Right of asylum

Right of asylum

Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her own country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). Political asylum should not be mistaken with modern refugee law, which rather deals with massive influx of population, while the right of asylum concerns individuals and is usually delivered in a case-to-case basis. However, the two may somehow overlap, since each refugee may demand to be accorded on an individual basis political asylum. This right has its roots in a longstanding Western tradition—although it was already recognized by the Egyptians, the Greeks and the HebrewsDescartes went to the NetherlandsVoltaire to England,Hobbes to France (followed by many English nobles during the English Civil War), etc. Each state offered protection to foreign persecuted persons. However, the development in the 20th century of bilateral extradition treaties has endangered the right of asylum, althoughinternational law considers that a state has no obligation to surrender an alleged criminal to a foreign state, as one principle of sovereignty is that every state has legal authority over the people within its borders.

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Original Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Original Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Charter of Fundamental Rights

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union is a document containing human rights provisions, ‘solemnly proclaimed’ by the European Parliament, the Council of the European Union, and the European Commission on December 7, 2000. An adapted version of the Charter was proclaimed on December 12, 2007 in Strasbourg, ahead of the signing of the Treaty of Lisbon, which makes the Charter legally binding in all countries except Poland and the United Kingdom.— Excerpted from Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union

 

The Charter of Fundamental Rights of theEuropean Union is a document containinghuman rights provisions, ‘solemnly proclaimed’ by the European Parliament, theCouncil of the European Union, and theEuropean Commission on 7 December 2000. An adapted version of the Charter was proclaimed on 12 December 2007 inStrasbourg, ahead of the signing of theTreaty of Lisbon, which makes the Charter legally binding in all countries except Poland and the United Kingdom. The updated Charter was signed byEuropean Parliament president Hans-Gert Poettering, European Commission president José Manuel Barroso, and Portuguese prime minister José Sócrates, at the time President of the Council of the European Union.[1]

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International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

International Covenant on

Economic, Social and Cultural Rights

 

 

The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from January 3, 1976. It commits its parties to work toward the granting of economic, social, and cultural rights (ESCR) to individuals, includinglabour rights and rights to health, education, and an adequate standard of living. As of September 26, 2008, the Covenant had 159 parties.[1] A further six countries had signed, but not yet ratified the Covenant.

The ICESCR is part of the International Bill of Human Rights, along with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) and theInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), including the latter’s first and second Optional Protocols.[2]

The Covenant is monitored by the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights.

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International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is aUnited Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. Nations that have ratified this treaty are bound by it.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is monitored by the Human Rights Committee (a separate body to the Human Rights Council which replaced the Commission on Human Rightsunder the UN Charter in 2006) with permanent standing, to consider periodic reports submitted by member States on their compliance with the treaty. Members of the Human Rights Committee are elected by member states, but do not represent any State. The Covenant contains two Optional Protocols. The first optional protocol creates an individual complaints mechanism whereby individuals in member States can submit complaints, known as communications, to be reviewed by the Human Rights Committee. Its rulings under the first optional protocol have created the most complex jurisprudence in the UN international human rights law system.

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Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination

Convention on the Elimination of

All Forms of Racial Discrimination

 

The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention. Asecond-generation human rights instrument, the Convention commits its members to the elimination of racial discrimination and the promotion of understanding among all races.[1] The convention was adopted and opened for signature by the United Nations General Assembly on December 21, 1965,[2] and entered into force on January 4, 1969. As of June 2, 2008, the Convention had 173 parties.[3] A further six countries (BhutanDjiboutiGrenadaGuinea-BissauNauru, and Sao Tome and Principe) have signed, but not yet ratified the Convention. Another 13 nations are not party to it.

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Human writes

Human writes

Extracts from Dean Johns’ article in Malaysiakini 

If wish to read all of the article, kindly contribute by subscribing Malaysiakini 

As a human who happens to write, I most of all love to write in support of human rights. It’s the worthiest possible cause. It puts me in the best possible company. And it gives me at least a grain of hope that I can help right some human wrongs.

 

It also reminds me how fortunate I am, as a citizen of a relatively free country, to enjoy the right to write in comparative safety – unlike fellow writers in so many countries around the world who constantly put their liberty and even their lives on the line.
Billions of our fellow humans are largely or totally deprived of their rights by rotten regimes in a depressingly long roll-call of countries including  Burma, China, Vietnam, North Korea, Cuba, Haiti, the Congo, Eritrea, Sudan, Niger, Chad, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Somalia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Zimbabwe.

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