weakened the cyclone on April 29, though after beginning a steady eastward motion Nargis rapidly intensified to attain peak winds of at least 165 km/h (105 mph) on May 2; the Joint Typhoon Warning Center assessed peak winds of 215 km/h (135 mph). The cyclone moved ashore in the Ayeyarwady Division of Burma near peak intensity and, after passing near the major city of Yangon (Rangoon), the storm gradually weakened until dissipating near the border of Burma and Thailand.

Relief efforts were slowed for political reasons as Myanmar’s military rulers initially resisted aid. U.S. President George W. Bush said that an angry world should condemn the way Myanmar’s military rulers are handling the aftermath of a devastating cyclone. Myanmar’s ruling party finally accepted aid a few days later from the U.S after India’s request was accepted. Relief efforts were then further hampered by the 7.9 Mw magnitude Sichuan earthquake

Storm history

 

Nargis 2008 track.pngIn the last week of April 2008, an area of deep convection and concern persisted near a low-level circulation in the Bay of Bengal about 1150 km (715 mi) east-southeast of Chennai, India. With good outflow and low wind shear, the system slowly organized as its circulation consolidated. At 0300 UTC on April 27, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) classified the system as a depression,[12] and nine hours later the system intensified into a deep depression. At the same time, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center classified it as Tropical Cyclone 01B. With a ridge to its north, the system tracked slowly north-northwestward as banding features improved. At 0000 UTC, 5:30 AM Indian Standard Time, on April 28, the IMD upgraded the system to Cyclonic Storm Nargis while it was located about 550 km (340 mi) east of Chennai, India.

 

 

Cyclone Nargis flooding before-and-after.jpg

On April 28 Nargis became nearly stationary while located between ridges to its northwest and southeast. That day the JTWC upgraded the storm to cyclone status, or the equivalence of a minimal hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. Around the same time, the IMD upgraded Nargis to a severe cyclonic storm. The cyclone developed a concentric eye feature, which is an eyewall outside the inner dominant eyewall, with warm waters aiding in further intensification. Early on April 29, the JTWC estimated Nargis reached winds of 160 km/h (100 mph), and at the same time the IMD classified the system as a very severe cyclonic storm. Initially, the cyclone was forecast to strike Bangladesh or southeastern India. Subsequently, the cyclone became disorganized and weakened due to subsidence and drier air; as a result, deep convection near the center markedly decreased. At the same time, the storm began a motion to the northeast around the periphery of a ridge to its southeast.The circulation remained strong despite the diminishing convection, though satellite intensity estimates using the Dvorak technique indicated the cyclone could have weakened to tropical storm status. By late on April 29, convection had begun to rebuild,though immediate restrengthening was prevented by increased wind shear.

 On May 1, after turning nearly due eastward, Cyclone Nargis began rapidly intensifying, due to greatly improved outflow in association with an approaching upper-level trough. Strengthening continued as it developed a well-defined eye with a diameter of 19 km (12 mi), and early on May 2 the JTWC estimated the cyclone reached peak winds of 215 km/h (135 mph) as it approached the coast of Burma. At the same time, the IMD assessed Nargis as attaining peak winds of 165 km/h (105 mph). Around 1200 UTC on May 2, Cyclone Nargis made landfall in the Ayeyarwady Division of Burma. The storm gradually weakened over land, with its proximity to the Andaman Sea preventing rapid weakening. Its track turned to the northeast due to the approach of a mid-latitude trough to its northwest, passing just north of Yangon with winds of 130 km/h (80 mph). Early on May 3 the IMD issued its final advisory on the storm. It quickly weakened after turning to the northeast toward the rugged terrain near the Burma-Thailand border, and after deteriorating to minimal tropical storm status, the JTWC issued its last advisory on Nargis.

Impact

Nargis TRMM rain.jpg

The United Nations estimated in its report that 1.5 million people were “severely affected” by this cyclone. Estimates of the people still missing are 27,838, with 38,491 confirmed dead. A recent government estimate put the number of deaths at 70,000, with some non-governmental organizations estimating that the final toll will be over 100,000. Foreign aid workers concluded further, that 2 to 3 million are homeless, in the worst disaster in Burma’s history, comparable with the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Andrew Kirkwood, country director of the British charity Save The Children, stated: “We’re looking at 50,000 dead and millions of homeless, I’d characterise it as unprecedented in the history of Burma and on an order of magnitude with the effect of the tsunami on individual countries. There might well be more dead than the tsunami caused in Sri Lanka.” As a result the Burmese government has declared five regions – Yangon, Ayeyarwady, Bago Divisions and Mon and Kayin States currently as disaster areas. Thousands of buildings were destroyed; in the town of Labutta, located in the Ayeyarwady Division, state television reported that 75 percent of buildings had collapsed and 20 percent had their roofs ripped off.One report indicated that 95 percent of buildings in the Irrawaddy Delta area were destroyed. It is believed that the cyclone is the deadliest tropical cyclone in the world since the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, which killed over 138,000 people. At least 10,000 people have been reported to have perished in the delta town of Bogale.

A diplomat in the city of Rangoon spoke to the Reuters news agency, giving them a description of the scene. He said that the area around him looked like a ‘war zone’ as a result of the cyclone. Burst sewage mains caused the landscape to flood with waste, ruining the rice crop. An official from the United Nations also commented on the situation, at the time of the event. “It’s a bad situation. Almost all the houses are smashed. People are in a terrible situation,” he said. Another UN representative also spoke on the incident. He reported that “The Irrawaddy delta was hit extremely hard not only because of the wind and rain but because of the storm surge.” The Daily Telegraph, a UK newspaper, reported that food prices in Burma could be affected by this disaster.

Myanmar Disaster Topography.png

Woradet Wirawekhin (th: วรเดช วีระเวคิน), Deputy Director General of Thailand’s Department of Information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, stated on 7 May 2008 that, in reference to a report submitted by Bansan Bunnak (th: บรรสาน บุนนาค), Thai ambassador in Yangon, the conditions in the city had degenerated and that most businesses and markets were closed. The Deputy Director General also reported that the locals also faced even more increasing adversity in basic subsistence; local food prices have already been increased two- or threefold.

On May 13, the United Nations warned that a second cyclone may be developing that could hit the Irrawaddy Delta. The disturbance is currently situated over land northwest of Yangon and is moving northwest towards the Bay of Bengal, but is being weakened by the interaction with the Arakan Yoma.

Aftermath

International relief

On May 6, 2008, the Burma government representation in New York formally asked the United Nations for help. But in other ways, it remains resistant to the most basic assistance. As of May 7, 2008, the government of Burma has not officially endorsed international assistance, but stated that they are, “willing to accept international assistance, preferably bilateral, government to government.” The biggest challenge at present is obtaining visas for entry into the country.

According to Thai Rath Newspaper of Thailand on 8 May 2008.[52] In the afternoon (Bangkok time) of 7 May 2008, the Burmese junta permitted Italian flights containing relief supplies from the United Nations, and twenty-five tonnes of consumable goods, to land in Myanmar. However, many nations and organizations hope to deliver assistance and relief to Burma without delay; most of their officials, supplies and stores are waiting in Thailand and at the Yangon airport, as the Burmese junta declines to issue visas for many of those individuals. These political tensions raise the concern that some food and medical supplies might become unusable, even before the Burmese junta officially accepts the international relief effort.

India

India, one of the few countries which maintains close relations with Myanmar, launched Operation Sahayata[ under which two Indian Navy ships and two Indian Air Force (IAF) aircraft supplied the first international relief material to the cyclone-hit country. The two aircraft carried 4 tonnes of relief supplies each while the Indian Navy transported more than 100 tonnes of relief material. On May 8, the IAF dispatched third air consignment carrying over 32 tonnes of relief material including tents, blankets and medicines. India plans to send more aid to Myanmar. In a separate development, Myanmar denied Indian search and rescue teams and media access to critical cyclone-hit areas. India released a statement saying it had requested Myanmar to accept international aid especially that from the United States, to which Myanmar agreed. According to various reports, Indian authorities had warned Myanmar about the danger that Cyclone Nargis posed 48 hours before it hit the country’s coast.

Thailand

Thailand has sent $100,000 USD in supplies, thirty tonnes of medical supplies and twelve tonnes of food supplies from Thai Red Cross. Additionally, Chaiya Sasomsap, Minister of Public Health of Thailand, stated that the Government has already sent medical supplies valued more than one billion baht ($31.3 million) to Burma. Furthermore, the Government of Thailand dispatched, upon the permission of the Burmese junta, twenty medical teams and twenty quick communicable disease suppression units. Samak Sundaravej stated that “if Myanmar gives the green light allowing us to help, our Air Force will provide C-130 aircraft to carry our teams there. This should not be precipitately carried out, it has to have the permission of their government.” On 7 May 2008, the aforementioned units, with their subordinate airplanes, were permitted to land in Yangon, carrying drinking water and construction materials.

United States

The first U.S. disaster aid flight arrived on May 12th. The U.S. embassy in Burma has released $250,000, with an additional $3 million coming from USAID bringing the total US relief to $3.25 million. The United States Navy has also stated they are prepared to move their assets when they are given the go-ahead. The United States is currently urging Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Japan, India and China to use any influence they have with Myanmar to allow relief teams into the cyclone-stricken nation. The Myanmar government is currently blocking certain relief agencies from operating in its territory and not issuing visas quickly enough to individuals from certain aid agencies. The first U.S. relief airlift arrived in Myanmar on Monday after prolonged negotiations with the country’s isolationist junta. An unarmed military C-130 cargo plane, packed with supplies, flew out of the Thai air force base of Utapao and landed in Yangon. The supplies were transferred to Myanmar army trucks.

Malaysia

Malaysia is to channel US$1 million (RM3.2 million) in financial assistance and RM500,000 in humanitarian aid to Myanmar. Humanitarian aid would be transported by Hercules C130 and would include 5,000 blankets, 30 tents and RM100,000 worth of T-shirts, batik sarong, biscuits, instant noodles and medicines. Mercy Malaysia, a volunteer relief organization in Malaysia, is sending a four-member relief team to Yangon, Myanmar to assess the situation in the wake of Cyclone Nargis. They would start looking into areas such as shelter, clean water, sanitation and emergency medical treatment.

Other relief efforts

As of May 8, 2008, the Foundation for the People of Burma has a team on the ground in Rangoon and beyond providing direct assistance to thousands of refugees. Since this organization is administered by Buddhist volunteers and already has tacit permission from the Burmese government, all donations go directly for supplies. Foundation for the People of Burma.

The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies has pledged $189,000 for relief.[68] The Red Cross has also called for an appeal of a further $6 million. Red Cross spokesman Matt Cochrane said that cyclone survivors need everything. They need emergency shelter to keep them dry, including food supplies. He says stagnant waters are a perfect breeding ground for the malaria mosquito, so insecticide-treated nets are needed.The Red Cross suffered a setback when a boat carrying supplies sank when it hit a submerged tree. Everyone aboard survived, but most of the cargo was lost. Ten Red Cross/Red Crescent relief flights carrying medical and shelter supplies were due to land in Yangon on 12 May.

Save the Children, one of the few agencies allowed to work in Myanmar, said the toll would likely sharply grow in the next few days as help reaches isolated areas.

Doctors without Borders – MSF landed a plane full of 40 tons of relief and medical supplies in Rangoon on Monday. After clearing customs the supplies were transferred to local MSF warehouses. They have approximately 200 workers in the region, many whom have been involved in long term projects there and were already in the region.

Country ContributionS
Flag of Australia Australia AUD $25 million (USD $23.5 million)[75] and 31 tonnes of supplies.[76]
Flag of Bangladesh Bangladesh 20 tonnes of food, medicine
Flag of Belgium Belgium EUR 250,000 (USD $387,000) and EUR 100,000 from Flanders
Flag of Brunei Brunei Relief materials[77]
Flag of Cambodia Cambodia USD $50,000[78]
Flag of Canada Canada Up to USD $2 million in emergency relief, $500,000 of which is for the Red Cross, Disaster Assistance Response Team (DART) is on standby; additional aid to come[79]
Flag of the People's Republic of China China USD $5.3 million in aid and relief materials (including 3 flights using Jade Cargo each consisting of 60 tonnes of aid)
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech Republic USD $154,000
Flag of Denmark Denmark USD $2.1 million[80]
Flag of Europe European Union USD $3.0 million
Flag of Finland Finland EUR 300,000 (USD $464,000)[81]
Flag of France France 1,500 tons of medicine, food, and water;[70] USD $775,000
Flag of Germany Germany USD $3.0 million
Flag of Greece Greece USD $200,000, medicine and humanitarian aid[82]
Flag of Hungary Hungary USD $300,000, medicine, food, humanitarian aid
Flag of India India More than 140 tonnes of relief materials; tents, food supplies, medicines
Flag of Indonesia Indonesia USD $1 million in cash and another aid in foods and medicines
Flag of Ireland Ireland EUR 1,000,000 (USD $1,550,000)
Flag of Israel Israel USD $100,000, food and medical supplies by private organizations
Flag of Japan Japan JPY 28 million in tents and generators = USD $267,000; USD $10 million through UN World Food Program & USD $570,000 pledged assistance[83]
Flag of Malaysia Malaysia USD $4,100,000
Flag of the Republic of Macedonia Macedonia USD $50,000[84]
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands EUR 1,000,000 (USD $1,550,000)
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand NZD 1.5 million (USD $1.15 million)[85]
Flag of Norway Norway Up to USD $1.96 million[86]
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan Relief materials and setting up of a mobile hospital in the affected region upon approval of Burmese government.[87]
Flag of the Philippines Philippines Medical workers and $500,000 USD and relief goods in cash[88]
Flag of Russia Russia 80 tonnes of food, generators, medicine, tents and blankets[89]
Flag of San Marino San Marino EUR 30,000[90]
Flag of Singapore Singapore USD $200,000[91]
Flag of Spain Spain USD $775,000 donation to World Food Programme
Flag of Sweden Sweden Logistical support and water cleaning systems
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland USD $475,000 (initial)
Flag of Thailand Thailand USD $100,000, food and medical supplies (initial)[92]
Flag of Turkey Turkey USD $1,000,000 from Ministery of Foreign Affairs, USD $600,000 from Turkish Red Crescent[93]
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom GBP 5 million (USD $9.9 million)[94]
Flag of the United States United States USD $16.25 million,[95] 6 C-130s, USS Essex strike group[96]
Flag of Vietnam Vietnam USD $200,000

 NARGIS

Legendary Indian actress.
Died on 3 MAY

From .comwww.davidicke

Married to Sunnil Dutt.

Sunill DUTT(ON) born
6-6 The OMEN

File date:
27 APRIL

Nargis and DUTTON both

in this movie. number 3 in the all time box office hits.
Music by
NAUSHAD

That looks a lot like NASSAU.
The guy was born on CHRISTMAS day
and died DUTCH liberation day. (5 May, 55).

So NARGIS linked to one of the biggest BOX OFFICE HITS
of all time….Promises a GREAT SPECTACLE……

Sunill DUTT and NARGIS.
Their son made his debut in this bollywood movie

Nargis

Nargis (Hindi: नर्गिस, Urdu: نرگس), June 1, 1929May 3, 1981, was an Indian actress best known for her role as Radha in the Oscar-nominated film Mother India. She was the wife of actor Sunil Dutt (who appeared in Mother India as her son) and her son Sanjay Dutt is currently a very successful actor in the industry.

Nargis was one of the greatest Indian actresses of all time. Her performances were authentic and natural to a degree not seen then in Indian Cinema, which could still be quite loud and theatrical.Daughter of actress, singer and filmmaker Jaddanbai, she was born Fatima Rashid in Allahabad. When just 5 years old, her mother introduced her as a child star, Baby Rani.

Her first adult lead role was in Mehboob Khan’s Taqdeer (1943) opposite Motilal. She made her presence felt in the same filmmaker’s Humayun (1945) as Hamida Bano but real stardom came her way with Andaaz (1949) and Barsaat (1949). Andaaz remains one of the best triangles in Hindi Cinema with Nargis turning in a fine performance as the modern woman caught between Dilip Kumar and Raj Kapoor.

Nargis often played women caught in a dilemma of the heart leading to a tragic ending – Mela (1948), Andaaz (1949), Jogan (1950), Babul (1950), Deedar (1951) and Bewafaa (1952) among others (the kind of roles Patience Cooper did in the 1920s).

Off-screen, her affair with the already married Raj Kapoor was a matching of soul and spirit. After Awaara (1951) she worked almost exclusively with him even turning down her mentor Mehboob’s Aan (1952). The Raj Kapoor and Nargis pair had chemistry hitherto unseen on the Indian screen. The passion that each had for the other poured out on the screen as they romanced each other in several films – The song Pyar Hua Ikrar Hua from Shree 420 (1955) with Nargis and Raj under the umbrella in heavy rain is subliminal romance at its best. Nargis knowing Raj Kapoor’s obsession for white took to dressing in white and was known as his lady in white. She even met the then Home Minister Moraji Deasai to try and get him to sanction a marriage between her and Raj Kapoor!

However by 1956 the pair had broken up, Chori Chori (1956), a breezy entertainer based on Frank Capra’s It Happened One Night (1934), being their last film together. She did do a special appearance in his production Jagte Raho (1956) for old times sake and perhaps it was fitting that at the end of the film she is the woman who finally quenches Raj Kapoor’s thirst.

With Raj Kapoor out of her life, almost as if on cue, Mehboob offered her his magnum opus Mother India (1957).

Mother India is the ultimate tribute to Indian Womanhood! This epic saga of the sufferings of an Indian peasant woman has an inherent and perennial appeal, being typical of the Indian situation. The film is an opulent colour remake of Mehboob’s earlier austere Black and White film Aurat (1940). In fact everything about the film is highly charged right down to the strong, earthy central performance by Nargis. The film represents the pinnacle of her career and won her the Best Actress award at the prestigious Karlovy Vary festival. Mother India was also nominated for the Oscar for Best Foreign Film but it lost to Fellini’s Nights of Caberia by a solitary vote!

It is a well-known story that while shooting for the film, Nargis was trapped amidst lit haystacks. As the flames got higher and higher, Sunil Dutt playing her rebellious son, Birju, in the film ran through the fire and rescued her. He proposed to her and Nargis married Sunil Dutt and quit films after marriage. She did lend her voice and we do see her silhouette in Sunil Dutt’s ‘one actor movie monument’ Yaadein (1964) and she did make a comeback of sorts expertly playing a woman with a split personality in Raat Aur Din (1967) winning the National Award for the same.

Nargis was the first film personality to be awarded the Padmashree and later her charitable work for spastics saw her nominated to the Rajya Sabha. She died of cancer in 1981, the same year her son Sanjay Dutt made his screen debut with Rocky.

 

Nargis was born Fatima Rashid, the daughter of the Allahabad-based Muslim singer, Jaddanbai and a Hindu Mohyal father of Rawalpindi, named Uttamchand Mohanchand[1]. Nargis married the actor Sunil Dutt (himself a Mohyal from Jhelum, British India). Her brother Anwar Hussain was also an actor in the film industry. Nargis started her career in the 1930s as a child artist and progressed quickly to leading roles in several popular films in the 1940s and 1950s which remain popular today. In most of her films she appeared opposite the director and Bollywood star Raj Kapoor. She is said to have been his real-life love interest as well as his favorite heroine. The affair was doomed to remain an affair, however, as Kapoor made no move to divorce his wife.

Indian actress Nargis

It is a well-known story that while shooting for Mother India, Nargis was trapped amidst lit haystacks while filming a scene. As the flames got higher and higher, Sunil Dutt, who played her rebellious son Birju in the film, ran through the fire and rescued her. Later, Dutt proposed to her, and they married on March 11, 1958. The marriage produced three children: Sanjay, Namrata, and Priya. Sanjay Dutt went onto become a very successful film actor. Namrata went onto marry actor Kumar Gaurav, son of veteran actor Rajendra Kumar who had appeared alongside both Nargis and Sunil Dutt in Mother India. Priya became a politician.

Fatima was recruited to the cinema at an early age. Fatima made her first film appearance in 1935, in Talashe Haq. The six-year-old was credited as “Baby Nargis”. Nargis, her stage name, means “Narcissus”, the flower. She was always credited as Nargis in all of her films.

Nargis appeared in numerous movies after her 1935 debut; she won lasting fame for her later, adult, roles. She starred in many popular Hindi-Urdu movies of the late 1940s and 1950s such as Barsaat (1949), Andaz (1949), Awaara (1951), Deedar (1951), Shree 420 (1955), and Chori Chori (1956). In most of her films she starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Dilip Kumar.

Her most famous role came in Mehboob Khan‘s Oscar-nominated rural drama Mother India in 1957. She won the Filmfare Best Actress Award for her performance. After her marriage to Sunil Dutt in 1958, Nargis gave up her film career after her last few film releases to settle down with her family. She made her last film appearance in the 1967 film Raat Aur Din for which she won a National Film Award for Best Actress, the first actress to win in this category. She also received a Filmfare Nomination as Best Actress for this film.

Nargis died of pancreatic cancer in 1981, only a few weeks before her son Sanjay Dutt‘s debut film Rocky was released.

Awards and recognitions

 

 

Burmese Chinese

  Burmese Chinese

The Burmese Chinese or Chinese Burmese are a group of overseas Chinese born or raised in Burma (Myanmar).

Although the Chinese officially make up three percent of the population, this figure may be underestimated because of _

  1. intermarriage between them and the ethnic Bamar,
  2. and because of widespread discrimination against minorities (which compels many to declare themselves as Bamar when applying for birth certificate or national identification card).

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. dominate the Burmese economy,
  2. have a disproportionately high percentage of the educated class.

Generally, the Burmese Chinese in Lower Burma fall into three main groups:

  1. Burmese called eingyi shay, or let shay lit. long-sleeved shirts to Hokkien and Hakkas from Fujian Province
  2.  Burmese called eingyi to, or let to lit. short-sleeved shirts to Cantonese and Hakka   from Guangdong Province
  3. So Burmese sometimes called zaka, lit. mid-length sleeve to all the Hakka  from Fujian and Guangdong provinces.
  4. But Hakkas are further subdivided into those with
  5. ancestry from Fujian Province, called ein-gyi shay ha-ka
  6. and Guangdong Province, eingyi to haka respectively.

The Hokkien and Cantonese comprise 45% of the ethnic Chinese population.

The groups have different stereotypical associations.

  1. The Cantonese are commonly thought of as the poorest of the Chinese,
  2. the Hokkiens are generally wealthier,
  3. occupying high positions in the economy,
  4. and having connections to the government.

In Upper Burma and Shan Hills,

  1. the Panthay
  2. and Kokang, are speakers of a Mandarin dialect of the Southwestern Mandarin branch, most akin to Yunnanese.

Combined, they form 21% of Burmese Chinese.

Kokang are_

  1. mountain-dwellers
  2. and farmers
  3. classified as a part of the Shan national race, although they have no linguistic or genetic affinity to the Tai-Kadai-speaking Shan.

Muslim Panthay_

  1. are considered as separate local nationalities
  2. rather than a Chinese diaspora community.

The Tayoke kabya of mixed Chinese and indigenous Burmese parentage.

  1. The kabya (Burmese: mixed heritage) have a tendency to follow the customs of the Chinese more than of the Burmese.
  2. Indeed those that follow Burmese customs are absorbed into and largely indistinguishable from the mainstream Burmese society.
  3. A large portion of Burmese is thought to have some kabya blood,
  4. because immigrants could acquire Burmese citizenship through intermarriage with the indigenous Burmese peoples.

Culture

Politics

Now, we see the Muslims and Indians participating in the monks led peoples protesting. However, the Chinese seem to be curiously missing – in shape or form – within the context of the current protests.

Are they against the current protests or in support of the protests? Or simply indifferent to any of this since they already have a stronghold over Burma’s economy and anything that takes attention away from them would be positive?

Either way, the bigger question here is not a question of why aren’t the Chinese involved in these protest rather when will the Chinese get involved. The bottom line is why do the minorities, specifically the Chinese and the so called Indians or Muslims, continue to feel disenfranchised?

Language

  1. Most Burmese Chinese typically speak Burmese as their mother tongue.
  2. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin
  3. Those with higher education also speak Mandarin and/or English.
  4. Some modern educated use English.
  5. Some use, Chinese dialects/languages.
    • Hokkien is mostly used in Yangon as well as in Lower Burma,
    • while Taishan Cantonese and
    • Yunnanese Mandarin are well preserved in Upper Burma.

Conditions of Chinese-language schools_

  1. General Ne Win’s (1962-1988) banned on the Chinese-language schools caused a decline of Mandarin speakers.
  2. Chinese schools are growing again nowadays because of the increase in investors and businessmen from Mainland China and Taiwan, who uses Standard Mandarin,

Religion

Most Burmese Chinese practice_

  1. Theravada Buddhism,
  2. incorporating some Mahayana Buddhist
  3. and Taoist beliefs,
    • such as the worship of Kuan Yin.
    • Chinese New Year celebrations,
    • as well as other Chinese festivals, are subdued and held privately.
    • Clan associations are often the only places where the Chinese culture is retained.

The Panthay or Chinese Muslims practice Islam.

Education

The Burmese Chinese_

  1. place a high importance on education,
  2. a disproportionate big share with advanced (medical, engineering or doctorate) degrees. (SOA’s note: it is partly because Muslims are labeled Kala and denied the place for postgraduate educations. The Chinese not only escaped that kind of discrimination but they got the special privileges given by the Chinese blooded political, military and education authorities.)
  3. The number would be higher still had it not been for the longstanding ban on those without Burmese citizenship from pursuing advanced degrees.
  4. Nowadays, many wealthy Burmese Chinese send their children overseas for further studies especially in US, UK, Canada, Australia, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore.

Names

The Burmese Chinese have_

  1. Burmese names
  2. and many also have Chinese names.

Names in various Chinese dialects are roughly transliterated into the Burmese.

  1. For example, a person named ‘Khin Aung’ may have the Chinese name of 慶豐 (pinyin: Qìngfēng), with ‘慶’ (pinyin: qìng) corresponding to ‘Khin’, and ‘豐’ (pinyin: fēng) corresponding to ‘Aung’.
  2. However, variations of transcription do exist (between dialects),
  3. and some Burmese Chinese do not choose to adopt similar-sounding Burmese and Chinese names.
  4. Because the Burmese lack surnames, many Burmese Chinese tend to pass on portions of their given names to future generations, for the purpose of denoting lineage.

According to publications of Longsei Tang, a clan association based in Yangon, the ten most common Chinese surnames in Yangon are:

  1. Li (李)
  2. Peng (彭)
  3. Shi (時)
  4. Dong (董)
  5. Min (閔)
  6. Niu (牛)
  7. Bian (邊)
  8. Xin (辛)
  9. Guan (關)
  10. Tsui/Hsu(徐)

Cuisine

The Burmese Chinese cuisine is based on Chinese cuisine, particularly from

  1. Fujian,
  2. Guangdong
  3. and Yunnan provinces, with local influences.
  4. Spices such as turmeric and chili are commonly used.
    • Pauk si
    • Bhè kin
    • Igyakway
    • Htamin kyaw
    • La mont
    • Mewswan
    • San-byoat
    • Panthay khaukswè
    • Sigyet khaukswè

History

  1. The earliest records of Chinese migration were in the Song and Ming dynasties.
  2. In the 1700s, Ming Dynasty princes settled in Kokang (the northern part of Burma).
  3. Chinese traders, however, traveled up to the capital city, northern towns on the Irrawaddy such as Bhamo.
  4. There was a Chinese community at Amarapura.
  5. Another wave of immigration occurred in the 1800s under the British rule.
  6. They came to Burma via Malaysia.
  7. When the Chinese Communists expelled the Kuomintang, many fled to Burma and Thailand over the borders of Yunnan Province.
  8. The Burmese government fought and removed the armed KMT and forced them to Taiwan; those who managed to stay prospered.
  9. The Chinese dominate the highly lucrative rice and gem industries.
  10. Many became merchants and traders owning both wholesale and retail businesses.
  11. The northern region of Burma has seen an influx of mainland Chinese immigrant workers, black market traders and gamblers.
  12. In the Kachin State, which borders China in three directions, Mandarin Chinese is the lingua franca.

 They integrated well into Burmese society because they, like the Bamar,

  1. were of Sino-Tibetan stock
  2. and were Buddhists,

Their success_

  1. is reflected in the Burmese saying, “Earn like the Chinese, save like the Indian, and don’t waste money like the Bamar”.
  2. They got the nickname pauk hpaw (lit. sibling).
  3. During the 1950s, Burma was one of the first countries to recognize the People’s Republic of China as a nation.

However, its own Chinese population was treated as aliens.

  1. The Burmese Chinese were issued foreign registration cards (FRC), which declared that they were citizens of China.
  2. A similar discrimination policy was set up for Indians.

In 1962, Ne Win led a coup d’état and declared himself head of state. Although a kabya himself, he banned Chinese-language education, and created other measures to compel the Chinese to leave.

  1. Ne Win’s government stoked up racial animosity and ethnic conflicts against the Chinese, who were terrorized by Burmese citizens, the most violent riots taking place at the time of the Cultural Revolution in China.
  2. When Ne Win implemented the “Burmese Way to Socialism”, a plan to nationalize all industries, the livelihoods of many entrepreneurial Chinese were destroyed and some 100,000 Chinese left the country.
  3. All schools were nationalized, including Chinese-language schools.

 Beginning in 1967 and continuing throughout the 1970s, anti-Chinese riots continued to flare up and many believed they were covertly supported by the government.

  1. Many Burmese Chinese left the country during Ne Win’s rule, largely because of a failing economy and widespread discrimination.
  2. The first government-sponsored racial riots to take place in Burma was in 1967, during General Ne Win’s rule. In the riots, the general populace went on a killing spree because of sedition and instigation against the Chinese by various government departments.
  3. The massacre lasted for about five consecutive days, during which thousands of Chinese died or were left dying in the streets of Rangoon. Some of the Chinese were thrown alive from the second and third floors of buildings in downtown Rangoon. The dead and wounded Chinese were hauled up unceremoniously and dumped onto army trucks and taken to ‘htauk kyan’ incinerators and the ‘carcasses’ were sent up in smoke.
  4. That showed the true bestial and cruel side of the character of the ruling Burma Military Junta. The only “crime” the Chinese committed was the wearing of Chairman Mao’s badges on their shirts.
  5. Latha Secondary School was torched by the henchmen of General Ne Win’s government, where school girls were burnt alive.
  6. Chinese shops were looted and set on fire.
  7. Public attention was successfully diverted by Ne Win from the uncontrollable inflation, scarcity of consumer items and rising prices of rice.

Today, the majority of Burmese Chinese live in the major cities of_

  1. Yangon,
  2. Mandalay,
  3. Taunggyi,
  4. Bago, and their surrounding areas.
  5. According to Global Witness, 30 to 40% of Mandalay’s population consists of ethnic Chinese.
  6. Although there are Chinatowns (tayoke tan) in the major cities, the Chinese are widely dispersed.

Notable Burmese Chinese

  1. Aung Gyi leading army dissident and Ne Win’s former deputy/co-conspirator in the 1962 coup
  2. Aw Boon Haw (Hakka) – Inventor of Tiger Balm
  3. Aw Boon Par (Hakka) – Brother of Aw Boon Haw
  4. Eike Htun (Kokang) – Managing director of Olympic Construction Co. and deputy chairman of Asia Wealth Bank, two large conglomerates in Burma
  5. Khun Sa (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  6. Khin Nyunt – Former Prime Minister (2003-2004) and Chief of Intelligence (1983-2004) of Myanmar
  7. Lo Hsing Han (Kokang) – Major Southeast Asian druglord
  8. Steven Law (also known as Tun Myint Naing; Kokang) – Managing director of Asia World Company, a major Burmese conglomerate and son of Lo Hsing Han
  9. Ne Win (Hakka) – Leader of Burma from 1960s to 1980s
  10. San Yu (Hakka) – President of Burma in the 1980s
  11. Serge Pun – Proprietor of Yoma Bank, a major banking chain in Myanmar and chairman of First Myanmar Investment Co. Ltd (FMI), one of Myanmar’s leading investment companies
  12. Taw Sein Ko (Hokkien) – eminent Director of Archaeology (1901-1915)
  13. Thakin Ba Thein Tin – Communist leader from the 1970s to the 1990s
  14. Maung Aye – Vice chairman of SPDC and Chief of Staff of Armed Forces
  15. Major General Kat Sein – former Minister of Health
  16. Dr. Kyaw Myint – Present Minister of Health
  17. Myo Thant – Former Minister of Information under SLORC
  18. Colonel Tan Yu Sai – Minister of Trade under Ne Win’s government
  19. Colonel Kyi Maung– NLD member (1989-2004) and Army Commander of Rangoon in 1960s
  20. U Thaung – Minister of Labour & Technical Science, Retired Legion and Ambassador
  21. Lun Thi – Minister of Energy
  22. Thein Sein – First Secretary of SPDC
  23. Kyaw Ba – General Formal Minister of Hotel and Tourism

Reference

Wikipedia

My contributions for Burma/Myanmar

My contributions for Burma/Myanmar

and Islam

[edit] As Dr San Oo Aung

Blogs [1][2][3]

  1. Speaking with Dr. Maharthir, former Malaysia PM (interview in English)[4]
  2. Speaking with Dr. Maharthir, former Malaysia PM (Burmese translation) part 1 [5]
  3. Speaking with Dr. Maharthir, former Malaysia PM (Burmese translation) part 2[6]
  4. Speaking with Mrs Anwar, Dr. Wan Azizah (interview in English)[7]
  5. Interview with Global Peace Malaysia (interview in English)[8]
  6. Interview with Global Peace Malaysia (Burmese tanslation) part 1 [9]
  7. Interview with Global Peace Malaysia (Burmese tanslation) part 2 [10]
  8. Interview with Global Peace Malaysia (Burmese tanslation) part 3 [11]
  9. Interview with Global Peace Malaysia part 4 [12]
  10. Interview with His Royal Highness Prince Sao Hso Khan Pha,Interim Shan Government (Burmese translation)[13]
  11. Speaking with U Chit Tin, MP (interview in Burmese)[14]
  12. Open letter to the European Commission, and European leaders[15]
  13. Asian Values & Western Values [16]
  14. ASEAN is just firing blanks[17]
  15. Displaced People’s Socio-Medical Sufferings[18]
  16. A Magical Picture: Min Ko Naing’s Mother [19]
  17. Analysing Various Democracies (Part 1)[20]
  18. Analysing Various Democracies (Part 2)[21]
  19. Analysing Various Democracies (Part 3)[22]
  20. Analysing Various Democracies (Part 4)[23]
  21. The analysis of AUNG SANs[24]
  22. Aung Sans’ Plan for Reconstruction of Corrupted Myanmar[25]
  23. The Hand That Wield The Cane [26]
  24. Dreams Give Us Hope [27]
  25. The Dawn of Revolution in Burma [28]
  26. Negligence by Burmese Military Rulers [29]
  27. Discrimination Against Burmese in Malaysia [30]
  28. History of World Refugee Day[31]
  29. Generosity Makes us Great[32]
  30. SPDC Junta Mentioned in Buddha’s Teachings [33]
  31. Chicken Soup for the Burmese Opposition’s Souls[34]
  32. Politicians of the year: 88 Students Group [35]
  33. Opening Heart on Equal Rights for All Ethnic Groups[36]
  34. Birds of the same feather: China Russia and SPDC[37]
  35. Burma’s Neo-Nazi Brown Shirts or USDA [38]
  36. Don’t Let Monitor Lizards (Phuts) Rule the Country[39]
  37. Window Shopping for Federalism [40]
  38. From UNSC to ICC [41]
  39. Junta’s Attempted Genocide & International Courts[42]
  40. Sending Military Regime to International Court [43]
  41. Junta’s Ethnic Cleansing in Eight Stages [44]
  42. Burma Human Rights Day(B)[45]
  43. To Commemorate 27 March as Burma Childsoldiers’ day[46]
  44. Let’s Join USDA & Destroy it from Within [47]
  45. Revolt inside Kyant Phunt USDA (B)[48]
  46. Hoping for a National Reconciliation [49]
  47. Final Assault for our Revolution. [50]
  48. The Power of Arts Moves the Hearts and Minds of the People[51]
  49. Education is Passport for the Future of refugee children[52]
  50. Laissez-faire & Libertarianism for Liberated Burma[53]
  51. There was once democracy in the Union of Burma[54]
  52. Some encouraging thoughts on Burma’s Politics[55]
  53. Lopsided fiscal policy of SPDC[56]
  54. Junta is so fearful of the Pen of an Old Journalist[57]
  55. To Change Hearts and Minds of SPDC[58]
  56. MERITOCRACY FOR FUTURE GOVERNMENT[59]
  57. Myanmar Military’s Achilles heel[60]
  58. Editorial: Multi-religion Prayers Campaign for Burma [61]
  59. Editorial: Let us request for UN supervision on SPDC Junta’s Roadmap[62]
  60. Editorial:Federalism (Burmese)[63]
  61. Editorial:Last Days of Military Regime (B) [64]
  62. Editorial:To Eliminate Violence against Women[65]
  63. Editorial:Sending Military Regime to International Court [66]
  64. Editorial:Burma Human Rights Day(B)[67]
  65. Betraying their Fellow Fallen Soldiers (Burmese translation)[68]
  66. Appeal to the Senior General Than Shwe, before he leave the political scene of Myanmar [69]
  67. Analysis of 3B Militaries, Burma, Bangladesh and Bangkok [70]
  68. Analysis of how Tatmadaw had ruined the Myanmar economy[71]
  69. SPDC’s Constitution is just the Step 1A only [72]
  70. 19th Anniversary of Military coup [73]
  71. Maggot in the NLD LA or Trojen Horse or Axe-handle of SPDC [74]
  72. Crimes committed by SPDC thugs and People’s Rights of Self Defense [75]
  73. Enough is enough, SPDC! Let’s see in (ICC) court [76]
  74. Skepticism regarding the Myanmar Tatmadaw’s usual Big Lies[77]
  75. UN, US and EU should investigate the discriminating ASEAN laws on Burmese citizens [78]
  76. Defiant Recalcitrant Myanmar Military Junta[79]
  77. General Aung San’s Acceptance of migrants as brethren[80]
  78. EVOLUTION OF MYANMAR MUSLIMS[81]

[edit] As Dr Zafar Shah

Blog [82]

  1. Advising OIC to re-brand and repackage the image of Islam[83]
  2. Arresting of opposition leaders [84]
  3. Welcome 2007 and Farewell to 2006 [85]
  4. Wake up call for UNHCR [86]

[edit] As Bo Aung Din

Blogs[87][88]

  1. OPEN LETTER TO THE ASIA-EUROPE MEETING (ASEM) LEADERS[89]
  2. Game Plan for the Uprisings [90]
  3. Herculean Task of Rebuilding Burma [91]
  4. Letter 1: A Valentine Present with Love [92]
  5. Letter 2: for my beloved Nan Sai [93]
  6. Letter 3: Today’s Human-rights Violations are Cause of Tomorrow’s Conflicts[94]
  7. Letter 4: The most remarkable leader of our time[95]
  8. Letter 5: Respecting Human Rights is the key to our future relations[96]
  9. Letter 6: Long March To Shwe Bamar Pavilion[97]
  10. Letter 7: Racial Discriminations Everywhere [98]
  11. Letter 8: Loss of Home, Loss of PARADISE[99]
  12. Letter 9: Dog-leather book and the SPDC Generals[100]
  13. Letter 10: MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY![101]
  14. Letter 11: Queen Kyine Kyine (a) Marie Antoinette[102]
  15. Letter 12: The End of a Saga [103]
  16. To Built Our Country on Moral High Grounds [104]
  17. Concept of Good Government Free of Corruption [105]
  18. Optimism or Counting the Disguised Blessings [106]
  19. Swan Ah Shin’s Power [107]
  20. People decide with their hearts but not with their brains[108]
  21. Internet, the Fifth Pillar Of Democratic Governance[109]
  22. Friedmen’s Free Market Economics [110]
  23. Open Heart [111]
  24. This is time for Burma to change Captain to save the economy[112]
  25. Medicine for Expatriates from Burma [113]

[edit] As Maulana Hafiz Abdullah

  1. PRAYERS FOR BURMA, in English (Muslim Doah Prayers) On behalf of the expatriate Burmese Muslim Religious leaders.[114]
  2. Prayers for Burma by the Burmese Muslims, in Burmese [115]

[edit] As Mahar Bandula

Blog [116]

  1. United We Stand, Divided We Lose [117]
  2. Preliminary Indictment of SPDC Generals with Genocide[118]
  3. Regime’s Soldiers will die & go to Hell![119]
  4. Burma’s Drug Menace [120]
  5. Corruption [121]
  6. Mahar Bandula’s 666 Mission [122]
  7. Puppet Master [123]
  8. Update your concepts to WIN-WIN Solution [124]
  9. Seventh July Student Massacre [125]
  10. Warning to all the Universities around the world[126]
  11. SPDC Generals’ PHOBIAS [127]
  12. The oppositions should give ULTIMATUM to SPDC[128]
  13. We need EITI in Burma [129]
  14. C4: Communist Chinese Colonialist’s Cruelties[130]
  15. Ali Baba and forty thieves [131]
  16. Hell Hounds at large: Radovan Karadžić and Than Shwe[132]
  17. Than Shwe will follow Saddam [133]
  18. Ne Win & Than Shwe [134]
  19. Modern SPDC era comedy[135]
  20. Appeal letter to the US President and EU leaders [136]

[edit] As Mohd Noor Ibn Abdullah

  1. Malaysia, Qatar & Burma [137]

[edit] As Ohn Kyaw Myint in association with a friend (In Burmese)

Blog[138]

  1. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 1 [139]
  2. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 2 [140]
  3. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 3 [141]
  4. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 4 [142]
  5. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 5 [143]
  6. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 6 [144]
  7. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 7 [145]
  8. Analysing Burma’s Democracy Revolution,Part 8 [146]
  9. Burma in Buddha’s teaching [147]
  10. Religion & Politics [148]
  11. Shan State & Union of Burma [149]
  12. SPDC should Respect 8888 Students’ Cetana [150]
  13. Burma’s Education: A peep behind the curtain, part 1[151]
  14. Burma’s Education: A peep behind the curtain, part 2[152]
  15. Burma’s Education: A peep behind the curtain, part 3[153]
  16. A Peek Inside Burma By Aljazeera, part 1 [154]
  17. A Peek Inside Burma By Aljazeera, part 2 [155]
  18. A Peek Inside Burma By Aljazeera, part 3 [156]
  19. A Peek Inside Burma By Aljazeera, part 4 [157]
  20. Burma, Russia & China [158]
  21. A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1A [159]
  22. A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1B [160]
  23. A Valentine Present with Love, Letter 1C [161]
  24. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No.6A [162]
  25. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No.6B [163]
  26. Compassionate Letters to Dear Nan, No.6C [164]
  27. Virtual interview with US Secetary of State Condoleezza Rice [165]

[edit] As Shwe Ba (BURMA DIGEST)

Blog [166]

  1. Myanmar Refugee Pilot Project Proposal, part 1 [167]
  2. Myanmar Refugee Pilot Project Proposal, part 2 [168]
  3. Open letter Malaysia, Qatar & Burma [169]
  4. Burmese Version of Animal Farm [170]
  5. A Peep behind the Curtain of Myanmar Education System[171]
  6. Aung San Suu Kyi for UNSG [172]
  7. Dilemmas of Revolutionaries [173]
  8. Brain Drain [174]
  9. Metamorphosis of Saviors into Monsters [175]
  10. Let’s show our hatred to SPDC [176]
  11. No light at the End of the Tunnel for Most of the Refugees [177]
  12. Burmese Expatriates Exploited in Malaysia [178]
  13. 19th July Martyrs Day [179]
  14. When Heroes Become Maniacs [180]
  15. Dr Ibrahim Gambari must be backed by a powerful mandate of UNSC[181]
  16. Big Bully Communist Autocratic Russia [182]
  17. For the 777, the DAY of Civil Disobedience [183]
  18. Why U Nu’s democracy failed?[184]
  19. Dear revered Sanghas, kindly help Burma to free from Atheist Tatmadaw [185]
  20. The Final Assault to Victory [186]
  21. Bravo! Let’s March Forward [187]
  22. Let’s search and annihilate the nearest enemy with the Guerrilla tactics (Bur)[188]
  23. “Brain Drain” to “Brain Gain”[189]

[edit] As Ko Tin Maung

Blog [190]

  1. We are all Burmese in our heart [191]
  2. Naming & Shaming [192]

[edit] As Tun Aung in association with a friend (In Burmese)

  1. Speaking with Madam Anwar Ibrahim, Burmese translation Part 1 [193]
  2. Speaking with Madam Anwar Ibrahim, Burmese translation Part 2 [194]
  3. Speaking with Madam Anwar Ibrahim, Burmese translation Part 3 [195]
  4. Interview with Sao Harn Yawnghwe[196]
  5. Speaking with a Hero of Shan People[197]
  6. Interview with Amyotheryei U Win Naing Part 1 [198]
  7. Interview with Amyotheryei U Win Naing Part 2 [199]
  8. We also Love Burma, part 1 [200]
  9. We also Love Burma, part 2 [201]
  10. Generosity Makes Us Great[202]
  11. Burmese Animal Farm, part 1 [203]
  12. Burmese Animal Farm, part 2 [204]
  13. Burmese Animal Farm, part 3 [205]
  14. To Clean up SPDC’s Chaos[206]
  15. Asian Countries exploiting Burma[207]
  16. SDDC is worthless [208]
  17. Sweet Set-backs [209]
  18. ASEAN is just firing blanks[210]
  19. Dreams Give us Hope [211]
  20. Win Win Solution [212]
  21. Burma Game Plan [213]
  22. Hiding in Shame [214]
  23. SPDC Soldiers Burn in Hell! part 1 [215]
  24. SPDC Soldiers Burn in Hell! part 2 [216]
  25. Fool’s Gold [217]
  26. Wishes for Detained Nobel Laureate’s Birthday [218]
  27. Education for Generals’ Wives [219]
  28. Genocide in Burma [220]
  29. We also want to Stand on our own Feet part 1 [221]
  30. We also want to Stand on our own Feet part 2 [222]
  31. Various Types of Democracy Part 1 A [223]
  32. Various Types of Democracy Part 1 B [224]
  33. Various Types of Democracy Part 2 A [225]
  34. Various Types of Democracy Part 2 B [226]
  35. Various Types of Democracy Part 3 [227]
  36. Various Types of Democracy Part 4 [228]

[edit] As Ko Tin Nwe

Blog [229]

  1. I DREAMT OF POPE VISITING MYANMAR[230]
  2. Internally Displaced Persons or IDPs [231]
  3. Pope Going To Burma [232]
  4. Shan Nationalities[233]
  5. Complaining of unfair attitude On Religious Minorities including Muslims [234]

[edit] Featured Blog, Tag: Opinion Garden, World Press.com

My articles selected and published in the above blog[235]

  1. UNITED WE STAND, divided we loose[236]
  2. The Power of Arts Moves The Hearts and Minds of the People [237]
  3. Swan Ah Shin’s Power[238]
  4. SPDC GENERALS’ PHOBIAS[239]
  5. Warning to all the Universities around the world[240]
  6. Don’t worry Myanmar Generals; ASEAN is just firing blanks[241]
  7. Naming & Shaming[242]

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