Islam in Myanmar; Burmese Muslim Personalities and References

Islam in Myanmar; Burmese Muslim Personalities and References

Burmese Muslim Personalities

Main article Burmese Muslim Personalities

  • U Razak

U Razak (20 January 1898 – 19 July 1947; Arabic: Abdul Razak) was a Burmese politician who was a respected educationalist. He was a minister and was assassinated, along with his cabinet, on 19 July 1947. July 19 is celebrated in Myanmar today as Martyrs’ Day. U Razak was Minister of Education and National Planning, and was chairman of the Burma Muslim Congress.[156]

  • Saya Gyi U Nu

Mayor of Yammar Watti, Shwe Taung Thargathu @ Mohamed Kassim @ Saya Gyi U Nu (Great Teacher or Guru) was a very famous Burmese Muslim writer during King Bodawpaya. He had written and translated a lot of Islamic religious books. He used Pali and other words and terms from the Burmese religious literature to Burmanise the Islamic literature. Combined with his flowery, poetic Burmese writing, his books are regarded as Myanmar Muslims’ classics. [157] Bodawpaya appointed him as the head of the mission to India to collect and bring back books and Scriptures in Sanskrit, Hindi Urdu and Persian. [158] Saya Gyi U Nu was appointed as the Mayor of Yammar Wati with the Shwe Taung Tharga title. [159] But recent military rulers prohibited the Muslims from using these Pali words and terms in Islamic religious books.

  • U Shwe Yoe aka U Ba Ga Lay

U Shwe Yoe was a Burmese Muslim named, U Ba Ga Lay. He was the pioneer famous Cartoonist, Actor, Comedian and dancer. U Shwe Yoe dance was U Ba Ga Lay’s jolly joker dance sequence in, “Ah Ba Yae” which was one of the pioneer films of Myanmar movie history about rural life. The dance is full of fun and joy and it appealed so much to the Myanmar audience and is adopted as a dance for all festive occasions..[160][161]

  • Colonel Ba Shin

Colonel Ba Shin a noted historian was later a member of The Myanmar History Commission, UTC and Islamic Religious Affairs Council. [162][163] [164]

  • U Raschid

U Raschid, an Indian Myanmar Muslim, was active in Thakin Movement (The Burmese National movement against ruling British). He was the secretary general of Rangoon University Students’ Association in 1931 together with prominent Myanmar political leaders: Aung San, U Nu, U Kyaw Nyein, U Ba Swe etc. U Raschid was the first president of the All Burma Students’ Union. In 1952 U Nu appointed him as Minister for Housing and Labour, later in 1954, Minister for Trade and Development, in 1956, Minister of Mines, in 1960 Minister of Commerce and Industry. In 1958 he was the Vice President of the Trade Union Council of Burma. U Nu requested him to change his name to U Yanshin to make him more acceptable to other Buddhist but he declined. General Ne Win arrested him in 1962, during the coup. [165]

  • U Khin Maung Latt

U Khin Maung Latt was one of the Myanmar-Muslim Cabinet Ministers in U Nu’s Government held the Social Services and Health portfolio. He was the secretary of U Razak before his (U Razak) assassination. He had been active in the Students’ organizations of Yangon University and had took part in the very famous students’ strike of 1936. He successfully organized the Muslims in whole Burma to stand united under the AFPFL flag during the struggle for the independence. He worked together assisting U Razak. When AFPFL split in to two, U Khin Maung Lat was with the Stable Fiction. U Raschid remained with U Nu. [166] [167]

  • Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein and family members

Kyar (Tiger) Ba Nyein was also a very prominent Myanmar Muslim. He was known to be a great boxer, and had even represented Burma in the Olympics. He had successfully trained a lot of boxers. And he had rejuvenated the Myanmar traditional boxing. He was a famous writer also. His son U Win Nyein is also a prominent Journalist. U Chit Nyo, brother of Kyar Ba Nyein is also a famous writer. Myo Myint Nyein was the editor of Payphuhlwar, a former monthly magazine in Burma. Awarded the International Press Freedom Award in abstentia by the Toronto-based Canadian Journalists for Free Expression (CJFE). He is the brother of Win Nyein.

  • Daw Win Mya Mya

NLD Mandalay Division Organizing Committee member, Daw Win Mya Mya is a Panthay Muslim. She was assaulted by the SPDC affiliated thugs and arrested at Depayin together with Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and other NLD members. She is a brave and active NLD leader. [36] [37]

  • Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw

Maung Thaw Ka or Major Ba Thaw from Navy was a very prominent writer and pioneer NLD leader died in SPDC jail. He was buried at Kandaw Gale Sunni cemetery. [168]

  • U Sultan Mahmood and other Rohingya

Wealthy and influential Myanmar Arakan Muslim from Akyab, Arakan, a Rohingya, Sultan Mahmood was the political secretary in U Nu’s government and later was appointed as Health Minister. Other Rohingya Myanmar Arakan Muslims in U Nu’s Parliament as parliamentary secretaries were Mr Sultan Ahmed and Mr Abdul Gaffar. Mr Abdul Bashar, Mrs. Zohora Begum @ Daw Aye Nyunt,Mr Abdul Khair, Mr Abdus Sobhan, Mr Abdul Bashar, Mr Rashid Ahmed, Mr Nasiruddin (U Pho Khine), were members of Parliament in different terms in U Nu’s Government. Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  • Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors. There were also Myanmar Muslim Ambassadors like U Pe Khin and U Hla Maung.

  • Ambassador U Pe Khin

Ambassador U Pe Khin was the most important negotiator and architect of the historical Panglon treaty. Even General Aung San was disappointed, given up and decided to take the flight back to Rangoon that evening. U Pe Khin persuaded General Aung San to stay for one night and to allow him to negotiate with the Ethnic Minority leaders. U Pe Khin successfully negotiated with those Ethnic leaders to get an agreement for this most important treaty in Burma, which was the foundation for the Union of Burma and its Independence. [169]

  • Captain Ohn Kyaw Myint. Martyred after failed attempt of coup d’état during General Ne Win’s rule. [170]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, first line.

  2. ^ “Ancient Pyu” page 3&4 Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.

  3. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.

  4. ^ “Bagan Culture”page 42, Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.

  5. ^ Dr Tin Hlaing, leader of Myanmar delegate, at the Dialogue on Interfaith Cooperation at Yogyakarta, on 6 & 7 December 2004, attended by 124 delegates from different religious traditions from 13 countries including 9 ASEAN members, organized by the Dept. of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Indonesia and the Dept. of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Australia, in cooperation with the Islamic Central Committee of Muhammadiyah of Singapore.[1] [2]

  6. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 2, line 5,6,9

  7. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. Paragraph 8, line 6 to 9. [3]

  8. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 6, line 25,26&27.

  9. ^ “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion. The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973.

  10. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 29, paragraph 1&2.

  11. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page 39, paragraph 1.

  12. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page9, paraaph 4.

  13. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page10,line 7,8&9.

  14. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page10,line 17,18&19.

  15. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar page 2, paragraph 3, line 1,2&3.

  16. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar page 20, paragraph 3.

  17. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page 30, whole page.

  18. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page2, line 5&6.

  19. ^ S.Q. Fatimi, The role of China in the spread of Islam in South East Asia” (University of Singapore, 1959page 9

  20. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden. page 7, footnote paragraph 2.

  21. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page 7, footnote paragraph 3

  22. ^ Myanmar Encyclopedia vol. 6 page 350.

  23. ^ Pathein University Students’ Magazine 1955-56 page 5.

  24. ^ Pathein History by U Marga page 137

  25. ^ Maurice Collis’s Into hidden Burma.

  26. ^ Radana Sedi Stone Inscriptions, Sigaing (1373-74)

  27. ^ U Ba Than’s Myanmar History text book. page 87-96.

  28. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.page 2, paragraph 3, line 1,2&3

  29. ^ Dr Tin Hlaing, Myanmar delegate, at the Dialogue on Interfaith Cooperation at Yogyakarta, on 6 & 7 December 2004.

  30. ^ The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, translated by Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Burma Research Society, Rangoon University press, Rangoon, Burma, 1960.(Second printing by Willium Paw). First printing at the Oxford University press, London, England by Frederick Hall in 1923. Page 76 Paragraph 2 line 3,4 &5.

  31. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 76 Paragraph 2 line 5 to 9

  32. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace ChroniclePage 76 Paragraph 3

  33. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 80 Paragraph 3 line 5. P 81, Para 3 line 10

  34. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 81 to 82

  35. ^ Dr Tin Hlaing, Myanmar delegate, at the Dialogue on Interfaith Cooperation at Yogyakarta, on 6 & 7 December 2004.

  36. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 83 paragraph 3

  37. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 83 para 3 line 1,2 &3

  38. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, Glass Palace Chronicle Page 83 paragraph 3

  39. ^ Online Burma/Myanmar Library[4]

  40. ^ Dr Tin Hlaing, Myanmar delegate, at the Dialogue on Interfaith Cooperation at Yogyakarta, on 6 & 7 December 2004.

  41. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  42. ^ Moshe Yegar’s The Muslims of Burma page 2, last line.

  43. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, [Glass Palace Chronicle] Page 100 last line and page 101 first line

  44. ^ Moshe Yegar’s The Muslims of Burma page2&3

  45. ^ Moshe Yegar’s The Muslims of Burma page 2 , 4th. paragaph, line 2&3, page 3, 1st. line

  46. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma,

  47. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden, page 3, line No.s 4,5&6

  48. ^ The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 2, 2nd. paragraph, line 1,2 &3.

  49. ^ Various notable facts in Myanmar History, in Burmese, by U Kyi BA History Honours. Page 156, 157.

  50. ^ Maurice Collis, Simese White(London Faber and faber, 1936. page 40.

  51. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 5, line 22 to 27

  52. ^ Various notable facts in Myanmar History, in Burmese, by U Kyi BA History Honours.

  53. ^ Sir Richard C. Temple, Buddermokan, JBRS,XV, pt 1 (1925)1-33

  54. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 8 1st. paragraph

  55. ^ A. Journal of the Burma Research Society 15: 1-33. the coast from Assam to Malay with the curious masques known as Buddermokan reverenced by the Buddhists and China-men as well as Mahomedans. B. Arakan Rajsabhay Bangala Sahitya (1600 – 1700 AD) Bengali Literature in the Kings’ Court of ArakanBy Dr. Muhammad Enamul Huq (M.A., Ph. D) and Sahitya-sagar Abdul Karim Sahitya Visarad Translated from Bengali by: Mating Sein Pru [www.rakhapura.com/ScholarsColumn/Bengali_Literature_in_the_Kings_Court_of_Arakan.asp]

  56. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 8, paragraph 2 line 1,2&3

  57. ^ Pathi U Ko Ko Lay’s lecture 1973, Islamic Religious Library Magazine

  58. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 10, line 2&3

  59. ^ Glass Palace Chronicle Vol. 2, page 186.

  60. ^ Taungoo History page 296

  61. ^ Glass Palace Chronicle Vol. 3, page 172.

  62. ^ U Ba Than’s Myanmar History text book. page 270.

  63. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  64. ^ Zayya Kyaw Htin Major Ba Shin’s Come of Islam to Burma down paper, read at Asian Historical Conference, New daily 1961.

  65. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 168-9.

  66. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 377.

  67. ^ “A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 9, line 31.

  68. ^ “A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 9, line 24-27.

  69. ^ “A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 10, line 3&4.

  70. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,

  71. ^ HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia.

  72. ^ “A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 9,10&11

  73. ^ Freedom of Religion in Myanmar, Thursday, December 15, 2005, Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs official website, [5]

  74. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, Page 13, line 15 . He quoted from the detailed descriptions of Muslims in Amarapura in 19th century, from the memoirs of Captain Henry Yule, secretary to Major Arthur Phayre who was Commissioner of Pegu/Bago under British. In 1855, Yule was sent to the King of Ava as Minister of the British Governor General of India.

  75. ^ Let Ware Nawrattha’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles. Page 70.

  76. ^ Let Ware Nawrattha’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles. Page 77.

  77. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 1. Page 185-6.

  78. ^ Let Ware Nawrattha’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles. Page 98.

  79. ^ Let Ware Nawrattha’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles. Page 99.

  80. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 1. Page 136-142.

  81. ^ Let Ware Nawrattha’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles. Page 123.

  82. ^ Twin Thin Teik Win’s Chronicles of Alaungpaya’s battles, page 216

  83. ^ The Royal gazette of Bodawpaya, Criminal Law Royal Decree Vol 4, page 176.

  84. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 392.

  85. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 376-7.

  86. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 477.

  87. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 3. Page 6.

  88. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 3. Page 139.

  89. ^ U Maung Maung Tin’s Burmese Kings’ Royal Articles, page 66-71-72.

  90. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 3. Page 323-4.

  91. ^ The “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion. The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111.

  92. ^ The Emergence Of The Panthay Community At Mandalay, by Professor U Maung Maung Lay.

  93. ^ The “Twentieth Anniversary Special Edition of Islam Damma Beikman.” Myanmar Pyi and Islamic religion. The reprint of the records of the lectures given by Pathi U Ko Lay in 1973. from page 109,110 and 111.

  94. ^ Freedom of Religion in Myanmar, Thursday, December 15, 2005, Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs official website, [6]

  95. ^ Freedom of Religion in Myanmar, Thursday, December 15, 2005,Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs official website, [7]

  96. ^ The Emergence Of The Panthay Community At Mandalay, by Professor U Maung Maung Lay.

  97. ^ Freedom of Religion in Myanmar, Thursday, December 15, 2005,Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs official website, [8]

  98. ^ Various Myanmar History tax-books of Ministry of Education, Myanmar.

  99. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 3. Page 324-6.

  100. ^ Myanmar Encyclopedia Vol 6, page 434.

  101. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 3. Page 712

  102. ^ HGE Hall History of Southeast Asia.

  103. ^ (The case of Hason Ali, a Rohingya from Arakan, Vs. Union of Burma, Supreme Court Criminal Miscellaneous Cases No. 155 & 156 of 1959. Nurul Islam. Present atmosphere in Arakan. The New Nation Newspaper, Bangladesh, Monday October 12, 1992.)

  104. ^ Freedom of Religion in Myanmar, Thursday, December 15, 2005, Myanmar Ministry of Religious Affairs official website, [9]

  105. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, page 76 paragraph 2&3.

  106. ^ “A study of a minority Group”, by Moshe Yegar, page 2, paraaph 3

  107. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma page 83 paragraph 3, line 2&3

  108. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar page 2, line 1&2

  109. ^ Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle, page 103, paragraph 3

  110. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.page 21, paragaph 2,pp22,23&24.

  111. ^ Colonel Ba Shin, “Coming of Islam to Burma down to 1700 AD, Lecture at the Asia Histoy Congress. New Deli:Azad Bhavan 1961 Mimo.

  112. ^ H.R. Speaman, Britih Burma Gazetteer (Rangoon,1880)I,293-294.

  113. ^ Hall, Histoy of South East Asia, pp 33-341.

  114. ^ Desai, A Pageant of Burmese History, pp61-63.

  115. ^ Harvey, G.E. “The fate of Shah Shuja, 1661, JBRS,XII (Aug 1922) pp107-112.

  116. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 10, line 11&12

  117. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 10 line 10 to 16

  118. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 10, line 21

  119. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 12, paragaph 3

  120. ^ Siddiq Khan, M “Captain George Sorrel’s Mission to the cout of Amarapura, 17934., Journal of h Asiatic Socity of Pakitan (Dacca). II (1957), 132-140

  121. ^ Race Riots in Burma by Than Tun[10]

  122. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 32

  123. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 29 paragraph 1 and foot note 1. Page 31 line 1, 2, 11

  124. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma

  125. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma

  126. ^ Moshe Yegar, Muslims of Burma, page 111, paragraph 4, line 8 to 15. Page 27, paragraph 4, line 5,6,7. Page 31 paragraph 2. Page 32 paragraph 4

  127. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma

  128. ^ Democratic Voice of Burma, Media conference (July 19-20, Oslo) Burmese Media: Past, present and future by U Thaung (Mirror/Kyae Mon news paper Retired Chief Editor)

  129. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 32 paragraph 4.Page 36, paragraph 1, line 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15

  130. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 36, paragraph 3.

  131. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 36, paragraph 4. Page 37, line 1,2

  132. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 37, paragraph 2.

  133. ^ Maurice Collis, Trials in Burma

  134. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, line 1

  135. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, paragraph 2

  136. ^ Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar,Page 38, paragraph 2, line 12,13,14

  137. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, Moshe Yegar, page 75 to 79

  138. ^ “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, page 75 footnote last paragraph

  139. ^ 17th. of April 1988 in the Bangkok Post

  140. ^ Bertil Lintner, famous Sweden journalist expert on Burma, 17th. of April 1988 in the Bangkok Post

  141. ^ Houtman, Gustaaf. Mental Culture in Burmese Crisis Politics: Chapter 5 Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa Monograph Series No. 33. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, Institute for the Study of Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, 1999, 400 pp. ISBN 4-87297-748-3

  142. ^ IMAGES ASIA: REPORT ON THE SITUATION FOR MUSLIMS IN BURMA May 1997 [11]

  143. ^ Chronology for Rohingya (Arakanese) in Burma [12]

  144. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. Paragraph 22 [13]

  145. ^ Crackdown on Burmse Muslims, July 2002. [14]

  146. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. [15]

  147. ^ Crackdon on Burmese Muslims, Human Right Watch Briefing Paper [16]

  148. ^ Crackdon on Burmese Muslims, Human Right Watch Briefing Paper [17]

  149. ^ Burma Net News:July 16,2001[18]

  150. ^ Crackdown on Burmese Muslims, Human Rights Watch Briefing Paper [19]

  151. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices , Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, March 4, 2002 [20]

  152. ^ Human Rights Watch, Crackdown on Burmese Muslims[21]

  153. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. Paragraph 23&24 [22]

  154. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. Last paragraph [23]

  155. ^ Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. First paragraph [24]

  156. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar page 75,80,90,108,111

  157. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  158. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 157.

  159. ^ Konbaung Dynasty Royal History Vol. 2. Page 166.

  160. ^ U Shwe Yoe’s alias U Ba Ga Lay by Tin Soe. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001. page 80,91&82 1

  161. ^ Ludu Daw Ah Mar, Shwe Yoe, Ba Galay – Artists of the same names in 2 volumes 1969

  162. ^ Wanna Kyawhtin Bhomhu Ba Shin by Naing Min Naing. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001.

  163. ^ Bhomhu Ba Shin. Al-Balag Journal, Published by Ko Min Lwin. In Burmese. Nov-Dec 2001.

  164. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar page XI Acknowledgments

  165. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar page 52,81,90,93,110,112

  166. ^ “History of Myanmar Muslims”, (limited edition for members only) Muslim Students Association, Rangoon Arts and Science University, Burma.

  167. ^ The Muslims of Burma by Moshe Yegar, page 76,85,91,94,110,112

  168. ^ This poem in Burmese, “Sayar Maung Thaw Ka” by Kyaw Zwa in Burma Digest published on 23. 06.2007 mentioned this fact.[25]

  169. ^ General Ne win’s personal assistant Thetkatho Ne Win’s records.

  170. ^ History of Myanmar Muslims, Rangoon University Islamic Association.

  • Pe Maung Tin and G.H.Luce, The Glass Palace Chronicle of the Kings of Burma, Rangoon University Press, Rangoon, Burma, January 1960.

  • Bagan Culture”, Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.

  • “Ancient Pyu”,Professor U Than Tun M.A., B.L., D. Lit., Ph.D.

  • “The Muslims of Burma” A study of a minority Group, by Moshe Yegar, 1972, Otto Harrassowitz. Wisbaden.

  • ” THE EMERGENCE OF THE PANTHAY COMMUNITY AT MANDALAY”, BY PROFESSOR U MAUNG MAUNG LAY.

  • “Aung Sans’ Plan for Reconstruction of Corrupted Myanmar” by Dr San Oo Aung published in Burma Digest on 14.5.06.

  • The press releases of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, March 12,1992.

  • N. Kamal. Building confidence in Rohingyas’ mind. The New Nation Newspaper, Dhaka, Bangladesh, April 26, 1992.

  • Nurul Islam. Present atmosphere in Arakan. The New Nation Newspaper, Bangladesh, Monday October 12, 1992.

  • Press Release, Rohingya Patriotic Front 9-2-1966.

  • Burma Digest Bo Aung Din’s Compassionate Letters- About Myanmar Muslims. and Myanmar Indian Muslims.

[edit] External links

  1. THE SITUATION OF MUSLIMS IN BURMA by Kyaw Zwa, Burmese Muslim Association (BMA), adapted from the paper presented to the British All Party Parliamentary Group on Burma.[38]

  2. Religious Discrimination and HR crimes by Myat Oo (in Burmese)[39]

  3. Myanmar’s Muslim sideshow, by Cem Ozturk. Asia Times online, Oct 21, 2003. [40]

  4. Quran in Burmese [41]

  5. The Holy Quran English and Arabic [42]

  6. The Holy Quran in 36 languages [43]

  7. Quran translations [44]

  8. Myanmar Muslim news- [45]

  9. Burmese Muslims Network- [46]

  10. Myanmar Muslim.net [47]

  11. Islamic Unity Brotherhood [48]

  12. Arakan Rohingya National Organization- [49]

  13. Rohingya Language- [50]

  14. Free Rohingya Campaign- [51]

  15. Myanmar Muslim political Awareness Oranization- [52]

  16. Panthay on line community- [53]

  17. Office of UN High Commissioner for Human Rights[54]

  18. US Department of State, International Religious Freedom Report 2005 on Burma[55]

  19. US Department of State, Burma, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices- 2005.Released by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor[56]

  20. Amnesty International’s report on Burma[57]

  21. UK Conservatives’ Human Rights[58]

  22. Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims[59] [60]

  23. Refusal of Identity Cards for Burmese Muslims (in Burmese. We also love Burma.)[61]

  24. Racial Discriminations on Burmese Muslims[62][63]

  25. Human Rights issues in Burma [64]

  26. PRAYERS FOR BURMA [65]

  27. Priestly, Harry. “The Outsiders“, The Irrawaddy, 2006-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 

  28. Butkaew, Samart. “Burmese Indians: The Forgotten Lives“, Burma Issues, 2005-02. Retrieved on 2006-07-07. 

  29. The Persecution of Muslims in Burma, by Karen Human Rights Group

  30. Little Mosque on the Prairie [66]

  31. NGOs in Myanmar [67]

  32. Myanmar training [68]

  33. Isalm in Japan [69]

  34. Islam in Italy [70]

  35. Peace-Ikhwa.com [71]

  36. Myanmar Muslim political awareness organization [72]

  37. MIC or Myanmar Muslim information centre [73]

  38. Islamic City [74]

  39. Islamica Magazine [75]

  40. Islamic Amman Message [76]

  41. Islam online [77]

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